John William Norie
John William Norie, was a mathematician, chart maker and publisher of nautical books most famous for his Epitome of Practical Navigation which became a standard work on navigation and went through many editions as did many of Norie's works. Norie began his career working with William Heather, who had in 1765 taken over chart publishers Mount and Page and who ran the Naval Academy and Naval Warehouse in Leadenhall Street from 1795. Norie took over the Naval Warehouse after Heather's retirement and founded the company J. W. Norie and Company in 1813. After Norie's death the company became Norie and Wilson in 1903 Imray, Norie & Wilson. Charles Dickens used the Naval Warehouse in Dombey and Son. Jack London mentions Norie's'Epitome' in Chapter 5 of his novel Martin Eden, C. S. Forester refers to it in Chapter 17 in the book The Commodore of the Horatio Hornblower series of novels, he died at 3 Coates Crescent in Edinburgh's fashionable West End, Leaving his house to William H. Norie FRSE a barrister-at-law.
The Epitome of Practical Navigation - revised 1848 as A complete epitome of practical navigation Complete East India Pilot The shipwright's vade-mecum Complete North Sea and Baltic Pilot - reissued 1848 Complete North America and United States Pilot Piloting Directions for the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence West India directory, containing instructions for navigating the Caribbee New Piloting Directions for the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic, or Gulf of Venice, the Black Sea, Grecian Archipelago, the Seas of Marmara and Azov Complete British and Irish Coasting Pilot - reissued 1845 Plates Descriptive of the Maritime Flags of All Nations The naval gazetteer and chronologist. Sailing directions for the Bay of Biscay, including the coasts of France and Spain, from Ushant to Cape Finisterre. C. Wilson. OCLC 41208722. Retrieved 7 February 2010. Brazil and South American Pilot Sailing directions for the navigation of the North Sea This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Norie, John William".
Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Works by or about John William Norie at Internet Archive Works by John William Norie at LibriVox Norie's "Complete Epitome of Practical Navigation" at Google Books
Bombetoka Bay is a bay on the northwestern coast of Madagascar near the city of Mahajanga, where the Betsiboka River flows into the Mozambique Channel. Numerous islands and sandbars have formed in the estuary from the large amount of sediment carried in by the Betsiboka River and have been shaped by the flow of the river and the push and pull of tides Along coastlines and on the islands, the vegetation is predominantly mangrove forests. In fact, Bombetoka Bay is home to some of Madagascar's largest remaining communities of mangroves, which provide shelter for diverse mollusk and crustacean communities, as well as habitat for sea turtles and dugongs. Along the northwest coast of Madagascar and coral reefs partner up to create dynamic, diverse coastal ecosystems; the mangrove forests capture river-borne sediment that would smother coastal reefs, while reefs buffer the mangroves from pounding surf. Near water and rice farming are common, while coffee plantations abound in the surrounding terrain.
Sedimentary transport and suspension in Bombetoka Bay has changed during the past 30 years, with a dramatic increase in the amount of sediment moved by the Betsiboka river, deposited in the estuary and in offshore delta lobes. These changes have adversely affected agriculture and transportation for one of Madagascar’s largest ports "Bombetoka Bay, Madagascar". NASA Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 2006-09-30. Retrieved 2006-05-17
The Southern Ocean known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the fourth largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean; this ocean zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters. By way of his voyages in the 1770s, Captain James Cook proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Since geographers have disagreed on the Southern Ocean's northern boundary or existence, considering the waters as various parts of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, instead. However, according to Commodore John Leech of the International Hydrographic Organization, recent oceanographic research has discovered the importance of Southern Circulation, the term Southern Ocean has been used to define the body of water which lies south of the northern limit of that circulation.
This remains the current official policy of the IHO, since a 2000 revision of its definitions including the Southern Ocean as the waters south of the 60th parallel has not yet been adopted. Others regard the seasonally-fluctuating Antarctic Convergence as the natural boundary; the maximum depth of the Southern Ocean, using the definition that it lies south of 60th parallel, was surveyed by the Five Deeps Expedition in early February 2019. The expedition's multibeam sonar team identified the deepest point at 60° 28' 46"S, 025° 32' 32"W, with a depth of 7,434 meters; the expedition leader and chief submersible pilot Victor Vescovo, has proposed naming this deepest point in the Southern Ocean the "Factorian Deep," based on the name of the manned submersible DSV Limiting Factor, in which he visited the bottom for the first time on February 3, 2019. Borders and names for oceans and seas were internationally agreed when the International Hydrographic Bureau, the precursor to the IHO, convened the First International Conference on 24 July 1919.
