University of Kent
The University of Kent is a semi-collegiate public research university based in Kent, United Kingdom. It is recognised as a Beloff's plate glass university; the University was granted its Royal Charter on 4 January 1965 and the following year Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent was formally installed as the first Chancellor. The university has a rural campus north of Canterbury situated within 300 acres of park land, housing over 6,000 students, as well as campuses in Medway and Tonbridge in Kent and European postgraduate centres in Brussels, Athens and Paris; the University is international, with students from 158 different nationalities and 41% of its academic and research staff being from outside the United Kingdom. As of 2019, the University of Kent is ranked within the top 55 universities in the UK by the Guardian, the Times and the Complete University Guide, has scored 90% or higher for overall satisfaction in the National Student Survey. In 2016, over 28,000 students applied to the University through UCAS and 4000 accepted an offer.
Indeed three-quarters of the work submitted for the 2014 research assessments by the University was judged to be world-leading or internationally excellent. It is a member of the Santander Network of European universities encouraging social and economic development. A university in the city of Canterbury was first considered in 1947, when an anticipated growth in student numbers led several residents to seek the creation of a new university, including Kent. However, the plans never came to fruition. A decade both population growth and greater demand for university places led to a re-consideration. In 1959 the Education Committee of Kent County Council explored the creation of a new university, formally accepting the proposal unanimously on 24 February 1960. Two months the Education Committee agreed to seek a site at or near Canterbury, given the historical associations of the city, subject to the support of Canterbury City Council. By 1962 a site was found at Beverley Farm, straddling the boundary between the City of Canterbury and the administrative county of Kent.
The university's original name, chosen in 1962, was the University of Kent at Canterbury, reflecting the fact that the campus straddled the boundary between the county borough of Canterbury and Kent County Council. At the time it was the normal practice for universities to be named after the town or city whose boundaries they were in, with both "University of Kent" and "University of Canterbury" proposed; the name adopted reflected the support of county authorities. The abbreviation "UKC" became a popular abbreviation for the university; the University of Kent at Canterbury was granted its Royal Charter on 4 January 1965 and the first batch of 500 students arrived in the October of that year. On 30 March 1966 Duchess of Kent was formally installed as the first Chancellor; the University was envisaged as being a collegiate establishment, with most students living in one of the colleges on campus, as specialising in inter-disciplinary studies in all fields. Over the years, changes in government policy and other changing demands have destroyed this original concept, leading to the present state, nearer the norm for a British University.
However, the four original colleges – Darwin, Eliot and Rutherford – remain, together with the newer Woolf and Turing colleges, each with their own masters. The university grew at a rapid rate throughout the 1960s, with three colleges and many other buildings on campus being completed by the end of the decade; the 1970s saw further construction, but the university encountered the biggest physical problem in its history. The university had been built above a tunnel on Whitstable Railway. In July 1974 the tunnel collapsed, damaging part of the Cornwallis Building, which sank nearly a metre within about an hour on the evening of 11 July; the university had insurance against subsidence, so it was able to pay for the south-west corner of the building to be demolished and replaced by a new wing at the other end of the building. Building elsewhere included the Park Wood accommodation village and the Darwin houses in 1989. In 1982 the university opened the University Centre at Tonbridge for its School of Continuing education, helping to enhance the availability of teaching across the county.
During the 1990s and 2000s the University expanded beyond its original campus, establishing campuses in Medway and Brussels, partnerships with Canterbury College, West Kent College, South Kent College and MidKent College. In the 2000s the university entered a collaboration named Universities at Medway with the University of Greenwich, MidKent College and Canterbury Christ Church University to deliver university provision in the Medway area; this led to the development of the University of Kent at Medway, opened from 2001. Based at Mid-Kent College, a new joint campus opened in 2004. Small postgraduate centres opened in Paris in 2009, in Rome and Athens; as a consequence of the expansion outside Canterbury the university's name was formally changed to the University of Kent on 1 April 2003. Part of the original reasoning for the name disappeared when local government reforms in the 1970s resulted in the Canterbury campus falling within the City of Canterbury, which no longer has county borough status, Kent County Council.
In 2007 the university was rebranded with website. The logo was c
The Gulbenkian Park known as Gulbenkian Garden is located in Lisbon, Portugal. It was created in 1969 and is part of the cultural center where the headquarters of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Gulbenkian Museum and the José de Azeredo Perdigão Modern Art Centre are situated enriching the cultural importance of the garden; the park has one large and another small lake within it. The park was inaugurated in 1969, it was the parkland of the former Palacio Azambuja or dos Meninos de Palhavã in 1918 and the Spanish Embassy used to be located here. The park was sold in 1957; the park was designed by the landscape architects Gonçalo Ribeiro Telles and António Viana Barreiro in close collaboration with Alberto Pessoa, Pedro Cid and Ruy Athouguia who were architects of the buildings of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation erected in the park. Its gardens are pleasant and the art center is contemporary; the lawns have been tended to fit the natural landscape right up to the central lake. The stream inlets in the park are crossed by small bridges, paths are well laid out to stroll around.
