The Margaree River is a river on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. The northeast branch of the river derives from the watershed of the Cape Breton Highlands, the two branches join at Margaree Forks. The river flows north to empty into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Margaree Harbour, the river is 120 km in length and drains an area of 1,375 km². The Margaree has been known for a century for its trout and Atlantic salmon sport fishery. Fishing is highly regulated now and is restricted to fly fishing only, with barbless hooks, famed American angler and Atlantic salmon conservationist Lee Wulff caught his first salmon on a fly on the Margaree in 1933. The gravel bars of the upper Northeast Margaree provide spawning grounds for Atlantic salmon, its steep valleys provide habitat for American marten, the Margaree Valley includes a mix of farms and woodlands. During the 18th century, Acadians settled along the coast near the mouth of the river, scottish Highlanders began to settle in the Margaree Valley at the beginning of the 19th century.
Moses Coady, a son of the Margaree Valley, attended school in Margaree Forks and later, taught there before completing his education in Antigonish. The Margaree was designated a Canadian Heritage River in 1998, HMCS Margaree, a World War II Canadian naval destroyer, was named after this river. List of rivers of Nova Scotia
The Magdalen Islands form a small archipelago in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence with a land area of 205.53 square kilometres. Though closer to Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, the islands part of the Canadian province of Quebec. The islands form the equivalent to a regional county municipality. The islands form the urban agglomeration of Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, divided into two municipalities and these are Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, the central municipality, and Grosse-Île. The mayors are Jonathan Lapierre and Rose Elmonde Clarke, there are eight major islands, Grande Entrée, Grosse-Île, House Harbour, Pointe-Aux-Loups, Entry Island and Brion. There are several tiny islands that are considered part of the archipelago, Rocher aux Oiseaux, Île aux Loups-marins, Île Paquet. The islands interiors were completely covered with pine forests. An ancient salt dome underlies the archipelago, the inherent buoyancy of the salt forces the uplift of overlying Permian red sandstone. Nearby salt domes are believed to be sources of fossil fuels, rock salt is mined on the Islands.
In 1534 Jacques Cartier was the first European to visit the islands, Mikmaqs had been visiting the islands for hundreds of years as part of a seasonal subsistence migration, probably to harvest the abundant walrus population. A number of sites have been excavated on the archipelago. The archipelago was named in 1663 by François Doublet, the seigneur of the island, after his wife, in 1765, the islands were inhabited by 22 French-speaking Acadians and their families. They were working and hunting walruses for British trader Richard Gridley, to this day, many inhabitants of the Magdalen Islands fly the Acadian flag and identify as both Acadian and Québécois. The islands were administered as part of the British Colony of Newfoundland from 1763 until 1774 and that year they were joined to Quebec by the Quebec Act. A segment of the population are descendants of survivors of the more than 400 shipwrecks on the islands, the islands have some of Quebecs oldest English-speaking settlements. The islands are known for a childrens French camp, activities include sand-castle competitions and a night alone in the woods.
To improve ship safety, the government constructed lighthouses on the islands and they indicate navigable channels and have reduced the number of shipwrecks. But many old hulks are found on the beaches and under the waters, until the 20th century, the islands were completely isolated during the winter, since the pack ice made the trip to the mainland impassable by boat
Humber River (Newfoundland and Labrador)
The Humber River is a river in Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is approximately 120 kilometres long, flowing through the Long Range Mountains, southeast southwest, through Deer Lake, taylors Brook, Aidies Stream and Dead Water Brook run into the upper Humber. This is one of Newfoundlands largest rivers, james Cook first charted the Humber in the summer of 1767. It was named, as so many of eastern North America for its English counterpart the Humber, Humber Arm List of rivers of Newfoundland and Labrador
New Brunswick is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally bilingual province. In the Canada 2016 Census, Statistics Canada estimated the population to have been 747,101, down very slightly from 751,171 in 2011. The majority of the population is English-speaking of Anglo and Celtic heritage and it was created as a result of the partitioning of the British colony of Nova Scotia in 1784 and was originally named New Ireland with the capital to be in Saint John. The name was replaced with New Brunswick by King George II. The provincial flag features a ship superimposed on a background with a yellow lion passant guardant on red pennon above it. The province is named for the city of Braunschweig, known in English and Low German as Brunswick, located in modern-day Lower Saxony in northern Germany. The then-colony was named in 1784 to honour the reigning British monarch, George III, the original First Nations inhabitants of New Brunswick were members of three distinct tribes.
The largest tribe was the Mikmaq, and they occupied the eastern and they were responsible for the Augustine Mound, a burial ground built about 800 BCE near Metepnákiaq. The western portion of the province was the home of the Wolastoqiyik people. The smaller Passamaquoddy tribe occupied lands in the southwest of the province. The next French contact was in 1604, when a party led by Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain set up camp for the winter on St. Croix Island, the colony relocated the following year across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal, Nova Scotia. The whole maritime region was at that time claimed by France and was designated as the colony of Acadia, one of the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 was the surrender of Acadia to Queen Anne. The bulk of the Acadian population thus found themselves residing in the new British colony of Nova Scotia, the remainder of Acadia was only lightly populated and poorly defended. The Maliseet from their headquarters at Meductic on the Saint John River, participated in guerilla raids and battles against New England during Father Rales War.
About 1750, to protect his interests in New France, Louis XV caused three forts to be built along the Isthmus of Chignecto and this caused what is known to historians as Father Le Loutres War. During the French and Indian War, the British completed their displacement of the Acadians over all of present-day New Brunswick, Fort Beauséjour, Fort Menagoueche and Fort Gaspareaux were captured by a British force commanded by Lt. Col. Robert Monckton in 1755. Inside Fort Beauséjour, the British forces found not only French regular troops, Governor Charles Lawrence of Nova Scotia used the discovery of Acadian civilians helping in the defence of the fort to order the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia. The Acadians of the recently captured Beaubassin and Petitcodiac regions were included in the expulsion order, other actions in the war included British expeditions up the Saint John River in the St. John River Campaign
The Labrador Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Canada. It is bounded by the Hudson Bay to the west, the Hudson Strait to the north, the Labrador Sea to the east, and it has an area of 1,400,000 km2. The peninsula is surrounded by sea on all sides except for the southwest where it connects to the mainland, the northwestern part of the Labrador Peninsula is shaped as a lesser peninsula, the Ungava Peninsula, surrounded by Hudson Bay, the Hudson Strait, and Ungava Bay. The northernmost point of the Ungava Peninsula, Cape Wolstenholme, serves as the northernmost point of the Labrador Peninsula, the peninsula is a plateau threaded by river valleys. The mountains host Torngat Mountains National Park, the national park of Canada on the Labrador Peninsula. The park is located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and it is widely accepted that the peninsula is named after Portuguese explorer João Fernandes Lavrador. He was granted a patent by King Manuel I of Portugal in 1499 which gave him the right to explore that part of the Atlantic Ocean as set out in the Treaty of Tordesillas, together with Pêro de Barcelos, he first sighted Labrador in 1498.
Fernandes charted the coasts of Southwestern Greenland and of adjacent Northeastern North America around 1498 and gave notice of them in Portugal and his landowner status allowed him to use the title lavrador, Portuguese for farmer or landholder. Fernandes actually gave the name of Terra do Lavrador to Greenland which was the first land he sighted, but eventually the name was spread to all areas and finally was set for Labrador
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, an island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, an island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge. Example and its causeway, or the various Dutch delta islands, there are two main types of islands in the sea and oceanic. The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland, Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua. There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology, continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earths mantle. Oceanic crust is part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere.
This holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere, continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. A special type of island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable, oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, the few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean, one type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc.
