The Basento is a river in the Basilicata region of southern Italy. It rises at Monte Arioso in the southern Apennine Mountains, southwest of Potenza in the province of Potenza; the river flows northeast near Potenza before curving east near Vaglio Basilicata. It curves southeast and flows near Brindisi Montagna and Albano di Lucania. A right tributary coming from Lago di Ponte Fontanelle flows into the river in this area; the river forms the border between the province of Potenza and the province of Matera for a short distance before flowing into the province of Matera. It flows eastward near Tricarico and Grassano before curving southeast; the river flows near Grottole, Pomarico and Monte Finese before curving eastward. It flows near Pisticci and Bernalda before flowing into the Gulf of Taranto, part of the Ionian Sea, near Metaponto; the main city on the Basento is the capital of Basilicata. Article at fiumi.com
Tarantino, spoken in the southeastern Italian region of Apulia, is a dialect of the Neapolitan language, most of whose speakers live in the Apulian city of Taranto. The dialect is spoken by a few Italian immigrants in the United States in California; the Tarantino dialect traces its origins into ancient times, when the territory was dominated by the Messapii. The colonisation by the Greeks founded Taranto not only as the capital of Magna Graecia but as a centre of poetry and theatre; the Greeks had left considerable influence on Tarantino, both in vocabulary and morpho-syntax, a peculiar accent that scholars corresponded to Doric. These influences are still found in many Tarantino words of Greek origin. Subsequently, the city of Taranto became a Roman city, thus introducing much Vulgar Latin vocabulary. During the Byzantine and Lombard periods, Tarantino acquired diphthongization: the short o changed to ue and the short e changed to ie. At the same time, the city became a Saracen domain with the consequent introduction of a small number of Arabic words.
With the arrival of the Normans in 1071 and the Angevins all the way through to 1400, the dialect lost much of its Eastern influences and was influenced by the French and Gallo-Italic elements. In 1502, the city went under Catalan-Aragonese rule. In 1801 the city was once again under the dominion of French troops, who left their mark with their Franco-Provençal language. Taranto has long been linked to the Kingdom of Naples, which would explain some words in common with the Neapolitan dialect. French and Arabic influences led to a massive desonorisation of vowels, which caused a significant increase of the consonant links; the Tarantino versions are compared to the Italian ones. Salentino dialect Neapolitan language
Gallipoli is a southern Italian town and comune in the province of Lecce, in Apulia. In 2014, it had a population of 31,862; the town is located on the west coast of the Salentina Peninsula. The town of Gallipoli is divided into the modern and the old city; the new town includes all the newest buildings including a skyscraper. The old town is located on a limestone island, linked to the mainland by a bridge built in the 16th century; the municipality borders with Alezio, Matino and Taviano. It counts the hamlets of Baia Verde, Lido Conchiglie, Lido San Giovanni and Torre del Pizzo. According to a legend, the city was founded in ancient times by Idomeneus of Crete. Pliny the Elder attributes the foundation to the Senones Gauls, while more it was a Messapic settlement. What is known is that Gallipoli was a city of the Greater Greece, ruling over a large territory including today's Porto Cesareo. In 265 BC it sided with Pyrrhus and Taranto against ancient Rome, suffering a defeat which relegated it to a Roman colony.
In the early Middle Ages, it was most sacked by the Vandals and the Goths. Rebuilt by the Byzantines, Gallipoli lived an economically and flourishing period due to its geographical position, it was owned by the Roman Popes, was a centre of fighting against the Greek monastic orders. In the 11th century Gallipoli was conquered by the Normans and, in 1268, it was besieged by Charles I of Anjou, causing numerous inhabitants to flee to the nearby Alezio; the city was repopulated under the feudal rule of the principality of Taranto. In 1484 the Venetians without results. King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies started the construction of the port, which in the 18th century became the largest olive oil market in the Mediterranean. After the unification of Italy, Gallipoli was capital of a circondario, together with Lecce and Taranto. Angevine-Aragonese Castle, built in the 13th century by the Byzantines, it was remade under the Angevines and the Aragonese, who added a polygonal wall fortified with round towers.
The main additions were carried on by Francesco di Giorgio Martini, who worked for King Alfonso II of Naples. In 1522 an eastern bastion, known as Rivellino, was built, defended by waters on three sides. 14th century walls. They had 12 towers or bastions. Baroque cathedral of Sant'Agata, it has a richly decorated façade in carparo, a local limestone, with niches featuring statues of saints. The interior is on the Latin cross plan, with Baroque altars, including a polychrome high altar by Cosimo Fanzago. Church of St. Francis of Paola Church of St. Francis of Assisi, built in the 13th century but renovated several times later, it is home to a stone nativity scene by Stefano da Putignano Church of San Domenico al Rosario, annexed to a former Dominican convent. Church of the Holy Crucifix Church of Santa Maria della Purità; the richly decorated interior houses, at the marble high altar, a canvas by Luca Giordano depicting the Madonna della Purità between st. Joseph and St. Francis of Assisi. Greek Fountain, once believed to date to the 3rd century BC.