Irises and waterside marginals are planted along the course of the streams. The land area has been modified to build not only the structures but create a lake environment; the floral collection planted in the park has been done selectively with well laid footpaths to stroll through the gardens. The natural vegetation chosen consists of feathery pampas grass, Brazilian pepper tree with small leaves, ribbon gum, Turkey oak and poplars. There is rose garden within the park. Of the two lakes built in the garden, the larger lake, located in the centre of the park, is the habitat for water birds such as mallard, ring-necked parakeet, white wagtail, blackbird, house sparrow and greenfinch. In view of thick bushes around the lake, the park is a preferred location for moorhens to breed; the small lake is a habitat for water birds. The garden has an open-air amphitheater to seat 1,000 people which has the lake as its backdrop; the amphitheater is the venue for holding many programmes on dance and music. Jazz music programme is held in the gardens every year during first two weeks of August.
The park is enlivened with statues and sculptures made by national and international artists which are fixed strategically at many places. Gulbenkian Museum José de Azeredo Perdigão Modern Art Centre Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Calouste Gulbenkian Boulton, Susie. DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Lisbon. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4654-0955-3. Segall, Barbara. Garden Lover's Guide to Portugal. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 978-1-56898-161-1. Tranaeus, Tomas. Top 10 Lisbon. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4654-1317-8
Calouste Gulbenkian Museum
The Calouste Gulbenkian Museum known as the Gulbenkian Museum, is a Portuguese museum in Lisbon, in the civil parish of Avenidas Novas. As part of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, one of the wealthiest foundations in the world, the Gulbenkian Museum houses one of the largest private collections of antiquaries and art in the world originating in the private collection of oil magnate Calouste Gulbenkian. Vasco Maria Eugénio de Almeida acquired part of the Parque de Santa Gertrudes, on April 1957, for the construction of the Foundation buildings and public/private park. Two years a competition was launched for a project to construct the organization's headquarters, it was won by the team that included architects Alberto J. Pessoa, Pedro Cid and Ruy Jervis d'Athouguia, in addition to the landscaping architects António Viana Barreto and Gonçalo Ribeiro Telles, who were responsible for designing the park surrounding the building. Francisco Caetano Keil do Amaral was added to the team, as a consultant, Frederico Henrique George joined the team working on the building.
In December 1961, the anterior project of the park was begun, while work on the earthworks and retaining walls beginning the following year. A sculpture panel was installed in the headquarters building by architect Artur Rosa in 1962. By 1967, the interior finishing were adjudicated, with the project concluded in 1968. On 2 October 1969, the gardens were inaugurated; the 12th International Federation of Landscaping Architects Congress was held in September 1970 on the grounds of the Gulbenkian Foundation. In 1975, the property was distinguished with the Valmor Prize. In 1983, the Modern Art Centre was constructed following the project of architect John Leslie Martin, while in 1985, a children's' pavilion was constructed under the guidance of architect John Leslie Martin and Yvor Richards. On 22 April 2002, the Vice-President of the IPPAR issued a dispatch to begin the administrative process for the eventual classification of the parque, main building, Modern Art Centre and gardens as national heritage.
Work on remodeling the park began following the plan established by Gonçalo Ribeiro Telles. On 7 June 2006, there was a dispatch by the Minister of Culture supporting the classification of the buildings. On 23 September 2008, the work on improving the interior air quality and energy conservation resulted in the building being classified as a Edifício Saudável. In March 2015, it was announced that Penelope Curtis, director of Tate Britain from 2010 to 2015, would become the next director of Museu Calouste Gulbenkian; the permanent exhibition and galleries are distributed chronologically and in geographical order to create two independent circuits within the overall tour. The first circuit highlights Greco-Roman art from classical antiquity, as well as art from the ancient Near East and the Nile Valley. Among the artworks are ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Armenian pieces, as well as Persian art from the Islamic period; the second circuit includes European art, with sections dedicated to the art of the book, sculpture and the decorative arts 18th century French art and the work of René Lalique.
