Kābul, situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. The capital of the province is Kabul city, Afghanistan's capital; the population of the Kabul Province is nearly 4 million people as of 2012, of which 80 percent live in the urban areas. The current governor of the province is Hamid Akram. Kabul is located between Latitude 34-31' North and Longitude 69-12' East at an altitude of 1800 m above sea level, which makes it one of the world's highest capital cities. Kabul is strategically situated in a valley surrounded by high mountains at crossroads of north-south and east-west trade routes. One million years ago the Kabul region was surrounded from south-east between Lowgar and Paghman Mountains; this region formed an icy sea. Some deep wells in the region of today's Poli Charkhi in the east part of city are the evidence of that time. Kabul is surrounded by Koh-e Paghman Mountain from the east, Koh-e Qrough Mountain from the south-west and Koh-e Shirdarwaza Mountain from the north-east.
Kabul has only one river, called Kabul River. Kabul River rises at the Paghman Mountain toward South Pass about 70 km west of Kabul, it flows in an easterly direction, past Kabul, through Jalalabad city, on to Dakka where it enters Pakistani territory and runs into the Indus at Attock. The climate within region of Kabul is considered to be arid to semi-arid steppe; because of the low amounts of precipitation from May to November, Kabul can be dry and dusty. Extreme temperature changes occur from night to day, season to season, from place to place; the chief characteristic of Afghanistan's climate is a blue cloudless sky with over 300 days of sunshine yearly. During the winter, skies remain clear between snowfalls, which are on average 15–30 cm annually; the daily temperature for Kabul city in winter is −1 °C and in summer 24 °C. The coldest month of the year is January and the hottest month is July; the maximum temperature has been recorded as +42.7 °C in July and the minimum as -26.3 °C in January.
Kabul's history dates back more than 3,500 years. It was once the center of Zoroastrianism and subsequently a home for Buddhists and Hindus; the native citizens of Kabul as per the records of the British Museum are Tajiks. The city was invaded by Arab Muslims in the 7th century by introducing Islam but was taken back by the Hindu Shahi's of Kabul, it was re-invaded by the Saffarids and Samanids in the 9th century followed by Mahmud of Ghaznavi in the 11th century, when the Hindu Shahi King Jay Pala committed suicide. It became part of the Ghurids after defeating the Ghaznavids, it was invaded by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. Timur, founder of the Timurid dynasty, invaded the region in 14th century and developed it into a major trading center. In 1504, the city fell to Babur from the north of the country and was made into his capital, which became one of the principal cities of his Mughal Empire. In 1525, Babur described Kabulistan in his memoirs by writing that:In the country of Kābul there are many and various tribes.
Its valleys and plains are inhabited by Tūrks, Aimāks, Arabs. In the city and the greater part of the villages, the population consists of Tājiks. Many other of the villages and districts are occupied by Pashāis, Parāchis, Tājiks and Afghans. In the hill-country to the west, reside the Hazāras and Nukderis. Among the Hazāra and Nukderi tribes, there are some. In the hill-country to the north-east lies Kaferistān, such as Kattor and Gebrek. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Hindi, Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi and Lamghāni... For much of its time Kabul was independent until it became part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. During the First Anglo-Afghan War in 1839, the British army invaded the area but withdrew in 1842, although thousands of them were killed during a surprise ambush on their way to Jalalabad. In retaliation another British force burned Kabul before retreating back to British India; the British again occupied the city during the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1879, after their resident staff were massacred there, but withdrew about a year when they installed Emir.
In 1919, King Amanullah Khan rose to power during the Third Anglo-Afghan War when Afghanistan's capital and its eastern city of Jalalabad were air raided by the No. 31 and 114 squadrons of the British Royal Air Force in May 1919. Amanullah Khan defeated the British and began modernization of the country after the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi. In the late 1920s, switching of power took place. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kabul was known as the Paris of central Asia as it was transforming into a European style city. Once the jewel of Asia, a progressive and moderately modern capital. Kabul in those days had, modern cinemas, formal French gardens, libraries, fine boutiques; the inhabitants of Kabul known as "Kabulis" were educated, modern and cosmopolitan people. Where women and men attended primary school, high school and university. Mini-jupes were a common sight in the 1970s. Educated, culturally aware and yet religious at the same time, there was never an issue with not having your hair covered or the clothes you wore in the Kabul of the 1960s and 1970s.
This progressive peaceful society lasted until foreign interference occurred in the late 1970s plummeting the country to what Afghanistan has b
Parwān spelled Parvān, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 631,600, multi-ethnic and a rural society; the province is divided into ten districts. The town of Charikar serves as the provincial capital; the province is located south of Baghlan Province. The name Parwan is attributed to a town, the exact location of, now unknown, that existed during prehistory, in the nearby Hindu Kush mountains. Despite a four decade-long state of war in Afghanistan, Parwan was free of conflict by the mid-2010s. While occasional attacks on government or international forces are reported, they are minor; such incidents in Parwan involve grenade attacks on the residences of government officials or roadside bombs. Bagram Air Base, one of the largest US military bases in Afghanistan, is located in Parwan. In 329 BC, Alexander the Great founded the settlement of Parwan as his Alexandria of the Caucasus, it was conquered by Arab Muslims in 792 AD. In 1221, the province was the site of the battle between the invading Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, the Khwarezmian Empire led by Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, where the Mongols were defeated.