These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring, examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles, another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples, which is the second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. A third type of oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the tectonic plate above it
Cabot Strait is a strait in eastern Canada approximately 110 kilometres wide between Cape Ray and Cape North, Cape Breton Island. It is the widest of the three outlets for the Gulf of Saint Lawrence into the Atlantic Ocean, the others being the Strait of Belle Isle and it is named for the Genoese explorer Giovanni Caboto. The straits bathymetry is varied, with the Laurentian Channel creating a trench through its centre. These bathymetric conditions have been known by mariners to cause rogue waves, the strait is crossed daily by the Marine Atlantic ferry service linking Channel-Port aux Basques, and North Sydney. Ferries have been operating across the strait since 1898 and a telegraph cable was laid in 1856 as part of the transatlantic telegraph cable project. An infamous location in the strait for shipwrecks during the age of sail, St. Pauls Island, in October 1942, German U-boat U-69 torpedoed and sank the unlit Newfoundland ferry SS Caribou, killing 137 people. Then on 25 November 1944 HMCS Shawinigan was torpedoed and sunk with all hands on board by U-1228
St. George's Bay (Nova Scotia)
St. Georges Bay is a bay in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It is located on the shore of the province fronting both the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island, thus comprising a sub-basin of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The bay measures approximately 25 kilometres wide at its mouth, between Cape George in the west, and Black Point in the east and its western shore measures approximately 23 km in length from the northern tip of Cape George south to the entrance to Antigonish Harbour. Its southern shore measures approximately 43 km in length from the entrance to Antigonish Harbour through to the Strait of Canso at East Havre Boucher, the eastern shore measures approximately 42 km from Heffernan Point north to Black Point. St. Georges Bay marks the end of the Strait of Canso. Georges Bay include, List of communities in Nova Scotia
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin. It traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, and is part of the boundary between Ontario and the U. S. state of New York. This river provides the basis of the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway, the estuary begins at the eastern tip of Île dOrléans, just downstream from Quebec City. The river becomes tidal around Quebec City, the St. Lawrence River runs 3,058 kilometres from the farthest headwater to the mouth and 1,197 km from the outflow of Lake Ontario. The farthest headwater is the North River in the Mesabi Range at Hibbing, the average discharge below the Saguenay River is 16,800 cubic metres per second. At Quebec City, it is 12,101 m3/s, the average discharge at the rivers source, the outflow of Lake Ontario, is 7,410 m3/s.
The St. Lawrence River includes Lake Saint-Louis south of Montreal, Lake Saint Francis at Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, pierre Archipelago and the smaller Mingan Archipelago. Other islands include Île dOrléans near Quebec City and Anticosti Island north of the Gaspé and it is the second longest river in Canada. Lake Champlain and the Ottawa, Richelieu and Saint-François rivers drain into the St. Lawrence. The St. Lawrence River is in an active zone where fault reactivation is believed to occur along late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of Iapetus Ocean. The faults in the area are related and are called the Saint Lawrence rift system. According to the United States Geological Survey, the St. Lawrence Valley is a province of the larger Appalachian division, containing the Champlain. However, in Canada, where most of the valley is, it is considered part of a distinct Saint Lawrence Lowlands physiographic division. Lawrence River itself was Jacques Cartier, at that time, the land along the river was inhabited by the St.
Lawrence Iroquoians, at the time of Cartiers second voyage in 1535. Because Cartier arrived in the estuary on St. Lawrences feast day, the St. Lawrence River is partly within the U. S. and as such is that countrys sixth oldest surviving European place-name. The earliest regular Europeans in the area were the Basques, who came to the St Lawrence Gulf, the Basque whalers and fishermen traded with indigenous Americans and set up settlements, leaving vestiges all over the coast of eastern Canada and deep into the Saint Lawrence River. Basque commercial and fishing activity reached its peak before the Armada Invencibles disaster, the whaling galleons from Labourd were not affected by the Spanish defeat
Bay of Islands, Newfoundland and Labrador
The Bay of Islands is an extensive inlet located on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland, in Canada. The Way Office was established on July 1,1883, the first Waymaster was Thomas Carter. The largest island in the bay is Woods Island and it is surrounded in most directions by the Long Range Mountains and it is directly north of the Lewis Hills. It is a sub-basin of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the bay consists of many inlets such as Humber Arm and Goose Arm. Flowing into the Bay of Islands is the Humber River, draining Deer Lake, the Humber is one of the major rivers on the island of Newfoundland, making the Bay of Islands an important estuary. Near the mouth of the Humber River, appropriately named Humber Mouth, is the city of Corner Brook, as well as several neighbouring suburbs. The Humber River was used for years to float logs down to the Bay of Islands where a large Bowater pulp. Today this mill is owned by Kruger Inc and its logs are transported by truck, although the river is mainly used for recreational purposes, the bay still sees active shipping to and from Corner Brooks port.
