Operation GRANBY abbreviated Op GRANBY, was the code name given to the British military operations during the 1991 Gulf War. 53,462 members of the British Armed Forces were deployed during the conflict. The total cost of operations was £2.434 billion, of which at least £2.049 billion was paid for by other nations such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The Joint Commander Gulf Forces, based in the United Kingdom at RAF High Wycombe, was Air Chief Marshal Sir Patrick Hine 1 October 1990 – 31 March 1991, Air Chief Marshal Sir Michael Graydon from 31 March 1991, his political adviser was Andrew Palmer. The Commander British Forces Middle East, the in-theatre commander, based in Riyadh, was Air Vice Marshal Andrew Wilson Lieutenant-General Sir Peter de la Billière 6 October 1990 – March 1991, Air Commodore Ian Macfadyen from March 1991; the Air Commander British Forces Middle East Arabian Peninsula, was Air Vice Marshal Andrew Wilson from August to 17 November 1990 Air Vice Marshal William Wratten from 17 November 1990.
The Senior British Naval Officer Middle East was Captain Anthony McEwen, Royal Navy until September 1990, on HMS York Commodore Paul Haddacks from September to December 1990. Commodore Christopher Craig, on HMS Brave and HMS London, was in command from 3 December 1990 to March 1991. Within nine days of the invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990, 12 Panavia Tornado F3 interceptors from 5 Squadron and 29 Squadron from RAF Coningsby had arrived in Saudi Arabia, alongside aircraft of the United States Air Force. Jaguar GR1 aircraft from RAF Coltishall, Tornado GR1s, redeployed from service in RAF Germany deployed to the theatre. Buccaneer aircraft from RAF Lossiemouth were deployed in order to laser designate ground targets for the Tornado and Jaguar; this action had the effect of maintaining the confidence of friendly nations, limiting the potential for further Iraqi expansion. When an economic embargo was placed on Iraq, these aircraft helped maintain it; the force of Tornado F3s was expanded to 18, drawn from the three British bases housing F3s, with 27 air crew and 350 ground personnel.
They were based at the Royal Saudi Air Force airbase at Dhahran, from where they flew patrols inside the range of Iraqi ground radar systems. Before the launch of the operation to liberate Kuwait, they flew over 2000 sorties. Hercules, VC10, TriStar aircraft supplied both the Royal Air Force and other military endeavours. At bases in Tabuk and Muharraq, the RAF deployed Rapier missiles as part of surface-to-air defences. In total, around 6,000 RAF personnel were deployed to the Gulf. RAF commanders, along with the other partners in the coalition, deemed it necessary to prevent the Iraqi Air Force operating to any significant degree. Believed to have around 700 combat aircraft, as well as Scud ballistic missiles and chemical weapons, they could not be left to help support Iraqi ground forces, now entrenched in positions on the border; because of the level of supplies coming from Iraq to forces in Kuwait, it would have been impossible to separate targets in Kuwait from an offensive into Iraq. Coalition forces outnumbered the IrAF 3-to-1.
The first part of the Gulf War air campaign was directed against the IrAF. Early on 17 January, RAF Tornado GR1s flew with air-to-air refuelling tanker support; the first targets were Iraqi airbases, which housed a variety of defence aircraft. These attacks were co-ordinated in Riyadh by the Joint Allied Headquarters, with Wratten now leading the British command. Support aircraft in raids, could be from any coalition power. Within 24 hours, a hundred sorties had been completed. After seven days, the RAF's focus, like the rest of coalition air forces, was moved to targets related to the support of Iraqi forces in Kuwait; these included oil refinery, strategic bridges over the River Euphrates. During operations, civilians were killed when the sophisticated guidance systems on the weaponry used failed, buildings close to these bridges were hit instead. On the whole, many pilots were frustrated by the lack of combat. In every combat role, the RAF was second to USAF involvement, but ahead of other members of the coalition.
