The sooty tern, is a seabird of the tern family. The genus name is from Ancient Greek onux and prion, the specific fuscatus is Latin for dark. It is a bird of the oceans, breeding on islands throughout the equatorial zone. Colloquially, it is known as the tern or just wideawake. This refers to the incessant calls produced by a colony of these birds, in most of Polynesia its name is manutara or similar however – literally tern-bird, though it might be better rendered in English as the tern or common tern. This refers to the fact that wherever Polynesian seafarers went on their long voyages and it is known as kaveka in the Marquesas Islands, where dishes using its eggs are a delicacy. This is a tern, similar in size to the Sandwich tern at 33–36 cm long with an 82–94 cm wingspan. The wings and deeply forked tail are long, and it has black upperparts. It has black legs and bill, the average life span is 32 years. Juvenile Sooty Terns are scaly grey above and below, the Sooty Tern is unlikely to be confused with any tern apart from the similarly dark-backed but smaller bridled tern.
It is darker-backed than that species, and has a white forehead. The call is a loud piercing ker-wack-a-wack or kvaark, the Sooty Tern has little interspecific variation, but it can be divided into at least two allopatric subspecies. Some recent authors further subdivide the Indopacific population into up to 8 subspecies altogether, the affinities of eastern Pacific birds are most strongly contested. Onychoprion fuscatus fuscatus – Atlantic sooty tern Underparts white, onychoprion fuscatus nubilosus – Indopacific sooty tern Underparts light grey in fresh plumage, dull white in worn plumage. Breeds from Red Sea across Indian Ocean to at least central Pacific and it nests in a ground scrape or hole and lays one to three eggs. It feeds by picking fish from the surface in marine environments, often in flocks, and rarely comes to land except to breed. This bird is migratory and dispersive, wintering more widely through the tropical oceans and it has very marine habits compared to most terns, sooty terns are generally found inland only after severe storms.
This species is a vagrant to western Europe, although a bird was present at Cemlyn Bay
The brown pelican is a small pelican found in the Americas. It is one of the best known and most prominent birds found in the areas of the southern and western United States. It is one of only three species found in the Western Hemisphere and one of the only two that feeds by diving into the water. The brown pelican is the smallest of the eight species of pelican and it is 106–137 cm in length, weighs from 2.75 to 5.5 kg and has a wingspan from 1.83 to 2.5 m. Through most of its range, the pelican is an unmistakable bird. Like all pelicans, this species has a large bill,28 to 34.8 cm long in this case. The head is white but often gets a yellowish wash in adult birds, the bill is grayish overall in most birds, though breeding birds become reddish on the underside of the throat. The back and tail are streaked with gray and dark brown, in adult pelicans, the breast and belly are a blackish-brown and the legs and feet are black. The juvenile is similar but has a neck and white underparts. The Peruvian pelican, previously considered a subspecies of brown pelican, is now considered to be a separate species and it has very similar plumage to the brown, but it is noticeably larger.
The brown and Peruvian pelicans may overlap in areas along the Pacific coast of South America. The brown pelican lives on both coasts in the Americas, on the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast they distribute from Nova Scotia to Venezuela, and to the mouth of the Amazon River. Along the Atlantic, they are less common north of the Carolinas. On the Pacific Ocean they are found from British Columbia to northern Peru, in the Pacific, they are fairly common along the coast of California and Central America. Some immature birds may stray to inland freshwater lakes, after nesting, North American birds move in flocks further north along the coasts, returning to warmer waters for winter. They are common in Mangrove swamps, Pelicans are very gregarious birds, they live in flocks of both sexes throughout the year. They are exceptionally buoyant due to the air sacks beneath their skin and in their bones. In level flight, pelicans fly in groups, with their heads back on their shoulders
An ocean is a body of saline water that composes much of a planets hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major divisions of the World Ocean. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Indian, the word sea is often used interchangeably with ocean in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water partly or fully enclosed by land. The ocean contains 97% of Earths water, and oceanographers have stated that less than 5% of the World Ocean has been explored, the total volume is approximately 1.35 billion cubic kilometers with an average depth of nearly 3,700 meters. As the world ocean is the component of Earths hydrosphere, it is integral to all known life, forms part of the carbon cycle. The world ocean is the habitat of 230,000 known species, but because much of it is unexplored, the origin of Earths oceans remains unknown, oceans are thought to have formed in the Hadean period and may have been the impetus for the emergence of life. Extraterrestrial oceans may be composed of water or other elements and compounds, the only confirmed large stable bodies of extraterrestrial surface liquids are the lakes of Titan, although there is evidence for the existence of oceans elsewhere in the Solar System.