In this circuit, a wide-ranging number of pieces reflect various European artistic trends from the beginning of the 11th century to the mid-20th century. The section begins with works in ivory and illuminated manuscript books, followed by a selection of 15th, 16th and 17th century sculptures and paintings. Renaissance art produced in the Netherlands, Flanders and Italy is on display in the next room. French 18th century decorative art has a special place in the museum, with outstanding gold and silver objects and furniture, as well as paintings and sculptures; this section is followed by galleries exhibiting a large group of paintings by the Venetian Francesco Guardi, 18th and 19th century English paintings, a superb collection of jewels and glass by René Lalique, displayed in its own room. Some of the works in the collection were bought during the Soviet sale of Hermitage paintings. Of about 6000 items in the museum's collections, a selection of around 1000 is on permanent exhibition. Gulbenkian's motto was "only the best".
The group of buildings is integrated into a walled space, delimited by the Avenida de Berna, Avenida António Augusto de Aguiar, Rua Marquês de Sá da Bandeira and the Centro de Arte Moderna, adapted to the natural terrain, behind a curtain of trees for protection. The design of the museum and headquarters is simple, includes two wings in a "T"-shaped format, with different entranceways, but accessible through the temporary exhibits, shrewdly situated in the museum and library connection; the massive volume and horizontal was used for administration, services and as auditoriums, off of the main, single entry space. It is in this entranceway. Correia, Graça, Ruy D'Athouguia (in Port
Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian was a businessman and philanthropist of British nationality and Armenian origin. He played a major role in making the petroleum reserves of the Middle East available to Western development and is credited with being the first person to exploit Iraqi oil. Gulbenkian travelled extensively and lived in a number of cities including Constantinople, London and Lisbon. Throughout his life, Gulbenkian was involved with many philanthropic activities including the establishment of schools and churches; the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, a private foundation based in Portugal, was created in 1956 by his bequest and continues to promote arts, charity and science throughout the world. It is now among the largest foundations in Europe. By the end of his life he had become one of the world's wealthiest individuals and his art acquisitions one of the greatest private collections. Gulbenkian's family is believed to be descendants of the Rshtunis, an Armenian noble family centered around Lake Van in the 4th century AD.
In the 11th century, the Rshtunis settled in Kayseri, taking the name Vart Badrik, a Byzantine noble title. With the arrival of the Ottoman Turks, the Turkish equivalent of the name, Gülbenk, was adopted; the family had established themselves in the town of Talas and lived in the region until the mid-1800s, when they moved to Constantinople. Their property in Talas was confiscated and is owned by the Turkish government. By 1860, his father Sarkis Gulbenkian was an Armenian oil importer/exporter heavily involved in the oil industry. Sarkis was an owner of several oil fields in the Caucasus in Baku, was a representative of Alexander Mantashev's oil company. Sarkis Gulbenkian provided oil to the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. During Hagop Pasha's Directorship, subsequently, Ministry of the Privy Treasury under Sultan Abdulhamid II in 1879, Sarkis acquired the lucrative collection of taxes for the Privy Purse of Mesopotamia. Calouste Gulbenkian was born on 23 March 1869 in Scutari, in the Ottoman Empire capital Constantinople.
He received his early education at a local Armenian school. He attended the Lycée Saint-Joseph French school and continued his studies at Robert College; these studies were cut short when he moved to Marseilles at the age of 15 to perfect his French at a high school there. His father sent him to be educated at King's College London, where he studied petroleum engineering, to examine the Russian oil industry at Baku, he applied sciences. A year he went to Baku to further his knowledge on the oil industry. Gulbenkian wrote an article entitled La Transcaucasie et la péninsule d'Apchéron; the article described his travels to the state of the oil industry in the region. It was published as a book in 1891 in Paris. After Hagop Pasha's appointment as the Ottoman Minister of Finance in 1887, he had Calouste prepare an oil survey of Mesopotamia. To develop the oil survey, Calouste read travel books and interviewed railroad engineers that were surveying and building the Baghdad Railway. Gulbenkian's oil survey led Hagop Pasha to believe that vast oil deposits lay in Mesopotamia, to acquire tracts of land for the Sultan's oil reserves, to establish the Ottoman oil industry in Mesopotamia.
By 1895, he started his oil operation business. He had to return to the Ottoman Empire, but in 1896, Gulbenkian and his family fled the empire due to the Hamidian massacres of Armenians, they ended up in Egypt, where Gulbenkian met Alexander Mantashev, a prominent Armenian oil magnate and philanthropist. Mantashev introduced Gulbenkian to influential contacts in Cairo; these new acquaintances included 1st Earl of Cromer. Still in his twenties, Gulbenkian moved to London in 1897 where he arranged deals in the oil business, he became a naturalised British citizen in 1902. In 1907, he helped arrange the merger of Royal Dutch Petroleum Company with "Shell" Transport and Trading Company Ltd. Gulbenkian emerged as a major shareholder of Royal Dutch Shell, his policy of retaining five percent of the shares of the oil companies he developed earned him the nickname "Mr. Five Percent". After the royalist Ottoman countercoup of 1909, Gulbenkian became a financial and economic adviser to the Turkish embassies in London and Paris, chief financial advisory to the Turkish government.