Of the around 55 Allied aircraft lost, eight were RAF Tornados. Five air crew were lost in operations, three in preparations. During the ground phase, the British 1st Armoured Division of the British Army took part in the gigantic left-hook which outflanked Iraqi forces, it participated in the Battle of Norfolk. British Challenger tanks destroyed 300 Iraqi vehicles, including achieving the longest-range tank-kill in the war from three miles away. A friendly fire incident, when an American Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt aircraft attacked two British Warrior vehicles, resulted in the deaths of nine British service personnel; the Royal Navy made a significant contribution to Allied efforts in the early stages of the war. In particular, Royal Navy Westland Lynx helicopters were responsible for the destruction of the entire Iraqi Navy. Additionally, Royal Navy minehunters cleared Iraqi mines near the Kuwaiti coast, allowing the US battleships Wisconsin and Missouri to move in close enough to launch devastating bombardments against Iraqi ground forces.
HMS Gloucester intercepted an Iraqi Silkworm missile heading towards HMS London, mine countermeasures vessels, the US battleships
Dhahran is a city located in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. It is a major administrative center for the Saudi oil industry. Together with the nearby cities of Dammam and Khobar, Dhahran forms part of the Dammam Metropolitan Area, known as greater Dammam and has an estimated population of 4,140,000 as of 2012. Large oil reserves were first identified in the Dhahran area in 1931, in 1935, Standard Oil drilled the first commercially viable oil well. Standard Oil established a subsidiary in Saudi Arabia called the Arabian American Oil Company, now owned by the Saudi government and known as Saudi Aramco. Dhahran has been the home of Saudi Aramco's headquarters for 80 years and is its first and largest gated compound with more than 50,000 residents. Employees and dependents of Aramco, known as Aramcons, have a tendency to use Dhahran to refer to the Aramco camp while using Khobar and/or Dammam to refer to the area outside the camp; the Saudi Aramco Residential Camp makes up much of the city of Dhahran today.
Home to Mall of Dhahran one of the biggest shopping complexes in the Eastern Province. Dhahran is a short distance west of downtown Khobar, it is about 15 kilometres south of Dammam. Both are older Saudi port cities on the coast of the Persian Gulf. Looking farther afield, Dhahran is northeast of Abqaiq, southeast of Qatif and, further north, Ras Tanura, a major oil port; the Kingdom of Bahrain is within easy driving distance to the east, across the King Fahd Causeway, from Khobar. There are several notable landmarks in Dhahran City including KFUPM clock tower as well as Saudi Aramco's Al-Midra Tower and King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture. However, the tallest buildings in Dhahran are the new Al-Othman twin towers which are located in the north east of the city facing Al-Khobar; the patch of desert on which the city is built is hilly and rocky, most of the earliest productive oil wells in Saudi Arabia were drilled in the area, such as Dammam Well No. 7: "Prosperity Well", the first commercially viable oil well in Saudi Arabia in the 1930s.
This well was still in production 70 years later. This led to the selection of two barren nearby hills as the place for Aramco to construct its headquarters; the Dhahran-Dammam area is one of two regions, the other being Jeddah, that were selected as potential sites to build the first Saudi nuclear reactor. Dhahran has a hot desert climate, featuring summers among the hottest and most humid in the world, frost-free winters. Temperatures can rise to more than 40 °C in the summer, coupled with high humidity, given the city’s proximity to the Persian Gulf; the highest recorded temperature in Dhahran is 51.1 °C. In winter, the temperature falls below −2 °C, with the lowest recorded being −5 °C in January 1964. Rain falls exclusively between the months of November and May; the Shamal winds blow across the city in the early months of the summer, bringing dust storms that can reduce visibility to a few metres. These winds can last for up to six months, it has been reported that on July 8, 2003, the dew point was 35 °C while the temperature was 42 °C, which would indicate a heat index of 79 °C, one of the highest heat indexes reported.
Dhahran was settled after 1938, the year oil was discovered in the vicinity. During World War II on 19 October 1940 Dhahran was struck by Italian Royal Air Force as a part of Bombing of Bahrain, causing little damage. In 1944, the United States was authorized to build an air base in Dhahran. Construction began in 1945 and was completed in 1946; the base was turned over to the Saudis. In 1950 Dhahran had a population of about 7,000 people. During the Gulf War, the city was the scene of the largest loss of life among coalition forces. On February 25, 1991, an Iraqi Al-Hussein missile#Persian Gulf War hit a U. S. Army barracks in the city. Dhahran has the headquarters of Saudi Aramco; the company is the largest oil company in the world with the largest oil reserves in the world, it produces about 10 million barrels of oil per day. Most of the oil is exported. Eighty-seven years on, Dhahran is still Saudi Aramco's worldwide headquarters and the center of the company's finance, engineering, drilling services, medical services, materials supply and other company organisations.