Other towns along the shores of the Bay of Islands are mostly dependent upon the fishing industry and these communities include Mt Moriah, Humber Arm South, and Lark Harbour, Hughes Brook, Irishtown-Summerside, Gillams, McIvers, and Coxs Cove. There are still plants in Coxs Cove, Humber Arm South. Curling was once a community but is now amalgamated with Corner Brook. List of communities in Newfoundland and Labrador
Belle Isle (Newfoundland and Labrador)
Belle Isle is an uninhabited island just off the coast of Labrador and north of Newfoundland at the Atlantic entrance to the Strait of Belle Isle which takes its name. The northern terminus of the International Appalachian Trail is located on Belle Isle, Belle Isle rises to about 213 m at its highest point,52 km2 in area,16 km long and 5 km wide. It is nearly 24 km from either coast, though closer to the Labrador side of the Strait of Belle Isle. Officially uninhabited, there is some seasonal occupation during fishing season, Belle Isle is the northernmost peak of the Appalachian Mountains, which extend in various shapes over 3,200 km southwest to Alabama, US. Flow lines in sea ice give a sense of the movement of the ice, ice floes embedded in the Labrador Current appear as a relatively open pattern. Sea ice with a denser pattern enters from the strait, banking against the west side of Belle Isle, tendrils flow around capes at either end of the island, with an ice-free shadow on the opposite, downstream side.
Eddies off the western coast in the ice patterns show where the currents interact north, List of communities in Newfoundland and Labrador List of ghost towns in Newfoundland and Labrador Belle Isle, Canada. Strait of Belle Isle ecoregion Chart of The Strait of Belle Isle and Belle Isle by Captain James Cook
Labrador /ˈlæbrədɔːr/ LAB-rə-dor is the distinct northerly region of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It comprises the portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada, Labrador occupies the eastern part of the Labrador Peninsula. It is bordered to the west and the south by the Canadian province of Quebec, Labrador shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut on Killiniq Island. Though Labrador covers 71 percent of the land area, it has only 8 percent of the provinces population. The aboriginal peoples of Labrador include the Northern Inuit of Nunatsiavut, the Southern Inuit-Métis of Nunatukavut, many of the non-aboriginal population in Labrador did not permanently settle in Labrador until the natural resource developments of the 1940s and 1950s. Before the 1950s, very few people lived in Labrador year-round. The few European immigrants who worked seasonally for foreign merchants and brought their families were known as Settlers, Labrador has a roughly triangular shape that encompasses the easternmost section of the Canadian Shield, a sweeping geographical region of thin soil and abundant mineral resources.
Its western border with Quebec is the divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands that drain into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, Northern Labradors climate is classified as polar, while Southern Labradors climate is classified as subarctic. Labrador can be divided into four regions, the North Coast, Central Labrador, Western Labrador. Each of those regions is described below, from Cape Chidley to Hamilton Inlet, the long thin northern tip of Labrador holds the Torngat Mountains, named after an Inuit spirit believed to inhabit them. The mountains stretch along the coast from Port Manvers to Cape Chidley, the Torngat Mountain range is home to Mount Caubvick, the highest point in the province. This area is predominantly Inuit, with the small Innu community of Natuashish being the exception, the north coast is the most isolated region of Labrador, with snowmobiles and planes being the only modern modes of transportation. The largest community in this region is Nain, Nunatsiavut is an Inuit self-government region in Labrador created on June 23,2000.
The Settlement area comprises the majority of Labradors North Coast, while the area includes land farther to the interior. Nain is the center of Nunatsiavut. The most populous region of Labrador, Central Labrador extends from the shores of Lake Melville into the interior and it contains the Churchill River, the largest river in Labrador and one of the largest in Canada