He was a member of a British technical team to Turkey and a director of the National Bank of Turkey, established to support British designs. In 1912 Gulbenkian was the driving force behind the creation of the Turkish Petroleum Company —a consortium of the largest European oil companies aimed at cooperatively procuring oil exploration and development rights in the Ottoman territory of Mesopotamia, while excluding other interests; the German interests would be limited to a 25% share, with a 35% for the British, the remaining for Gulbenkian to choose. So, he gave Royal Dutch Shell 25% and kept 15% for himself as "the conceiver, the founder, the artisan of the Turkish Petroleum combine." A promise of these rights was made to the TPC, but the onset of World War I interrupted their efforts. At first, the British Foreign Office supported the d'Arcy group to gain a share and replace Calouste's share, but Gulbenkian worked with French concerns, arranged for the Fr
Nubar Sarkis Gulbenkian was an Armenian business magnate and socialite born in the Ottoman empire. The son of Calouste Gulbenkian, he was born in Kadıköy, Ottoman Empire but fled from the country when he was a few weeks old due to the Hamidian massacres of Armenians. Taken by his father to England, he was educated at Harrow School, Trinity College, Cambridge and in Germany, he was not Called to the Bar. As a consequence of his educational background Gulbenkian saw himself as British and strove to live up to the model of the English gentleman; as such, during World War II he undertook some amateur sabotage in Vichy France on behalf of the United Kingdom. Despite this he was attached to the Iranian Embassy in London in an honorary role whilst he regained his Turkish citizenship in 1965; this however had helped him during the war as his neutral passport allowed him to cross between France and Spain with little trouble and thus gain access to British intelligence in Gibraltar. Gulbenkian began as an unpaid worker for his father, as noted for his miserly tendencies as his son would be for his spending, but sued his father for $10 million, bizarrely after a refusal by the company to allow him $4.50 for a lunch of chicken in tarragon jelly.
The incident contributed to Calouste Gulbenkian's decision to leave $420 million of his fortune to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Portugal. Although he inherited $2.5 million from his father, as well as more in a settlement from the Foundation, Gulbenkian became independently wealthy through his own oil dealings. He was the protégé of Henri Deterding at Royal Dutch Shell but made an independent fortune which allowed him to live a extravagant lifestyle. Gulbenkian's long beard and the orchid in his buttonhole, replaced daily led to him becoming noted for a eccentric life, with a number of stories building up around his name. Indeed, his character was summed up by an associate who claimed that "Nubar is so tough that every day he tires out three stockbrokers, three horses and three women", he was a regular face on the international playboy scene. An aficionado of the London taxi, he stated that'It turns on a sixpence, whatever that is!' He had two Austin FX4 cabs converted to his own specifications, with the passenger compartment re-modelled as the rear part of a horse-drawn Hackney carriage, despite their somewhat bizarre appearance, one of the vehicles sold for £23,000 in 1993.
He was an early guest of John Freeman on the BBC series Face to Face in 1959, but refused to sign a contract or accept a fee for his appearance. During the interview he attacked the Trustees of the Gulbenkian Foundation in what bordered on slander. Following his appearance, he sued the Corporation to be given a copy of the episode, which he claimed had been promised in lieu of a fee, although the suit was not successful. A well-known gourmet, he was quoted as saying that'the best number for a dinner party is two – myself and a damn good head waiter.' Other stories attached to his name include stating his "position in life" on a market research form as "enviable". He was married three times, "I've had good wives, as wives go, as wives go, two of them went". In 1922, he married Herminia Feijóo. In 1928, he married Dora Freeland in London, he courted Marie Berthe Edmée de Ayala, daughter of the French champagne tycoon Louis d'Ayala, for 14 years before they married in 1948. He had no children, he lived at Arlington House, a block of flats close to London's Ritz Hotel, at a former rectory in Hoggeston, near Bletchley, Buckinghamshire.