It has bas-reliefs with mythological figures and, on the other façade, the insignia of Charles III of Spain. Palazzo Pirelli, with mythological-theme decorations in the vault of former entrance archway, converted to a pharmacy in the 19th century. Church of San Pietro dei Samari, outside the city, it was built in by a Crusader knight, Ugo di Lusignano in 1148. Spiaggia la Puritate beach under the city walls. Nearest airports are Brindisi, 88 kilometres, Bari, 200 kilometres. Gallipoli can be reached from both of them via a modern freeway, the state road 101. By train, it is connected to Lecce by the Ferrovie Sud-Est. In past times the economy of Gallipoli was based on the international oil commerce. Nowadays its most important activities are based on fishing and tourism. Tourism is enjoyable throughout the year, due to the mild climate. Numerous are the celebrations; these include the Carnival and all the parades, Sant'Agata, the Santa Cristina celebrations in July. Gallipoli boasts a recently built harbour for private boats, located just steps from the bottom of the main Corso Roma.
The summer season starts in May and ends in October, when the weather is invariably hot and clear. The local football team is the Gallipoli Calcio; the team won the 2005–06 Serie C2/C championship. They have now been promoted to Serie B for the first time in the club's short history after winning the 2008–09 Serie C1/B championship. ALERT: TOTALLY WRONG TEMP DATA. https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/gallipoli_italy_3176366 Gallipoli is twinned with: Monfalcone, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy Catania, Italy Roman Catholic Diocese of Nardò-Gallipoli Diocesan Museum of Gallipoli Isola Sant'Andrea Lighthouse Official website Anxa News
Gulf of Trieste
The Gulf of Trieste is a shallow bay of the Adriatic Sea, in the extreme northern part of the Adriatic Sea. It is part of the Gulf of Venice and is shared by Italy and Croatia, it is closed to the south by the peninsula of Istria, the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea, shared between Croatia and Slovenia. The entire Slovenian sea is part of the Gulf of Trieste; the gulf is limited by an imaginary line connecting the Punta Tagliamento on the Italian and Savudrija on the Croatian coast. Its area is 550 square kilometres, its average depth is 18.7 metres, its maximum depth is 37 metres. With the exception of flat islets blocking the entrance to Laguna di Grado, there are no islands in the gulf, its eastern coasts, with Trieste and the Slovenian Littoral, have more rugged relief. The sea current in the gulf flows counterclockwise, its average speed is 0.8 knots. Tides in the gulf are among the largest in the Adriatic Sea, but do not exceed 60 centimetres; the average salinity is 37–38‰, but in the summer it falls below 35‰.
Its most prominent features are: The Bay of Panzano in Italy The Bay of Muggia in Italy The Bay of Grignano in Italy The Bay of Koper in Slovenia The Gulf of Piran, the sovereignty over, a matter of dispute between Croatia and Slovenia since 1991. The entire Slovenian coastline is located on the Gulf of Trieste, its length is 46.6 kilometres. Towns along the coastline include Koper and Piran. Slovenian Riviera Free Territory of Trieste Treaty of Osimo Barcolana regatta Media related to Gulf of Trieste at Wikimedia Commons Gulf of Trieste on Geopedia.si Conditions in the Gulf of Trieste on and near the Slovene coast: Koper - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days Piran - graphs, in the following order, of water temperature, wave height, wave period, wave direction, current speed, current direction, maximum wave height data for the past 30 days
Heraclea Heracleia or Herakleia, was an ancient city of Magna Graecia. It was situated on the Gulf of Taranto between the rivers Siris; the ruins of the city are located in the modern comune of Policoro in the Province of Matera, Italy. It was a Greek colony, but founded at a period later than most of the other Greek cities in this part of Italy; the territory in which it was established had belonged to the Ionic colony of Siris, after the fall of that city seems to have become the subject of contention between the neighboring states. The Athenians had a claim upon the territory of Siris, it was in virtue of this that their colonists the Thurians immediately after their establishment in Italy, advanced similar pretensions; these were, resisted by the Tarentines. The few remaining inhabitants of Siris were added to the new colonists, it would appear that the settlement was first established on the ancient site of Siris itself, but was subsequently transferred from thence, an ancient, but new city founded about 24 stadia from the former, nearer the river Aciris, to which the name of Heraclea was given.