The population of Dhahran is Saudi, but includes many expatriates from Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal and the Philippines, as well as countries such as the United States, European countries, South Africa and New Zealand. There are many non-Saudi Arab nationals living in Dhahran, such as Egyptians, Lebanese, Palestinians and Syrians; the 1993 population of the city was 73,691. According to a 2004 census the total population of the Dhahran municipality is 97,446. Many companies that employ large numbers of expatriates have built fenced-in compounds where only expatriates live, however the largest compound, the Saudi Aramco Residential Camp in Dhahran provides accommodation to many different nationalities. Although built to house only expatriate oil company employees to provide a degree of Western comfort and separation from the restrictions of Saudi and Islamic laws, the community today has shifted somewhat in line with the reduction of western residents into a multi-ethnic mosaic of Saudis, other Arab nationalities (e.g. Egyptian and Jord
The Ghuznee Medal is a British campaign medal awarded for participation in the storming of the fortress of Ghuznee in Afghanistan, on 21 to 23 July 1839 by troops of the British and Indian Armies. This action, the Battle of Ghazni, took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War; this was the second medal awarded to all ranks of the British Army for a specific campaign, the Waterloo Medal being the first. It was struck in 1839 on the orders of Shuja Shah Durrani, the Shah of Afghanistan, to show his appreciation to the British forces who had helped restore him to his throne by storming the fortress; as the Shah died before the medals could be distributed, it was bestowed by the Governor-General of India in the name of the Government of India. The medal was based on a design by John Luard, a British army officer and artist, struck at the Calcutta Mint, it is silver and 37 millimetres in diameter, with the following design:The obverse depicts the fortress of Ghuznee with the word ‘GHUZNEE’ below.
The reverse has a mural crown surrounded by a laurel wreath and the date ’23d JULY 1839’. The suspender is straight with a ring passing through a smaller loop soldered to the top of the medal; the ribbon has two equal stripes of dark green. The ribbon was to have been half green and half yellow; the medal was issued unnamed, but many were privately engraved or impressed in varying styles on the reverse or rim. Two separate dies exist for this medal with one having a wider border around the edge than the other; the second has a narrower and taller fortress. Four separate campaign medals were awarded to British led forces who served in the Afghan War of 1839 to 1842: Ghuznee Medal. Storming of Ghuznee fortress, 21–23 July 1839. Jellalabad Medal. Defence of Jalalabad, 12 November 1841–7 April 1842. Medal for the Defence of Kelat-I-Ghilzie. Defence of Kelat-I-Ghilzie, January–26 May 1842. Candahar, Cabul Medal. Major operations of 1842, the final year of the war. First Anglo-Afghan War Shuja Shah Durrani The Ghuznee Medal on Online Medals
Kuwait Liberation Medal (Saudi Arabia)
The Naut Tahrir al-Kuwait was instituted by King Fahd ibn Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia for service during the Liberation of Kuwait campaign. The Saudi Arabian version of the Kuwait Liberation Medal is awarded to members of the Coalition Forces who participated in Operation Desert Storm and the liberation of Kuwait between the dates of January 17, 1991 and February 28, 1991, it is considered rarer than the Kuwaiti version of the medal, because it recognizes service in a short period of time whereas the Kuwaiti version of the medal is granted for service over three years. The Saudi Arabian version is senior in U. S. precedence, owing to its having been authorized for several years before the Kuwaiti version was offered. The Saudi version of the Kuwait Liberation Medal consists of a silver star of fifteen rounded points surmounted by a gilt medallion which contains a wreath tied at its based and a crown at its top. In the center of the gilt medallion is a silver representation of the Earth, over, superimposed a gilt representation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Above the gilt medallion are the crossed swords and palm tree taken from the Royal Cypher. Beneath the gilt medallion is a swallow-tailed scroll with its ends folded back and point upward so they follow the contour of the gilt medallion. On the scroll are the words, LIBERATION OF KUWAIT in English, the same inscription above it in Arabic; the service ribbon for the Kuwait Liberation Medal bears a gold-gilt device consisting of crossed swords superimposed over a palm tree. This device is taken from the Royal Cypher; the device is not used on the suspension ribbon of the medal. AustraliaThe Australian Government has authorised the medal to be worn with other international honours and awards after all other Australian medals. BelgiumBelgium has authorised the medal to be worn on military uniform with other international honours and awards after all Belgian medals. CanadaThe Canadian Government has decreed that the Canadian personnel may accept their medals as a keepsake but permission to wear them in uniform has so far been refused.
FranceFrance accepted the medal for their personnel. United KingdomBritish servicemen have not been given permission by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to wear this medal since a UK campaign medal, the Gulf Medal, was issued; the wearing in uniform of the Kuwait Liberation Medal or its ribbon is therefore forbidden and it is accepted only as a keepsake. United States Service must have been performed in support of Operation Desert Storm and the liberation of Kuwait, between 17 January 1991 to 28 February 1991. Eligible areas include: The Persian Gulf The Red Sea That portion of the Arabian Sea that lies north of 10 degrees north latitude and west of 68 degrees east longitude The Gulf of Aden The total areas of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the United Arab EmiratesIn addition, those personnel must have: Been attached to or serving for one or more days with an organization participating in ground and/or shore operations. Note: That time limitation may be waived for personnel who participated in combat operations.
Gulf War Military Awards The Institute of Heraldry:Kuwait Liberation Medal
New Zealand Medal
The New Zealand Medal was a campaign medal awarded to Imperial and Colonial troops in the New Zealand Wars of 1845–47 and 1860–66. The New Zealand Wars were known as the Māori Wars, Anglo-Māori Wars or Land Wars. Imperial forces included Royal Navy and Royal Marines; the Colonial militia were recruited locally or in Australia, included mobile forces like Von Tempskys Forest Rangers and the Arawa Flying Column from a Māori tribe for the guerrilla war in the New Zealand bush. The medal was authorised in 1869 for award only to survivors. For Imperial forces, it was awarded to those "who served in the field against the enemy in New Zealand". Colonial militia claimants had to prove. Claims from Colonial forces were closed in 1900 but reopened in 1910 and 1913 in association with land claims for service in the war. Claims were closed for Europeans in 1915 and Māori in 1916; the medal is silver, circular, 36 millimetres in diameter and with a straight bar suspender ornamented with New Zealand fern fronds.
The medal was designed by the brothers A. J. S. Wyon; the obverse shows an effigy of Queen Victoria, facing left and wearing a diadem and veil, with the legend: VICTORIA D: G: BRITT: REG: F: D: The bust is similar to, but larger than, that on the Abyssinian Medal issued in the same year. The reverse has a laurel wreath containing the year or years between which the recipient served, with the words NEW ZEALAND above and VIRTUTIS HONOR below. Colonial militia medals are undated, as were some to Imperial forces. A year range is given as'1863 / to / 1865' and, uniquely for a British campaign medal, the year are die struck in the centre. A few specimens are known bearing the dates with'1846 to 1865'; the ribbon, 1.25 inches wide, is of blue with a 10mm red centre stripe. No clasps were issued; the number struck was total 4,457, of which about 4,400 were issued. The Ministry of Defence retained a few unclaimed medals, some of which they sold in the 1960s marked'specimen' and with the name of the recipient obliterated.
The New Zealand War Medal: Awards to Colonial Units by P. Y. Dennerly NZDF website with image
Army Gold Medal
The Army Gold Medal known as the Peninsular Gold Medal, with an accompanying Gold Cross, was a British campaign medal awarded in recognition of field and general officers' successful commands in campaigns, predominantly the Peninsular War. It was not a general medal, since it was issued only to officers whose status was no less than that of battalion commander or equivalent. Naval Gold Medals had been awarded since 1794 to captains and admirals who had served in specified successful naval actions, admirals' medals being larger. In 1806 a special gold medal was presented to British Army majors and above who had taken a key part in the Battle of Maida; this medal, 1.5 inches in diameter, shows the profile of King George III on the obverse with a reverse design incorporating Britannia. A general campaign medal for the Napoleonic Wars, awarded to all British troops irrespective of rank, would only be established in 1847; the Army Gold Medal was established in 1810 to reward service at Napoleonic War battles since 1808.
Like the Maida Gold Medal, it was awarded only to majors and above and, like the Naval Gold Medal, it was awarded in two sizes, with the larger to senior officers. When the Army Gold Medal was first established, a new one was issued for each action. In October 1813, to prevent a proliferation of awards to one recipient, an order was created instructing that only one medal be worn, with a ribbon clasp denoting the battle concerned for any further award; the fourth award was to be marked by a Gold Cross, replacing the earlier medals, with the names of each of the four battles on the arms of the cross. Again, clasps for attachment to the ribbon of the cross were presented for any successive awards; the award could be awarded posthumously, sent to the officer's family. The total number awarded were: The highest award was earned by the Duke of Wellington: a Cross with nine bars for a total of 13 actions, it can be viewed on his uniform in the basement at Apsley House. The medal came in three styles, laid out below: The Large Gold Medal, was restricted to general officers.
The medal was 2.12 inches in diameter, mounted in a gold frame, glazed on both sides. Obverse: Britannia with shield and facing left and holding a laurel wreath in her right hand and a palm branch in her left. Behind her, the head of a lion can be seen. Reverse: A laurel wreath surround, with the name of the battle engraved in the centre, although that for Barrosa was die struck; the medal was worn around the neck. The designer was Thomas Wyon The Small Gold Medal was awarded to officers between the rank of major and colonel; the medal was 1.3 inches in diameter, mounted in a gold frame and glazed, of the same design as the Large Medal. It was worn on the left chest from a buttonhole, with the ribbon attached via a wide curved suspender; the Gold Cross was awarded to those. Worn around the neck, it is an ornamental cross pattée 1.5 inches across, with a proud lion at its centre and the four qualifying actions embossed on its arms. The obverse and reverse are the same. Any further actions were marked with a clasp.
The medal was worn around the neck with the ribbon attached via an ornate loop on top of the cross which passes through a smaller simpler ring below a straight suspender. The designer was Thomas Wyon; the Clasps were of a common pattern for all awards, with the name of the battle within a wide laurel wreath frame. The Ribbon for all the awards was broad crimson with blue borders, 1.75 inches wide. This ribbon design had been used for the Maida Gold Medal and would be used for the Waterloo and the Military General Service Medals and the Distinguished Service Order. Naming. All awards had the name of the recipient engraved on the rim. A Gold Collar and Cross was awarded to Viscount Beresford; this cross was of a similar design to the Army Gold Cross, but with a winged figure of Victory at its centre, with suspension from a chain of alternate lions and Union Flag oval medallions. The Gold Collar and Cross was a additional award to the Army Gold Cross. Following the Peninsular War, award of the Gold Medals and Crosses was discontinued when would-be recipients became eligible for Order of the Bath on its restructuring to three classes.
In 1847 the Military General Service Medal was authorised, to be retrospectively awarded to all surviving veterans of the campaigns, irrespective of rank. Holders of the gold medals, crosses or additional clasps were not eligible to claim identical clasps on the MGSM; the eligible battles and campaigns for the MGSM were identical, with the addition of Egypt. The design of the cross is similar to the Victoria Cross and is considered to have provided the inspiration. Awards, both medals and clasps, were made for the following 27 battles and campaigns: The Battle of Maida in 1806 was commemorated by a gold medal of different design. Category:Recipients of the Army Gold Medal Category:Recipients of the Army Gold Cross Dorling, H. Taprell and Medals, A. H. Baldwin & Son Duckers, Peter; the Victoria Cross. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7478-0635-6. Gordon, Lawrence. Joslin, Edward, ed. British Medals. London: Spink & Son Ltd. Joslin and Simpkin, British Battles and Medals, Spink ISBN 0907605257 Leslie, J.
H.. Medals which were awarded to Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery for Service in the Peninsular War - 1808 to 1814. Mussell, J, Medals Yearbook 2015, Token Publishing. ISBN 9781908828248 British Medals: Army Gold Medal British Medals: Army Gold Cross