He died on 10 January 1972 at the English Hospital in Cannes and had lived nearby at his "sumptuous estate" the Domaine des Colles at Valbonne. Controversy continued to follow him after his death due to the vague nature of his father's will, which appeared to suggest that everybody Nubar was employed by or stayed with during his life should receive some money; the case was taken to the House of Lords before settlement. Picture of Gulbenkian Time profile of Gulbenkian Telegraph article on Gulbenkian's Rolls Royces
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência
The Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência is an international centre for biological and biomedical research and graduate training based in Oeiras, Portugal. Founded by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in 1961, still supported by the Foundation, the IGC is organised in small independent research groups that work in an environment designed to encourage interactions with minimal hierarchical structure; the scientific programme covers a wide range of domains and is at the interface of different disciplines. These include cell and developmental biology, evolutionary biology and host-pathogen interaction, plant biology, computational biology and biophysics; the IGC has state-of-the-art facilities and services updated and ready to explore new scientific ideas. All resources are at the disposal of all IGC scientists and common services and equipment are open to external users; the IGC hosts a number of graduate training programmes. Since 1993 the IGC runs innovative PhD programmes, directed towards intellectual breadth and independent scientific thought.
The IGC has a strong tradition in promoting science in society with dedicated outreach programmes. Around 400 people, including 300 researchers, from 41 different countries work at the IGC. Since 1998, 88 research groups have settled in the institute. Of these, 44 went to other institutions other research centres and universities in Portugal. In 1998, under the Directorship of António Coutinho, the IGC was restructured into the current set-up and mode of action. Jonathan Howard succeeded Coutinho as Director of the IGC from October 2012 until January 2018. Since 1 February 2018, Mónica Bettencourt-Dias is the Director of the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência; the establishment of the IGC was initiated in 1961 when the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation’s board of trustees envisioned the creation of its own research centre to encourage multidisciplinary research, independent of universities, without restrictions or prior interests. The original set up of the IGC included a Centre for Scientific Calculation, a Centre for Biology, a centre for Pedagogical Innovation, a Centre for Agricultural Economy and a Centre for Economy and Finances.
A new building alongside the Marquês de Pombal Palace, in Oeiras, was projected to make up the new campus planned with a set of infrastructures including laboratories, library and animal facility. In 1967, the Centre for Biology was inaugurated at the new Oeiras campus with four research groups in Cell Biology, Pharmacology and Physiology and around 20 researchers. From 1966 to 1969, four IGC leaders passed away: Delfim Santos, António Gião, Flávio Resende and Luís Quartin Graça. In 1968 Luís Archer, jesuit priest and biologist regarded as the ‘father' of molecular genetics in Portugal, returns to Portugal to set up the Molecular Genetics Laboratory at the IGC, in the Department of Cell Biology; the year after, in 1969, it was set up the Estudos Avançados de Oeiras to provide workshops, summer schools and international seminars to scientists. In 1984, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation’s Board of Trustees decides that IGC will be a research centre dedicated to research and pos-graduated training in biology.
In 1989 the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica and the Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica were created and hosted in the IGC campus. With IGC, they will form the Oeiras Campus. António Coutinho and Head of the Immunobiology Unit in Institut Pasteur, is appointed the Director of the Oeiras Advanced Studies in 1991. In 1993 Coutinho starts the Gulbenkian PhD Programme in Biology and Medicine, a pioneering programme in Portugal and one of the first of this kind in the world. In 1998, António Coutinho is designated Director of the IGC and starts a new phase of the institute as a ‘host institution' with the mission of identifying and incubating new research leaders, providing access to facilities, financial and intellectual autonomy to pursue research projects; the Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme at the IGC is established in 2006 and the research groups of the newly formed Champalimaud Foundation are hosted at the IGC to carry out research in systems neuroscience until 2011, when they move to the Champalimaud Foundation’s new building in Lisbon.
In 2008, the IGC participates for the first time in the music festival NOS Alive under a partnership established between “Everything is New”, promoter of NOS Alive, the IGC to support fellowships for young researchers. In 2010 and 2011, the IGC was ranked amongst the'10 Best Places for Post-docs' outside the USA, by The Scientist; the IGC celebrates its 50th anniversary in 2011 and was awarded an Honorary Membership of the Ordem de Sant'Iago da Espada by the President of the Portuguese Republic. The Centro de Estudos de Doenças Crónicas, from N OVA Medical School | Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, incubated in IGC, moved in 2014 to its new building in Lisbon. Jonathan Howard and Professor of Genetics at the University of Cologne, is appointed Director of the IGC in 2012, succeeding António Coutinho. Since February 2018, Mónica Bettencourt Dias is the new Director of the IGC, succeeding Jonathan Howard. - A study published in Nature Cell Biology in July 2018, coordinated by Mónica Bettencourt-Dias, helped to better understand diseases that involve cells antennae, called ciliopathies.
The researchers found that while cells use the same building materials for their antennae, they use them in differe