Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, 88th-largest island in the world and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, the capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065, Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits. It was once the centre of the Minoan civilization, which is regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe. The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated in Neo-Assyrian records and it was known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu, strongly suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island. The current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, lake, or another bay. A large bay may be called a gulf, sound, a cove is a type of smaller bay with a circular inlet and narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity, bays can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River, which is the largest bay in North America. Bays may be nested within each other, for example, some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal and the Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology. The land surrounding a bay often reduces the strength of winds, bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided a safe place for fishing. Later they were important in the development of sea trade as the safe anchorage they provide encouraged their selection as ports, there are various ways from which bays can be created. The largest bays have developed as a result of plate tectonics, as the super-continent Pangaea broke up along curved and indented fault lines, the continents moved apart and the worlds largest bays formed.
These include the Gulf of Guinea, Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Bengal, another way bays form is via glacial and river erosion. A bay formed by a glacier is a fjord, rias are created by rivers and are characterised by more gradual slopes. Currents can make waves more constant, and soft rocks speed erosion, hard rock eroded less quickly, leaving headlands. The Gulf of California is an example of a bay created by plate tectonics as Baja California peninsula moves away from the Mexican mainland, Bay platform Great capes Headlands and bays
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
Cydonia or Kydonia was an ancient city-state on the northwest coast of the island of Crete. It is at the site of the modern-day Greek city of Chania, in legend Cydonia was founded by King Cydon, a son of Hermes or Apollo and of Akakallis, the daughter of King Minos. According to Pausanias he was son of king Tegeates, the name Cydon may derive from the word κῦδος or from the verb κυδάνω. Diodorus Siculus mentions that the city was founded by King Minos, the name of the city is first mentioned in Linear B tablets from Knossos. At Kastelli hill, which is the citadel of Chania’s harbor, archaeological excavations have discovered ceramic sherds, scarce finds such as walls and ground floors confirm that the systematic habitation of the hill began during EM II period. A Minoan House with the hall was unearthed. It was destroyed by fire during LMIB period, the houses from LMIIIA phase belonged to a palatial settlement, which ceased to exist in LMIII. The city extended beyond Kastelli hill as the excavations in Daskalogiannis Street revealed, the discovery of a corpus of Linear A and Linear B tablets points out the presence of an archive.
Moreover, the archaeologists have identified the existence of a pottery workshop. It is peculiar that Homer in the Odyssey mentions Kydones not Kydonians and they dwell the two sides of Iardanos river. Herodotus considers that the city was founded by Samians in ca.520 BC, aegina sent colonists to the Cretan city. Due to this relationship, the city at an early phase minted coins which resemble those of the aforementioned island, Archaeological evidence from these periods is limited. In 429 B. C. E during the Peloponnesian War Kydonia was attacked by the Athenians after the accusations of Nikias from Gortyna for pro-Spartan policy. In 343 B. C. E the city was besieged by Phalaikos and he was killed from a thunder strike that burnt his siege engines. In Hellenistic period times Kydonia took part in the struggle for domination among the cities of Crete, B. C. E a peace treaty with Aptera was made. In 220/219 B. C. E both cities joined the alliance of Oreioi and canceled the one with Knossos, aggressive policy led to the capture of Phalasarna and 14 years that of Apollonia, an action criticized by Polybius since they were allies.