Early in their histories and Venus are theorized to have had large water oceans. The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, compounds such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice. Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many planets and natural satellites, notably. The Solar Systems giant planets are thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans may exist on exoplanets and exomoons, including surface oceans of water within a circumstellar habitable zone. Ocean planets are a type of planet with a surface completely covered with liquid. The concept of Ōkeanós has an Indo-European connection, Greek Ōkeanós has been compared to the Vedic epithet ā-śáyāna-, predicated of the dragon Vṛtra-, who captured the cows/rivers. Related to this notion, the Okeanos is represented with a dragon-tail on some early Greek vases, though generally described as several separate oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water sometimes referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.
This concept of a body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography. The major oceanic divisions – listed below in descending order of area and volume – are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, Oceans are fringed by smaller, adjoining bodies of water such as seas, bays and straits. The Mid-Oceanic Ridge of the World are connected and form the Ocean Ridge, the continuous mountain range is 65,000 km long, and the total length of the oceanic ridge system is 80,000 km long
The glossy ibis is a wading bird in the ibis family Threskiornithidae. The scientific name derives from Ancient Greek plegados and Latin and this is the most widespread ibis species, breeding in scattered sites in warm regions of Europe, Africa and the Atlantic and Caribbean regions of the Americas. It is thought to have originated in the Old World and spread naturally from Africa to northern South America in the 19th century, the glossy ibis was first found in the New World in 1817. Audubon saw the species just once in Florida in 1832 and it expanded its range substantially northwards in the 1940s and to the west in the 1980s. This species is migratory, most European birds winter in Africa, Birds from other populations may disperse widely outside the breeding season. In 2014, an attempted to breed in Lincolnshire, the first such attempt in Britain A few birds now summer in Ireland. Glossy ibises undertake dispersal movements after breeding and are very nomadic, the more northerly populations are fully migratory and travel on a broad front, for example across the Sahara Desert.
Populations in temperate regions breed during the spring, while tropical populations nest to coincide with the rainy season. Nesting is often in mixed-species colonies, when not nesting, flocks of over 100 individuals may occur on migration, and during the winter or dry seasons the species is usually found foraging in small flocks. Glossy ibises often roost communally at night in large flocks, with other species, Glossy ibises feed in very shallow water and nest in freshwater or brackish wetlands with tall dense stands of emergent vegetation such as reeds, papyrus or rushes) and low trees or bushes. They show a preference for marshes at the margins of lakes and rivers but can be found at lagoons, flood-plains, wet meadows, reservoirs, sewage ponds and irrigated farmland. It is less commonly found in locations such as estuaries, salt marshes. Preferred roosting sites are normally in large trees which may be distant from the feeding areas. The nest is usually a platform of twigs and vegetation positioned at least 1 m above water, sometimes up to 7 m in tall, dense stands of emergent vegetation, low trees or bushes. 3 to 4 eggs are laid, and are incubated by male and female birds for between 20 and 23 days.
The young can leave the nest after about 7 days, the young fledge in about 28 days. The diet of the ibis is variable according to the season and is very dependent on what is available. This species is a mid-sized ibis and it is 48–66 cm long, averaging around 59.4 cm with an 80–105 cm wingspan
The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i. e. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles, the Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. The sea was known as Archipelago, but in English this words meaning has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and, generally. In ancient times, there were various explanations for the name Aegean, a possible etymology is a derivation from the Greek word αἶγες – aiges = waves, hence wavy sea, cf. αἰγιαλός, hence meaning sea-shore. The Venetians, who ruled many Greek islands in the High and Late Middle Ages, popularized the name Archipelago, in some South Slavic languages the Aegean is often called White Sea. The Aegean Sea covers about 214,000 square kilometres in area, the seas maximum depth is 3,543 metres, east of Crete. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters, with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south, Antikythera, Kasos, many of the Aegean Islands, or chains of islands, are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland.
