The Neda is a river in the western Peloponnese in Greece. It is 31 km long, its drainage area is 278 km2, it is unique in the sense. The river begins on the southern slope of Mount Lykaion, near the village of Neda in northern Messenia, it flows to the west through a varied landscape of barren rock and forests. From near Figaleia until its mouth it forms the border of Elis. There is a well known waterfall near the village Platania; the Neda flows into the Gulf of Kyparissia, a bay of the Ionian Sea, near the village Giannitsochori. The Neda flows along the villages Neda, Figaleia, Platania and Giannitsochori. List of rivers in Greece
Katakolo is a seaside town in the municipality of Pyrgos in western Elis, Greece. It is situated on a headland overlooking the Ionian Sea and separating the Gulf of Kyparissia from the rest of the Ionian, it is 11 km west of Pyrgos. The small village of Agios Andreas, which in ancient times was the natural harbour for Ancient Olympia, lies northwest of Katakolo. A railway connects Katakolo with Olympia. In the Middle Ages, Katakolo was the site of the fortress of Pontikon or Pontikokastro, which the Frankish rulers of the Principality of Achaea called Beauvoir or Belveder; the fortress was taken over by the Franks ca. 1205. The port of Katakolo is a popular stop for cruise ships, offering an opportunity for passengers to visit the site of Olympia. Low hills with forests surround Katakolo. Visitors here have the opportunity to visit the ancient port of Olympia, the sunken ancient city of Pheia. Ancient Pheia was on the other side of the mountain of Ichthys, now Agios Andreas, within walking distance of Katakolo port.
The lighthouse of Katakolo was built in 1865. One of the most important sites of Katakolo is the Museum of Ancient Greek Technology. In 2017, a Greek and Worldwide Mythology Park was established, situated in Katakolo square, where you can see mythical monsters like Cerberus, Minotaurus and Centaur, it has the form of a labyrinth; the remains of the medieval Pontikokastro/Beauvoir castle still stand on a hilltop northeast of the modern port, but the castle is ruined and its original appearance can only be surmised. Pavlos Haikalis actor and member of parliament Yiannis Latsis shipping tycoon List of settlements in Elis Bon, Antoine. La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe. Paris: De Boccard. GTP - Katakolo Katakolon official website
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Loggerhead sea turtle
The loggerhead sea turtle called the loggerhead, is a species of oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world. It is a marine reptile; the average loggerhead measures around 90 cm in carapace length when grown. The adult loggerhead sea turtle weighs 135 kg, with the largest specimens weighing in at more than 450 kg; the skin ranges from yellow to brown in color, the shell is reddish brown. No external differences in sex are seen until the turtle becomes an adult, the most obvious difference being the adult males have thicker tails and shorter plastrons than the females; the loggerhead sea turtle is found in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It spends most of its life in saltwater and estuarine habitats, with females coming ashore to lay eggs; the loggerhead sea turtle has a low reproductive rate. The loggerhead has a lifespan of 47 -- 67 years; the loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding on bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Its large and powerful jaws serve as an effective tool for dismantling its prey.
Young loggerheads are exploited by numerous predators. Once the turtles reach adulthood, their formidable size limits predation to large marine animals, such as sharks; the loggerhead sea turtle is considered a vulnerable species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. In total, 9 distinct population segments are under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, with 4 population segments classified as "threatened" and 5 classified as "endangered" Commercial trade of loggerheads or derived products is prohibited by CITES Appendix I. Untended fishing gear is responsible for many loggerhead deaths. Turtles may suffocate if they are trapped in fishing trawls. Turtle excluder devices have been implemented in efforts to reduce mortality by providing an escape route for the turtles. Loss of suitable nesting beaches and the introduction of exotic predators have taken a toll on loggerhead populations. Efforts to restore their numbers will require international cooperation, since the turtles roam vast areas of ocean and critical nesting beaches are scattered across several countries.