In 69 B. C. E the Romans under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus, after the attempt of Marcus Antonius. The Cretan general Lasthenes confronted them in the battle of Kydonia and this outcome forced Cretan general Panares to capitulate to the Romans and deliver them the city without resistance
Sea of Crete
The Sea of Crete is a sea, part of the Aegean Sea, located in its Southern extremity. The sea stretches to the North of the island of Crete, East of the islands of Kythera and Antikythera, South of the Cyclades, the bounding sea to the West is the Ionian Sea. To the Northwest is the Myrtoan Sea - between Peloponnese and the Cyclades, part of the Aegean Sea, to the East-SE is the rest of the Mediterranean Sea, sometimes credited as the Levantine Sea. Across the island of Crete, to the shore of it begins the Libyan Sea. Ferry routes to and from Piraeus and Heraklion, as well as the Southern islands of the Aegean and the Dodecanese, run in this area. Just off the coastline of Northeastern Crete the sea reaches a depth of near 3,294 m Other sources show a maximum depth of 2,591 m. Michael Hogan & Steve Baum. National Council for Science and Environment
The terms anno Domini and before Christ are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means in the year of the Lord, There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor, the Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the AD abbreviation before the year number, however, BC is placed after the year number, which preserves syntactic order. The abbreviation is widely used after the number of a century or millennium. Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes concluded that AD means After Death. However, this would mean that the approximate 33 years commonly associated with the life of Jesus would not be included in either of the BC, astronomical year numbering and ISO8601 avoid words or abbreviations related to Christianity, but use the same numbers for AD years.
The Anno Domini dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table. His system was to replace the Diocletian era that had used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. The last year of the old table, Diocletian 247, was followed by the first year of his table. Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus Incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the year during which his birth or conception occurred. Blackburn & Holford-Strevens briefly present arguments for 2 BC,1 BC, There were inaccuracies in the list of consuls There were confused summations of emperors regnal years It is not known how Dionysius established the year of Jesuss birth. It is convenient to initiate a calendar not from the day of an event. For example, the Islamic calendar begins not from the date of the Hegira, at the time, it was believed by some that the Resurrection and end of the world would occur 500 years after the birth of Jesus.
The old Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the based on information in the Old Testament. It was believed that, based on the Anno Mundi calendar, Anno Mundi 6000 was thus equated with the resurrection and the end of the world but this date had already passed in the time of Dionysius. The Anglo-Saxon historian the Venerable Bede, who was familiar with the work of Dionysius Exiguus, used Anno Domini dating in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in 731. e. On the continent of Europe, Anno Domini was introduced as the era of choice of the Carolingian Renaissance by the English cleric and scholar Alcuin in the late eighth century
Akrotiri is a peninsula and former municipality in the Chania regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Chania, the municipal unit has an area of 112.644 km2. Its ancient name was Kiamon while the Byzantines called it Charaka, the seat of Akrotiri municipality was Pythari. Stavros became famous because of the film Zorba the Greek, Akrotiri is a rocky promontory on the northern side of the island of Crete, in the Sea of Crete. It is roughly circular in shape, connected to the rest of the island by a causeway between Chania and the town of Souda. To the south, Souda Bay is found between the peninsula and the island, most of the peninsula is a plateau somewhat elevated from the sea. There is a string of hills along the northern coast, a variety of flora occur on the rocky promontory of Akrotiri including the herb Taraxacum minimum. The earliest history of the area is related to the founding of the nearby ancient city of Kydonia. The tombs of Eleftherios Venizelos and his son Sophoklis are found on Akrotiri, at this site, the Greek flag was raised in defiance of the Turks and the Great Powers, with the peninsula acting as a headquarters of the Cretan Revolution.
Three monasteries are found in the hills to the north, Aghia Triada dates from the 17th Century and was founded by two Venetian monks who had joined the Orthodox church and Laurentio Giancarolo. These brothers renovated an older monastery endowed by the Mourtari family, the imposing buildings are visible across the plateau and from planes arriving at the airport and are set in olive and orange groves. A little way into the hills, accessible by car through a gorge, is the Gouvernetos Monastery,5 km north of Aghia Triada. Here the buildings appear fortress-like, with a square building around a central courtyard. From Gouverneto Monastery, the path is accessible by foot and leads to the cave of the Arkoudiotissa. This cave is believed to have used for worship since ancient times. Ascetics lived in the caves in the area, further along the path, after a descent of 140 steps, is the Katholikon, the third monastery, now abandoned. It is believed to date from the 5th or 6th Century and it is built into the cliff, with a unique church largely carved into the rock-face.