The famous Moroccan traveler and scholar, Ibn Battuta, visiting the area in 1333 writes:"We halted next at a place called Banj Hir, which means "Five Mountains," where there was once a fine and populous city built on a great river with blue water like the sea. This country was devastated by Tinkiz, the king of the Tatars, has not been inhabited since. We came to a mountain called Pashay, where there is a convent of the Shaykh Ata Awliya, which means "Father of the Saints." He is called Sisad Salah, the Persian for "three hundred years," because they say that he is three hundred and fifty years old. They have a high opinion of him and come to visit him from the towns and villages, sultans and princesses visit him too, he made us his guests. We encamped by a river near his convent and went to see him, when I saluted him he embraced me, his skin is fresh and smoother. He told me. I had some doubts about him and God knows how much truth there is in what he says. We travelled thence to Parwan, he wrote to his representatives at Ghazna enjoining them to show me honour.
We went on to the village of Charkh, it being now summer, from there to the town of Ghazna. This is the town of the famous warrior-sultan Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, one of the greatest of rulers, who made frequent raids into India and captured cities and fortresses there." The area was subsequently ruled by the Timurids and Mughals until Ahmad Shah Durrani made it part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. In 1840, Parwan was the site of a major battle in the First Anglo-Afghan War where the invading British were defeated. Parwan's modern history began with the construction of a new textile factory in the town of Jabal Saraj in 1937. Parwan was involved in the Soviet–Afghan War as some of the fiercest fighting took place in the area. In the 1990s it was the site of heavy resistance against the Taliban. Since the removal of the Taliban in late 2001, the United States Armed Forces took control of Bagram Air Base and began using it as one of their main bases in Afghanistan. There is a Provincial Reconstruction Team led by South Korea helping the locals with development activities in the province.
In mid-February 2011, five rocket-propelled grenades hit the newly built South Korean military base housing the provincial reconstruction team and civilian aid workers. No one was injured in the attack, but it came hours after a visit by South Korean Defense Minister Kim Kwan-jin, raising suspicions of Taliban involvement; the opening ceremony of the base was postponed indefinitely. A plan to build a power plant in the province is under consideration. A large portion of Parwan's economy relies on remittances from the Afghan diaspora living abroad. In July 2012, the Taliban executed a married woman in front of a large crowd after she was found guilty of adultery, it was reported that the woman had a secret affair with a married military commander of the Afghan National Army. The current governor of the province is Mohammad Asim Asim; the city of Charikar is the capital of the province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are handled by the Afghan National Police; the provincial police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul.
The ANP is backed including the NATO-led forces. The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 32% in 2005 to 11% in 2011; the percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 4% in 2005 to 7% in 2011. The overall literacy rate fell from 37% in 2005 to 28% in 2011; the overall net enrolment rate increased from 42% in 2005 to 54% in 2011. The total population of the province is about 631,600, multi-ethnic and a rural society. According to the Naval Postgraduate School, the ethnic groups of the province are as follows: Pashtun, Uzbek, Kuchi and other minority groups. According to Afghanistan's Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development:Around three quarters of the population of Parwan lives in rural districts, while one quarter lives in urban areas, Around 50% of the population is male and 50% is female. Dari and Pashto are the main languages spoken in the province. Parwan province als
The Pashtuns known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who live in Pakistan and Afghanistan in South-Central Asia. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct; the ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979; the majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between the two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. There are significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular in the cities of Karachi and Lahore.
A recent Pashtun diaspora has developed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates. The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15% of the population; as the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the 15th–16th century Lodi dynasty replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur deposed the Lodi dynasty. Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century, which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani; the Barakzai dynasty played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
There have been many notable Pashtun people throughout history: Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while Bacha Khan was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include Malala Yousafzai, Shah Rukh Khan, Zarine Khan, Imran Khan, Farhad Darya, Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Ahmad Zahir, Zakir Husain, Hamid Karzai, Ashraf Ghani, Mullah Mohammed Omar; the vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Balochistan. Additional Pashtun communities are located in Western and Northern Afghanistan, the Gilgit–Baltistan and Kashmir regions and northwestern Punjab province, Pakistan. There are sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of Pashtun ancestry. Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are referred to as Pathans. Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the Middle East, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, North America and Australia.