Siris did not cease to exist, but lapsed into the subordinate condition of the port or emporium of Heraclea. The foundation of the new city is placed by Diodorus in 432 BCE, fourteen years after the settlement of Thurii. Diodorus, as well as Livy, calls it a colony of Tarentum. Antiochus is the only writer who mentions the share taken by the Thurians in its original foundation. Pliny erroneously regards Heraclea as identical with Siris; the new colony appears to have risen to power and prosperity, protected by the fostering care of the Tarentines, who were at one time engaged in war with the Messapians for its defence. It was owing to the predominant influence of Tarentum that Heraclea was selected as the place of meeting of the general assembly of the Italiot Greeks, but beyond the general fact that it enjoyed great wealth and prosperity, advantages which it doubtless owed to the noted fertility of its territory, we have scarcely any information concerning the history of Heraclea until we reach a period when it was beginning to decline.
We cannot doubt that it took part with the Tarentines in their wars against the Messapians and Lucanians, it appears to have fallen into a state of dependence upon that city, though without ceasing to be, in name at least, an independent state. Hence, when Alexander, king of Epirus, invited to Italy by the Tarentines, subsequently became hostile to that people, he avenged himself by taking Heraclea, and, as mentioned, transferred to the Thurians the general assemblies, held there. During the war of Pyrrhus with the Romans, Heraclea was the scene of the first conflict between the two powers, the consul Laevinus being defeated by the Epirot king in a battle fought between the city of Heraclea and the river Siris, 280 BCE. Heraclea was at this time in alliance with the Tarentines and Lucanians against Rome. Heraclea preserved this privileged condition throughout the period of the Roman Republic. We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 BCE. We have no account of the part taken by Heraclea in the Social War.
Cicero speaks of it, in his defence of the poet Aulus Licinius Archias, as still a flourishing and important town, it appears to have been one of the few Greek cities in the south of Italy that still preserved their consideration under the Roman dominion. Its name is unaccountably omitted by the 2nd century AD geographer Ptolemy, it was still a place of some importance under the empire. The time and circumstances of its final extinction are wholly unknown, but the site is now desolate, the whole neighbouring district, once celebrated as one of the most fertile in Italy, was by the mid-19th century wholly uninhabited; the position of the ancient city may be identified.
The Ionian Sea is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea. It is bounded by Southern Italy including Calabria and the Salento peninsula to the west, southern Albania to the north, the west coast of Greece. All major islands in the sea belong to Greece, they are collectively named the Ionian Islands, the main ones being Corfu, Zakynthos and Ithaca. There are ferry routes between Patras and Igoumenitsa and Brindisi and Ancona, that cross the east and north of the Ionian Sea, from Piraeus westward. Calypso Deep, the deepest point in the Mediterranean at −5,267 m, is located in the Ionian Sea, at 36°34′N 21°8′E; the sea is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. The name Ionian comes from the Greek language Ἰόνιον, its etymology is unknown. Ancient Greek writers Aeschylus, linked it to the myth of Io. In Ancient Greek the adjective Ionios was used as an epithet for the sea because Io swam across it. According to the Oxford Classical Dictionary, the name may derive from Ionians who sailed to the West.
There were narratives about other eponymic legendary figures. When Dyrrhachus was attacked by his own brothers, passing through the area, came to his aid, but in the fight the hero killed his ally's son by mistake; the body was cast into the water, thereafter was called the Ionian Sea. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Ionian Sea as follows: On the North. A line running from the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania, to Cape Karagol in Corfu, along the North Coast of Corfu to Cape Kephali and from thence to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca in Italy. On the East. From the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania down the coast of the mainland to Cape Matapan. On the South. A line from Cape Matapan to Cape Passero, the Southern point of Sicily. On the West; the East coast of Sicily and the Southeast coast of Italy to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca. From south to north in the west north to south in the east: Syracuse, port, W Catania, port, W Messina, port, W Taranto, port N Himara, small port, NE Saranda, port and a beach, NE Kerkyra, port, E Igoumenitsa, port, E Parga, small port, E Preveza, port, E Astakos, port, E Argostoli, port, E Patra, port, E Kyparissia, port, E Pylos, port, E Methoni, small port and a beach Ionian Islands Strait of Messina, W Gulf of Catania, W Gulf of Augusta, W Gulf of Taranto, NW Gulf of Squillace, NW Ambracian Gulf, E Gulf of Patras, connecting the Gulf of Corinth, ESE Gulf of Kyparissia, SE Messenian Gulf, SE Laconian Gulf, ESE Corfu Kefalonia Ithaca Zakynthos Lefkada Paxi Kythira Calypso Deep The Ionian-Puglia Network of Ground Meteorological Stations
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection