Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits; as of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Located on the Gulf of Genoa in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa has been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean: it is the busiest in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli; the city's rich cultural history in art and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Andrea Doria, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.
Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major economic centers. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages; the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, Mediterranean Shipping Company and Costa Cruises; the flag of Genoa is a red cross on a white field. The English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege." The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades.
Genoa had a banner displaying a cross since at latest 1218 as early as 1113. But the cross banner was not associated with the saint. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227; the Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue. The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s; the Saint George's flag remained the main flag of Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century; the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia, described as: And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross. At the top it is inscribed in this manner; the city of Genoa covers an area of 243 square kilometres between the Ligurian Sea and the Apennine Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, for 10 kilometres from the coast to the north along the valleys Polcevera and Bisagno.
The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa lies Aveto Natural Regional Park. Genoa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as oceanic or Mediterranean; the average yearly temperature is around 19 °C during 13 °C at night. In the coldest months: December and February, the average temperature is 12 °C during the day and 6 °C at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average temperature is 27.5 °C during the day and 21 °C at night. The daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about 6 °C between high and low temperatures. Genoa sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold.
Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of ≤0 °C. The coldest temperature recorded was −8 °C on the night of February 2012. Average annual number of days with temperatures of ≥30 °C is about 8, average four days in July and August. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C, from 13 °C in the period January–March to 25 °C in August. In the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds
La Spezia, at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Northern Italy, is the capital city of the province of La Spezia. In terms of population, La Spezia is the second city in the Liguria region, just after Genoa. Located midway between Genoa and Pisa, on the Ligurian Sea, it is one of the main Italian military and commercial harbours and a major Italian Navy base. A significant railway junction, it is notable for its museums, for the Palio del Golfo rowing race, for railway and boat links with the Cinque Terre. La Spezia and its province have been settled since prehistoric times. In Roman times the most important centre was Luni, not far from Sarzana; as the capital of the short-lived Niccolò Fieschi Signoria in the period between 1256 and 1273, La Spezia was linked with Genoese vicissitudes. After the fall of the Serene Republic of Genoa, an independent state until 1797, La Spezia grew and changed, though along lines similar to Liguria's capital Genoa.
This Ligurian influence can still be seen in the urban layout as well as in the types of buildings and decorations. This is notable in the narrow street that divides the Old Town into two, it is called Via del Prione, taking its name from the pietrone or large stone, in local dialect prione, where public announcements were once read out. Walking landwards from the sea it is possible to see hidden, but still evident, traces of history: engraved stones and portals in fourteenth century sandstone, double lancet windows vaguely reminiscent of the future renaissance style of mannerism, baroque pediments, decorations similar to those adorning the portals of the palaces once belonging to the Doria family and the Princes of Massa. La Spezia developed after 1861 when the great naval arsenal there was commissioned by the Royal government. In September 1943, after the Italian capitulation to the Allies, it was the departure port for the Italian Navy when it was ordered to steam into British hands at Malta.
The Germans arrived too late to stop the departure of the fleet. During the war Italian troopships left from La Spezia, including the Kaiser Franz Josef, a trans-Atlantic liner launched in Trieste in 1911 for the Austrian Lloyd company, which Italy had confiscated in 1919, it was sunk in La Spezia harbour in 1944. After the liberation, La Spezia became the point of departure for survivors from Nazi concentration camps. From the summer of 1945 to the spring of 1948 more than 23,000 Jewish displaced persons managed to leave Italy clandestinely for the Palestine Mandate. After lengthy vicissitudes, the ships Fede and Komemiut managed to evacuate everyone from the Golfo di La Spezia, to the extent that on Israeli maps, La Spezia is called Shàar Zion, in Hebrew “Gateway to Zion”. Cristo Re dei Secoli, modern cathedral, consecrated in 1975, designed by Adalberto Libera. Abbey church of Santa Maria Assunta, it houses a considerable series of artworks, some of them from other suppressed religious institutes.
They include an Incoronation of the Virgin by Andrea della Robbia, the Multiplication of Bread by Giovanni Battista Casoni and St. Bartholomew's Martyrdom by Luca Cambiaso. Santi Giovanni e Agostino, it has a single nave with eighteenth and nineteenth century decorations. Nostra Signora della Scorza. Built in 1900 in Piazza Brin, in the heart of what is now a working-class neighborhood, Quartiere Umbertino. Ubaldo Formentini— Civic Museum in the Castle of San Giorgio Amedeo Lia Museum Palazzina delle Arti and Museum of Seals Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art Diocesan Museum Ethnographic Civic Museum Technical Naval Museum National Transportation Museum Castle of San Giorgio restored originated from a watchtower. A first castle is known to have been built by Niccolò Fieschi in 1262. In 1273 it was destroyed by the Genoese, a new fortification, along with a new line of walls, was erected by the podesteria of La Spezia from 1371. Annexed to this, the Republic of Genoa added a new castle starting from 1607.