One chain extends across the sea to Chios, another extends across Euboea to Samos, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Aegean Sea as follows, On the South. In the Dardanelles. A line joining Kum Kale and Cape Helles, the dense Mediterranean water sinks below the Black Sea inflow to a depth of 23–30 metres, flows through the Dardanelles Strait and into the Sea of Marmara at velocities of 5–15 cm/s. The Black Sea outflow moves westward along the northern Aegean Sea, Aegean Sea Intermediate Water – Aegean Sea Intermediate Water extends from 40–50 m to 200–300 metres with temperatures ranging from 11–18 °C. Aegean Sea Bottom Water – occurring at depths below 500–1000 m with a uniform temperature. The current coastline dates back to about 4000 BC, before that time, at the peak of the last ice age sea levels everywhere were 130 metres lower, and there were large well-watered coastal plains instead of much of the northern Aegean. When they were first occupied, the islands including Milos with its important obsidian production were probably still connected to the mainland.
The present coastal arrangement appeared c.7000 BC, with post-ice age sea levels continuing to rise for another 3,000 years after that, the subsequent Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean Sea have given rise to the general term Aegean civilization. In ancient times, the sea was the birthplace of two ancient civilizations – the Minoans of Crete and the Mycenean Civilization of the Peloponnese, arose the city-states of Athens and Sparta among many others that constituted the Athenian Empire and Hellenic Civilization. Plato described the Greeks living round the Aegean like frogs around a pond, the Aegean Sea was invaded by the Persians and the Romans, and inhabited by the Byzantine Empire, the Bulgarians, the Venetians, the Genoese, the Seljuq Turks, and the Ottoman Empire. The Aegean was the site of the democracies, and its seaways were the means of contact among several diverse civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean. Many of the islands in the Aegean have safe harbours and bays, in ancient times, navigation through the sea was easier than travelling across the rough terrain of the Greek mainland
Panama, officially called the Republic of Panama, is a country usually considered to be entirely in North America or Central America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half of the countrys 4.1 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. Panama broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada, when Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, in 1977 an agreement was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panamas GDP, although commerce, banking, in 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index.
Since 2010, Panama remains the second most competitive economy in Latin America, covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panamas jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them to be found nowhere else on the planet. There are several theories about the origin of the name Panama, some believe that the country was named after a commonly found species of tree. Others believe that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, the best-known version is that a fishing village and its nearby beach bore the name Panamá, which meant an abundance of fish. Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán, while exploring the Pacific side in 1515, in 1517 Don Gaspar De Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post there. In 1519 Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Empires Pacific city in this site, the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crowns global plan after the beginning of the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific.
Blending all of the above together, Panamanians believe in general that the word Panama means abundance of fish and this is the official definition given in social studies textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education in Panama. However, others believe the word Panama comes from the Kuna word bannaba which means distant or far away, at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have disappeared, as they had no immunity from European infectious diseases. The earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points, central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC. These evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, the monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures.
Before Europeans arrived Panama was widely settled by Chibchan, the largest group were the Cueva. The size of the population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertain
The Archipelago Sea is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Sea of Åland, within Finnish territorial waters. By some definitions it contains the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands, although many of the islands are very small, the larger islands are inhabited and connected by ferries and bridges. The Åland Islands, including the largest islands of the region, the rest of the islands are part of the Southwest Finland region. The Archipelago Sea is a significant tourist destination, the Archipelago Sea covers a roughly triangular area with the cities of Mariehamn and Hanko, at the corners. The archipelago can be divided into inner and outer archipelagos, with the outer archipelago consisting mainly of smaller, the total surface area is 8,300 square kilometres, of which 2,000 square kilometres is land. The archipelago has a large number of islands. The number of the islands of over 1 km2 within the Archipelago Sea is 257. If the number of smallest uninhabitable rocks and skerries is accounted,50,000 is probably a good estimate, in comparison, the number of islands in Canadian Arctic Archipelago is 36,563.