This striking set of buildings is now overgrown with fig trees, there are several resorts around Akrotiri, including Stavros and Marathi
Prehistory means literally before history, from the Latin word for before, præ, and Greek ιστορία. Neighbouring civilisations were the first to follow, most other civilisations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no records from human prehistory. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century and this article is concerned with human prehistory as defined here above. There are separate articles for the history of the Earth. However, for the race as a whole, prehistory ends when recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BC, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more recently. The three-age system is the periodization of prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies, Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age.
The notion of prehistory began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word primitive to describe societies that existed before written records, the first use of the word prehistory in English, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in 1836. The main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history, human population geneticists and historical linguists are providing valuable insight for these questions. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology, restricted to material processes and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous. Because of this, reference terms that use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. Palaeolithic means Old Stone Age, and begins with the first use of stone tools, the Paleolithic is the earliest period of the Stone Age.
The early part of the Palaeolithic is called the Lower Palaeolithic, evidence of control of fire by early humans during the Lower Palaeolithic Era is uncertain and has at best limited scholarly support. The most widely accepted claim is that H. erectus or H. ergaster made fires between 790,000 and 690,000 BP in a site at Bnot Yaakov Bridge, Israel. The use of fire enabled early humans to cook food, provide warmth, Early Homo sapiens originated some 200,000 years ago, ushering in the Middle Palaeolithic
Britomartis was the Minoan goddess of mountains and hunting. She is among the Minoan goddess figures that passed through the Mycenaeans culture into classical Greek mythology, for the Greeks, Britomartis was a mountain nymph whom Greeks recognized in Artemis and in Aphaea, the invisible patroness of Aegina. The goddess addressed as Britomartis was worshipped in Crete as an aspect of Potnia and her terror-inspiring aspect was softened by calling her Britomartis, the good virgin, a euphemism to allay her dangerous aspect. She is known as Diktynna, according to Solinus, the name Britomartis is not Greek but from a Cretan dialect, he says that her name means virgo dulcis, or sweet virgin. Solinus identifies her explicitly as the Cretan Artemis, hesychius of Alexandria equates the Cretan word βριτύ with Greek γλυκύ sweet. According to some scholars, Britomartis is an epithet that does not reveal the goddesss name, nor her character. Every element of the myths that told about Britomartis served to reduce her power and scope.
But the ancient goddess never quite disappeared and remained on the coins of Cretan cities, as herself or as Diktynna, the goddess of Mount Dikte, Zeus birthplace. As Diktynna and now represented with a face, she stood on her ancient mountain, and grasped an animal in each hand, in the guise of Potnia Theron. The Greeks could only conceive a mistress of animals as a huntress, archaic representations of winged Artemis show that she evolved from Potnia Theron. She was known as Dicte and this myth element explains the spread of the Cretan goddesss cult to Greece. Strabo notes she was venerated as Diktynna only in western Crete, in the region of Cydonia, oupis, O queen, fairfaced Bringer of Light, thee too the Kretans name after that Nymph, Callimachus says. She passed her time in the company of Artemis, this being the reason why some men think Diktynna and Artemis are one and the same goddess, Diodorus Siculus suggested. In Minoan art, and on coins and rings, a xoanon, a cult wooden statue, of Britomartis, made by Daedalus, sat in the temple of Olous.
In Chersonesos and Olous, she was portrayed on coins, showing that she was worshipped in those cities. As Diktynna, her face was pictured on Cretan coins of Kydonia, Polyrrhenia, on Crete, she was connected with the mountain where Zeus was said to have been born--Mount Dikte. On some early Britomartis coins of Kydonia, the coin was manufactured as an overstrike of specimens manufactured by Aegina and her temples were said to be guarded by vicious dogs stronger than bears. A temple dedicated to the goddess was erected in ancient times on Mount Tityros near Cydonia, another name, found on Linear B may be another form of Diktynna