Public Gardens Art Nouveau–style villas Futurist mosaic by Prampolini inside the Post Office La Spezia is a point of departure for the villages of the Cinque Terre, either by train or boat. The boat serves Lerici and Portovenere before turning into the open sea toward the Cinque Terre; the Cinque Terre villages are accessible by public transport, 15 kilometres from central railway station. La Spezia has a borderline humid subtropical and Mediterranean climate, since only one month receives less than 40 millimetres; the city enjoys hot summers, chilly damp winters and changeable and rainy autumns and springs. The average temperatures of the coldest month are 11 °C maximum. In the hottest month they are 29 °C maximum. Average annual precipitation is 1,314 millimetres, more than twice that in London. Snow is uncommon. Heavy snowfalls are exceptional events: only in 1985 was a snowfall of more than 50 centimetres recorded. Another big snowfall occurred during the night of 18 December 2009, with 25 centimetres of snow and temperatures as low as −7.4 °C in the following nights.
In winter nights, if the sky is clear, temperatures may fall below zero reaching about −2 to −4 °C. Conversely, in summer during sunny days, the temperature can exceed 30 °C, sometimes it reaches 35 °C. Furthermore, the sensation of heat in summer is increased by the high humidity; because of its topography, the city is not exposed to
Golfo di Cagliari
The Golfo di Cagliari known as Golfo degli Angeli is a large bay in southern Sardinia, facing the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is enclosed between the Cape Carbonara from east and the Isola dei Cavoli and Capo Spartivento from west, its coasts are sandy and rocky, including only a few harbours. In the middle of the gulf is a Sant'Elia promontory, part of the territory of Cagliari, Sardinia's capital, which houses the most important port. Other comuni on the gulf include Domus de Maria, Villa San Pietro, Capoterra, Quartu Sant'Elena and Villasimius; the most famous beach is that of Poetto, near Cagliari, while important wetlands are the Stagni of Capoterra and Molentargius. Notable is the archaeological site of Nora
Gulf of Salerno
The Gulf of Salerno is a gulf of the Tyrrhenian Sea in the coast of the province of Salerno in south-western Italy. The northern part of this coast is the Costiera Amalfitana, including towns like Amalfi, Maiori and the city of Salerno itself; the Gulf of Salerno is separated from the Gulf of Naples by the Sorrentine Peninsula, while from the south it is bounded by the Cilento coast. "Salerno, Gulf of". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Gulf of Asinara
The Gulf of Asinara is a sea sector included between the Asinara Island, Cape Falcone and the town of Castelsardo, in northern Sardinia, Italy. The communes facing its coast include Stintino, Porto Torres, Sorso and Badesi; the littoral features several beaches, some kilometers long, such as La Pelosa, le Saline Ezzi Mannu and Fiume Santo, those near Porto Torres, the beaches of Castelsardo, Badesi, Trinità d'Agultu and Isola Rossa
Gulf of La Spezia
The Gulf of La Spezia is a body of water on the north-western coast of Italy and part of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea of Ligurian Sea. It measures some 4.5 by 3-3.5 kilometers. The gulf is named for the Italian city of La Spezia, located at its middle point, the main military and cargo port in the gulf, including several arsenals of the Italian Marina Militare. At the gulf extremities are the two tourist resorts of Porto Venere. Islands in the gulf include Palmaria and Tinetto; the poet and dramatist Percy Bysshe Shelley drowned in the gulf in 1822 due to a severe storm. Pucciarelli, Mauro. Il Golfo dei Poeti. "Villages, museums and castles in the Gulf of Poets". Archived from the original on April 2, 2018
Gulf of Pozzuoli
The Gulf of Pozzuoli known as the Gulf of Puteoli, is a large bay or small gulf in the northwestern end of the Gulf of Naples in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is named for its port of Pozzuoli; the Roman Sinus Baianus was located near the resort town of Baiae. Along with the island of Ischia and gulfs of Naples and Gaeta, local waters are rich in productions enough to support various species whales and dolphins including fin and sperm whales. Geography of Italy