Important metropolitan centres of Pashtun culture include Peshawar, Quetta, Mardan and Jalalabad. In Pakistan, the city of Karachi in Sindh province has the largest Pashtun diaspora communities in the world, with as much as 7 million Pashtuns living in Karachi according to some estimates. Several cities in Pakistan's Punjab province have sizeable Pashtun populations, in particular Lahore. About 15% of Pakistan's nearly 200 million population is Pashtun. In Afghanistan, they are the largest ethnic group and make up between 42–60% of the 32.5 million population. The exact figure remains uncertain in Afghanistan, affected by the 1.3 million or more Afghan refugees that remain in Pakistan, a majority of which are Pashtuns. Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A cumulative population assessment suggests a total of around 49 million individuals all across the world. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes; the Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar and Kabul have grown due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.
Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups, each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, the Karlani. Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. Since the 2nd millennium BC, cities in the region now inhabited by Pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, Hephthalites, Turks and others. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well. Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the Pashtuns is some
Shighnan District is one of the 28 districts of the Badakhshan Province in eastern Afghanistan. It's part of the history region of Shighnan, today divided between Afghanistan and Tajikistan; the district borders the Panj River and Tajikistan in the northeast, the Maimay district to the west, the Raghistan district in the southwest, the Kohistan, Arghanj Khwa, Shuhada districts in the south, the Ishkashim district in the southeast. The Khowar, Tajiks and Pamiris are the major ethnic groups. Pashto and Persian are spoken; this District has a population of 27,750 >Shighnan District
Khwahan District, is one of the 28 districts of Badakhshan Province, located in northeastern Afghanistan. The district capital is Khwahan; the population of the district is 27,000. The district borders Raghistan to the southwest, Kuf Ab in the northeast, the Panj River in the northwest, Shuro-obod district, Khatlon Province, of Tajikistan. Kuh-e kallat List of villages and places, of Khwahan District in alphabetical order Darwaz Map at the Afghanistan Information Management Services Its coordinates are 37°53'19" N and 70°13'10" E in DMS or 37.8886 and 70.2194. Its UTM position is XG09 and its Joint Operation Graphics reference is NJ42-11khwahan
Kuran wa Munjan District
Kuran wa Munjan District is one of the 28 districts of Badakhshan Province in eastern Afghanistan. Located in the Hindu Kush mountains, the district is home to 8,000 residents; the district administrative center is Kuran wa Munjan. The district is in the southwest corner of the province, is bordered on its northeast side by the Jurm and Zebak Districts. Most of the district's boundaries are adjacent to other Afghan provinces, but a small section on the eastern edge of the district lies on the international border between Afghanistan and Pakistan; the epicenter of the October 26 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake was 45 km north of here. Map at the Afghanistan Information Management Services
Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top of a corporation taking full responsibility for managing all business activities. In the United Kingdom, the term head office is most used for the HQs of large corporations; the term is used regarding military organizations. A headquarters is the entity at the top of a corporation that takes full responsibility for the overall success of the corporation, ensures corporate governance; the corporate headquarters is a key element of a corporate structure and covers different corporate functions such as strategic planning, corporate communications, legal, finance, human resources, information technology, procurement. This entity includes the chief executive officer as a key person and his or her support staff such as the CEO office and other CEO-related functions. Many companies have a registered office at a different address to their corporate office.
A headquarters includes the leader of business unit and his or her staff as well as all functions to manage the business unit and operational activities. The head of the business unit is responsible for overall result of the business unit. A headquarters sometimes functions at the top of regional unit, including all activities of the various business units, taking full responsibility for overall profitability and success of this regional unit. Military headquarters take many forms depending on the size and nature of the unit or formation they command, they are split into the forward and rear components, both within NATO nations, those following the organization and doctrine of the former Soviet Union. The forward or tactical HQs is a small group of staff and communicators. Mobile, they exist to allow the commander to go forward in an operation, command the key parts of it from a position where they can see the ground and influence their immediate subordinates; the main HQs is involved in both the planning and execution of operations.
There are a number of staff assembled here from various staff branches to advise the commander, to control the various aspects of planning and the conduct of discrete operations. A main HQ for a large formation will have a chief of staff; the rear or logistic HQs is some distance from the front line in conventional operations. Its function is to ensure the logistical support to front line troops, which it does by organizing the delivery of combat supplies and equipment to where they are needed, by organizing services such as combat medicine, equipment recovery, repair; the headquarters of the Catholic Church is Vatican City. The World Headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses is relocated in Warwick, New York, from its former location, New York; the headquarters of the Russian Orthodox Church is in Moscow. The World Council of Churches, including Orthodox Churches, has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland; the headquarters of Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is located in Turkey. The headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City, Utah.
The Anglican Communion Office is in London. In Japanese budō martial arts such as karate, aikido, etc. There is a headquarters for each organization or region; the Japanese word honbu is used for that outside Japan. Sometimes they refer to this headquarters as honbu dojo in which dojo is a facility provided for practicing discipline, the training ground. Sometimes honbu is written as hombu, the way it is pronounced, but according to the Hepburn transcription, the correct spelling should be honbu in which the'n' is a syllabic n. Isby, David C. Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army Jane's, London: 516 pp. Wanner, Herbert Global and regional corporate headquarters in: Kählin, Christian, H.: Switzerland Business & Investment Handbook. Wanner, Herbert.