Indonesia has 17,508 islands, according to the Indonesian Naval Hydro-Oceanographic Office, the islands began emerging from the sea shortly after the last ice age. Due to the rebound the process is still going on, with new skerries and islands being slowly created. The current rate of rebound is between 4 and 10 millimetres a year, because the islands are made of mainly granite and gneiss, two very hard types of rock, erosion is significantly slower than rebound. However, due to its location, the effect of postglacial rebound is smaller than for example than in Kvarken further north. The sea area is shallow, with a depth of 23 m. Most of the channels are not navigable for large ships, there are three crater-like formations in the archipelago. One of them, Lumparn in Åland, is an impact crater. The two other formations are intrusions, the more prominent of these is the Åva Intrusion in the municipality of Brändö, which is easily notable in satellite photos and high-resolution maps. The other similar formation is in Fjälskär, between the islands of Houtskär and Iniö.
The islands are divided between the region of Southwest Finland and the region of Åland
Black-crowned night heron
The Black-crowned night heron, commonly shortened to just night heron in Eurasia, is a medium-sized heron found throughout a large part of the world, except in the coldest regions and Australasia. Adults are approximately 64 cm long and weigh 800 g and they have a black crown and back with the remainder of the body white or grey, red eyes, and short yellow legs. They have pale grey wings and white under parts, two or three long white plumes, erected in greeting and courtship displays, extend from the back of the head. The sexes are similar in appearance although the males are slightly larger, Black-crowned night herons do not fit the typical body form of the heron family. They are relatively stocky with shorter bills and necks than their more familiar cousins and their resting posture is normally somewhat hunched but when hunting they extend their necks and look more like other wading birds. Immature birds have dull grey-brown plumage on their heads and their underparts are paler and streaked with brown.
The young birds have orange eyes and duller yellowish-green legs and they are very noisy birds in their nesting colonies, with calls that are commonly transcribed as quok or woc. The breeding habitat is fresh and salt-water wetlands throughout much of the world, Black-crowned night herons nest in colonies on platforms of sticks in a group of trees, or on the ground in protected locations such as islands or reedbeds. Three to eight eggs are laid and this heron is migratory in the northernmost part of its range, but otherwise resident. The North American population winters in Mexico, the southern United States, Central America, and the West Indies, a colony of the herons has regularly summered at the National Zoo in Washington, D. C. for more than a century. These birds stand still at the edge and wait to ambush prey. They primarily eat small fish, frogs, aquatic insects, small mammals, during the day they rest in trees or bushes. N. n. hoactli is more gregarious outside the season than the nominate race. A thorough study performed by J.
Sitko and P. Heneberg in the Czech Republic in 1962–2013 suggested that the central European black-crowned night herons host 8 helminth species, the dominant species consisted of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus, Contracaecum microcephalum and Opistorchis longissimus. The mean number of species recorded per host individual reached 1.41. Nycticorax means night raven and derives from the Ancient Greek nuktos night and korax and it refers to the largely nocturnal feeding habits and croaking crow-like call of this species. Black-crowned night heron on Animal Diversity Web Stiles, F. Gary, Skutch, a Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Herons and Egrets of the World, ISBN 978-0-679-45122-8. com Field Guide on Flickr Images and information of the black-crowned night heron from Portugal Black-crowned night-heron media
The cattle egret is a cosmopolitan species of heron found in the tropics and warm temperate zones. It is the member of the monotypic genus Bubulcus, although some authorities regard two of its subspecies as full species, the western cattle egret and the eastern cattle egret. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, originally native to parts of Asia and Europe, it has undergone a rapid expansion in its distribution and successfully colonised much of the rest of the world in the last century. It is a white bird adorned with plumes in the breeding season. It nests in colonies, usually near bodies of water and often with other wading birds, the nest is a platform of sticks in trees or shrubs. Cattle egrets exploit drier and open more than other heron species. Their feeding habitats include seasonally inundated grasslands, farmlands and they often accompany cattle or other large mammals, catching insect and small vertebrate prey disturbed by these animals. Some populations of the cattle egret are migratory and others show post-breeding dispersal, the adult cattle egret has few predators, but birds or mammals may raid its nests, and chicks may be lost to starvation, calcium deficiency or disturbance from other large birds.