The loggerhead sea turtle is the world's largest hard-shelled turtle larger at average and maximum mature weights than the green sea turtle and the Galapagos tortoise. It is the world's second largest extant turtle after the leatherback sea turtle. Adults have an average weight range of 80 to 200 kg, averaging about 135 kg, a straight-line carapace length range of 70 to 95 cm; the maximum reported weight is 545 kg and the maximum length is 213 cm. The head and carapace range from a yellow-orange to a reddish brown, while the plastron is pale yellow; the turtle's neck and sides are yellow on the sides and bottom. The turtle's shell is divided into two sections: plastron; the carapace scutes. 11 or 12 pairs of marginal scutes rim the carapace. Five vertebral scutes run down the carapace's midline, while five pairs of costal scutes border them; the nuchal scute is located at the base of the head. The carapace connects to the plastron by three pairs of inframarginal scutes forming the bridge of the shell.
The plastron features paired gular, pectoral, abdominal and anal scutes. The shell serves as external armor, although loggerhead sea turtles cannot retract their heads or flippers into their shells. Sexual dimorphism of the loggerhead sea turtle is only apparent in adults. Adult males have longer claws than females; the males' plastrons are shorter than the females' to accommodate the males' larger tails. The carapaces of males are wider and less domed than the females', males have wider heads than females; the sex of juveniles and subadults cannot be determined through external anatomy, but can be observed through dissection, histological examination, radioimmunological assays. Lachrymal glands located behind each eye allow the loggerhead to maintain osmotic balance by eliminating the excess salt obtained from ingesting ocean water. On land, the excretion of excess salt gives the false impression; the loggerhead sea turtle has a cosmopolitan distribution, nesting over the broadest geographical range of any sea turtle.
It inhabits the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. In the Atlantic Ocean, the greatest concentration of loggerheads is along the southeastern coast of North America and in the Gulf of Mexico. Few loggerheads are found along the European and African coastlines. Florida is the most popular nesting site, with more than 67,000 nests built per year. Nesting extends as far north as Virginia, as far south as Brazil, as far east as the Cape Verde Islands; the Cape Verde Islands are the only significant nesting site on the eastern side of the Atlantic. Loggerheads found in the Atlantic Ocean feed from Canada to Brazil. In the Indian Ocean, loggerheads feed along the coastlines of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, in the Arabian Sea. Along the African coastline, loggerheads nest from Mozambique's Bazaruto Archipelago to South Africa's St Lucia estuary; the largest Indian Ocean nesting site is Oman, on the Arabian Penins
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the Isthmus of Corinth land bridge which separates the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Gulf. During the late Middle Ages and the Ottoman era, the peninsula was known as the Morea, a name still in colloquial use in its demotic form; the peninsula is divided among three administrative regions: most belongs to the Peloponnese region, with smaller parts belonging to the West Greece and Attica regions. In 2016, Lonely Planet voted the Peloponnese the top spot of their Best in Europe list; the Peloponnese is a peninsula that covers an area of some 21,549.6 square kilometres and constitutes the southernmost part of mainland Greece. While technically it may be considered an island since the construction of the Corinth Canal in 1893, like other peninsulas that have been separated from their mainland by man-made bodies of waters, it is if referred to as an "island".
It has two land connections with the rest of Greece, a natural one at the Isthmus of Corinth, an artificial one by the Rio–Antirrio bridge. The peninsula has a mountainous interior and indented coasts; the Peloponnese possesses four south-pointing peninsulas, the Messenian, the Mani, the Cape Malea, the Argolid in the far northeast of the Peloponnese. Mount Taygetus in the south is the highest mountain in the Peloponnese, at 2,407 metres. Οther important mountains include Cyllene in the northeast, Aroania in the north and Panachaikon in the northwest, Mainalon in the center, Parnon in the southeast. The entire peninsula has been the site of many earthquakes in the past; the longest river is the Alfeios in the west, followed by the Evrotas in the south, the Pineios in the west. Extensive lowlands are found only in the west, with the exception of the Evrotas valley in the south and in the Argolid in the northeast; the Peloponnese is home to numerous spectacular beaches. Two groups of islands lie off the Peloponnesian coast: the Argo-Saronic Islands to the east, the Ionian to the west.