This species maintains a relationship with cattle, which extends to other large grazing mammals. The cattle egret removes ticks and flies from cattle and consumes them and this benefits both species, but it has been implicated in the spread of tick-borne animal diseases. The cattle egret was first described in 1758 by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae as Ardea ibis and its genus name Bubulcus is Latin for herdsman, like the English name, to this species association with cattle. Ibis is a Latin and Greek word which referred to another white wading bird, the sacred ibis. The cattle egret has two races which are sometimes classified as full species, the western cattle egret, B. ibis. The two forms were split by McAllan and Bruce, but were regarded as conspecific by almost all other recent authors until the publication of the influential Birds of South Asia. Some authorities recognise a third Seychelles subspecies, B. i. seychellarum, rare cases of hybridization with little blue herons Egretta caerulea, little egrets Egretta garzetta and snowy egrets Egretta thula have been recorded.
The cattle egret is a heron with an 88–96 cm wingspan, it is 46–56 cm long. It has a short thick neck, a sturdy bill. The non-breeding adult has white plumage, a yellow bill
Chukchi Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is bounded on the west by the Long Strait, off Wrangel Island, the Bering Strait forms its southernmost limit and connects it to the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The principal port on the Chukchi Sea is Uelen in Russia, the International Date Line crosses the Chukchi Sea from northwest to southeast. It is displaced eastwards to avoid Wrangel Island as well as the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug on the Russian mainland, the sea has an approximate area of 595,000 km2 and is only navigable about four months of the year. The main geological feature of the Chukchi Sea bottom is the 700-kilometre-long Hope Basin, depths less than 50 meters occupy 56% of the total area. The Chukchi Sea has very few compared to other seas of the Arctic. Wrangel Island lies at the limit of the sea, Herald Island is located near its northern limit. The sea is named after the Chukchi people, who reside on its shores, the coastal Chukchi traditionally engaged in fishing and the hunting of walrus in this cold sea.
In Alaska, the rivers flowing into the Chukchi Sea are the Kivalina, the Kobuk, the Kokolik, the Kukpowruk, the Kukpuk, the Noatak, the Utukok, the Pitmegea, and the Wulik, among others. Of rivers flowing in from its Siberian side, the Amguyema, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Chuckchi Sea as follows, On the West. The Eastern limit of East Siberian Sea, a line from Point Barrow, Alaska to the Northernmost point of Wrangel Island. The Arctic Circle between Siberia and Alaska, common usage is that the southern extent is further south at the narrowest part of the Bering Strait which is on the 66th parallel north. The Chukchi Sea Shelf is the westernmost part of the shelf of the United States. Within this shelf, the 50-mile Chukchi Corridor acts as a passageway for one of the largest marine mammal migrations in the world, in 1728, Vitus Bering and in 1779, Captain James Cook entered the sea from the Pacific. Since further progress for that year was impossible, the ship was secured in winter quarters, even so, members of the expedition and the crew were aware only a few miles of ice-blocked sea lay between them and the open waters.
The following year, two days after Vega was released, she passed the Bering Strait and steamed towards the Pacific Ocean. In 1913, abandoned by expedition leader Vilhjalmur Stefansson, drifted in the ice along the northern expanses of the Chukchi Sea and sank, the survivors made it to Wrangel Island, where they found themselves in a hopeless situation. Then Captain Robert Bartlett walked hundreds of kilometers with Kataktovik, an Inuit man and they reached Cape Vankarem on the Chukotka coast, on April 15,1914
Earth, otherwise known as the World, or the Globe, is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. It is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets, according to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago. Earths gravity interacts with objects in space, especially the Sun. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its axis over 365 times, Earths axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planets surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earths orientation on its axis, Earths lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earths surface is covered with water, mostly by its oceans, the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earths polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet, Earths interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earths magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earths history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earths atmosphere and surface, some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earths distance from the Sun, physical properties, in the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely, over 7.4 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures, the world has about 200 sovereign states, the modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe.
It has cognates in every Germanic language, and their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō, earth was written in lowercase, and from early Middle English, its definite sense as the globe was expressed as the earth. By early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, and the became the Earth. More recently, the name is simply given as Earth. House styles now vary, Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, another convention capitalizes Earth when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the. It almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as what on earth are you doing, the oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4. 5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4. 54±0.04 Gya the primordial Earth had formed, the formation and evolution of Solar System bodies occurred along with the Sun