The island of Kythira, off the Epidaurus Limera peninsula to the south of the Peloponnese, is considered to be part of the Ionian Islands. The island of Elafonisos used to be part of the peninsula but was separated following the major quake of 365 AD. Since antiquity, continuing to the present day, the Peloponnese has been divided into seven major regions: Achaea, Argolis, Laconia and Elis; each of these regions is headed by a city. The largest city is Patras in Achaia, followed by Kalamata in Messenia; the peninsula has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Its modern name derives from ancient Greek mythology the legend of the hero Pelops, said to have conquered the entire region; the name Peloponnesos means "Island of Pelops". The Mycenaean civilization, mainland Greece's first major civilization, dominated the Peloponnese in the Bronze Age from its stronghold at Mycenae in the north-east of the peninsula; the Mycenean civilization collapsed at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. Archeological research has found that many of its palaces show signs of destruction.
The subsequent period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, is marked by an absence of written records. In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held at Olympia, in the western Peloponnese and this date is sometimes used to denote the beginning of the classical period of Greek antiquity. During classical antiquity, the Peloponnese was at the heart of the affairs of ancient Greece, possessed some of its most powerful city-states, was the location of some of its bloodiest battles; the major cities of Sparta, Corinth and Megalopolis were all located on the Peloponnese, it was the homeland of the Peloponnesian League. Soldiers from the peninsula fought in the Persian Wars, it was the scene of the Peloponnesian War of 431–404 BC; the entire Peloponnese with the notable exception of Sparta joined Alexander's expedition against the Persian Empire. Along with the rest of Greece, the Peloponnese fell to the expanding Roman Republic in 146 BC, when the Romans razed the city of Corinth and massacred its inhabitants.
The Romans created the province of Achaea comprising central Greece. During the Roman period, the peninsula remained prosperous but became a provincial backwater cut off from the affairs of the wider Roman world. After the partition of the Empire in 395, the Peloponnese became a part of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire; the devastation of Alaric's raid in 396–397 led to the construction of the Hexamilion wall across the Isthmus of Corinth. Through most of late antiquity, the peninsula retained its urbanized character: in the 6th century, Hierocles counted 26 cities in his Synecdemus. By the latter part of that century, building activity seems to have stopped everywhere except Constantinople, Thessalonica and Athens; this has traditionally been attributed to calamities such as plague and Slavic invasions. However, more recent analysis suggests that urban decline was linked with the collapse of long-distance and regional commercial networks that underpinned and supported late antique urba
Pyrgos is the capital of the Elis regional unit in Greece. The city is located in the western part of the Peloponnese, in the middle of a plain, 4 kilometres from the Ionian Sea; the river Alfeios flows into sea about 7 km south of Pyrgos. The population of the town Pyrgos is 25,180, of the municipality 47,995. Pyrgos is 16 km west of Olympia, 16 km southeast of Amaliada, 70 km southwest of Patras and 85 km west of Tripoli; the municipality Pyrgos was formed during the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Iardanos Oleni Pyrgos VolakasThe municipality has an area of 456.610 km2, the municipal unit 170.866 km2. The municipal unit of Pyrgos is divided into the following communities: Pyrgos Agios Georgios Agios Ilias Agios Ioannis Ampelonas Elaionas Granitsaiika Katakolo Koliri Korakochori Lasteika Leventochori Myrtia Palaiovarvasaina Salmoni Skafidia Skourochori Varvasaina Vytinaiika In the 1510s, during Ottoman rule over Greece, a villager from Tsorota of Kalavryta decided to move and reform the area of Pyrgos which up until was uncultivated.
During this reformation he found in a well a large amount of gold ancient coins which he delivered to the Sultan as the rightful owner. The Sultan, Selim I, in order to honor his integrity named him ruler of the region and gave him a great acreage expanding from Alfeios river until the village Agios Ioannis, located near Katakolo; this area was uninhabited. According to the stories the new ruler built a great tower on a hill in order to supervise his fields and his flocks; this was the first settlement of the area. Pyrgos has a hot-summer mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers and rainy winters with mild temperatures. Annual precipitation is sizeable, above 900 mm, it peaks in late autumn. Pyrgos has a train station with regular trains to the port of Olympia. Service on the line from Patras to Kalamata via Pyrgos has been suspended in 2011. Pyrgos has a bus terminal, served by KTEL Ileias, with regular buses for the regional routes to most places in Elis as well as for intercity routes to larger cities such as Patras, Ioannina and Thessaloniki.
The Greek National Road 9 connects Pyrgos with Patras and Kyparissia, the Greek National Road 74 run from Pyrgos to Tripoli via Olympia. The nearest airport is located in Andravida near the town of Amaliada but it is served for military operations only; however there are plans to open passenger operations in the next years. The alterative airports for passenger operations are Araxos airport. Located in the province of Aichaia about 60 km or Kalamata Captain Vasilios Constatakopoulos airport, in Messinia province near Kalamata about 120 km from the city. Paniliakos F. C. Andreas Avgerinos, politician Petros Avgerinos, mayor of Pyrgos Nakis Avgerinos, politician Giorgos Karagounis, footballer Kostas Kazakos and politician George Pavlopoulos, poet Takis Sinopoulos, poet Stephanos Stephanopoulos, politician and 165th Prime Minister of Greece Theodoros Xydis and essayist. Sakis Karagiorgas and Panteion University Rector List of settlements in Elis Official website
Kyparissia is a town and a former municipality in northwestern Messenia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Trifylia, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 101.018 km2. The town proper has around 5,100 inhabitants; the town is situated on the Gulf of a bay of the Ionian Sea. It is 46 km northwest of Kalamata and 51 km southeast of Pyrgos; the Greek National Road 9 passes through the town. Kyparissia is the terminus of a now disused railway line from Kalo Nero, on the line from Pyrgos to Kalamata; the town has a port, used for cargo purposes. On a hill east of the town centre lies a fortress built during the Frankish period; the municipal unit Kyparissia is subdivided into the following communities: Armenioi Faraklada Kyparissia Mouriatada Myro Perdikoneri Raches Spilia Stasio Vryses Xirokampos The ancient Greek town Cyparissia was mentioned by Homer in his Iliad. Ancient writers took note of Cyparissia's beautiful situation upon the sides of one of the offshoots of the range of mountains, which run along this part of the Messenian coast.
Upon the narrow summit of the rocks occupied by a castle built in the Middle Ages, stood the ancient acropolis. There is no harbour upon the Messenian coast north of Pylos; this was constructed on the restoration of Messene by Epaminondas. Hence we find Messene and the harbour Cyparissia mentioned together by Scylax Pausanias found in the town a temple of Apollo, one of Athena Cyparissia; the town continued to coin money down to the time of Severus. Stephanus calls Cyparissia a city of Triphylia, Strabo distinguishes between the Triphylian and Messenian Cyparissia, but on what authority we do not know. At a late stage Cyparissia was a bishopric that today, no longer being residential, is listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In the Middle Ages it was called Arkadía, a name, transferred from the interior of the peninsula to this place upon the coast. Under the Principality of Achaea, Kyparissia/Arkadia was the seat of the Barony of Arcadia, the last Frankish territory to fall to the Despotate of the Morea, in 1432.
In 1460 Kyparissia came under Ottoman control, remained so, with the exception of thirty years of Venetian rule, until the Greek War of Independence which began in 1821. Kyparissia continued to bear the name Arkadia till its destruction by Ibrahim Pasha in 1825, during the Greek War of Independence and when rebuilt it resumed its ancient name Cyparissia, by which it is now called; some remains of ancient walls may be traced around the modern castle. On the south side of the town, close to the sea-shore, a fine stream rushes out of the rock and flows into the sea; this is the ancient fountain sacred to Dionysus, which Pausanias perceived near the entrance of the city, on the road from Pylus. Dimitrios Pitsinis, Doctor/General Surgeon Konstantinos Lamprinopoulos, Mayor of Patras Theodoros Roussopoulos, politician Kostis Palamas, poet List of settlements in Messenia This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Cyparissia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
London: John Murray. Official town website kyparissia. City's guide Σύλλογος Πολυτέκνων Τριφυλίας