The IHO published these in its Limits of Oceans and Seas, the first edition being 1928. Since the first edition, the limits of the Southern Ocean have moved progressively southwards; the IHO included the ocean and its definition as the waters south of 60°S in its year 2000 revisions, but this has not been formally adopted, due to continuing impasses over other areas of the text, such as the naming dispute over the Sea of Japan. The 2000 IHO definition, was circulated in a draft edition in 2002 and is used by some within the IHO and by some other organizations such as the US Central Intelligence Agency and Merriam-Webster. Australian authorities regard the Southern Ocean as lying south of Australia; the National Geographic Society does not recognize the ocean, depicting it in a typeface different from the other world oceans. Map publishers using the term Southern Ocean on their maps include Hema GeoNova. "Southern Ocean" is an obsolete name for the Pacific Ocean or South Pacific, coined by Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to discover it, who approached it from the north.
The "South Seas" is a less archaic synonym. A 1745 British Act of Parliament established a prize for discovering a Northwest Passage to "the Western and Southern Ocean of America". Authors using "Southern Ocean" to name the waters encircling the unknown southern polar regions used varying limits. James Cook's account of his second voyage implies. Peacock's 1795 Geographical Dictionary said it lay "to the southward of America and Africa"; the Family Magazine in 1835 divided the "Great Southern Ocean" into the "Southern Ocean" and the "Antarctick Ocean" along the Antarctic Circle, with the northern limit of the Southern Ocean being lines joining Cape Horn, the Cape of Good Hope, Van Diemen's Land and the south of New Zealand. The United Kingdom's South Australia Act 1834 described the waters forming the southern limit of the new colony of South Australia as "the Southern Ocean"; the Colony of Victoria's Legislative Council Act of 1881 delimited part of the division of Bairnsdale as "along the New South Wales boundary to the Southern ocean".
In the 1928 first edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas, the Southern Ocean was delineated by land-based limits: Antarctica to the south, South America, Africa and Broughton Island, New Zealand to the north. The detailed land-limits used were from Cape Horn in Chile eastwards to Cape Agulhas in Africa further eastwards to the southern coast of mainland Australia to Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. From Cape Leeuwin, the limit followed eastwards along the coast of mainland Australia to Cape Otway, Victoria southwards across Bass Strait to Cape Wickham, King Island, along the west coast of King Island the remainder of the way south across Bass Strait to Cape Grim, Tasmania; the limit followed the west coast of Tasmania southwards to the South East Cape and went eastwards to Broughton Island, New Zealand, before returning to Cape Horn. The northern limits of the Southern Ocean were moved southwards in the IHO's 1937 second edition of the Limits of Oceans and Seas. From this edition, much of the ocean's northern limit ceased to abut land masses.
In the second edition, the Southern Ocean extended from Antarctica northwards to latitude 40°S between Cape Agulhas
Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent, it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil, its 1,300 kilometres of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, it is considered to be the only democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.
It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union. In addition, Tunisia is a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC; the Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574; the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections; the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; the present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie. in turn associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes associated with the Punic goddess Tanith, ancient city of Tynes; the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, only by context can one tell the difference. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa.
Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia were ancestors of today's Berber tribes, it was believed in ancient times that Africa was populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians became the Numidians; the Medes settled and were known as Mauri Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from; the translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes, its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium.
The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean; the people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites; the founders of Carthage established a Tophet, altered in Roman times. A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years. F
Doringbaai is a settlement in West Coast District Municipality in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Doringbaai known as Thornbay, is a small fishing village; the main economic activity is the export of crayfish. In the past, the bay at Doringbaai was used as an anchorage for the trade route; the lighthouse, one of the local landmarks, was built in 1963
Antsiranana Bay is a natural bay that stretches close to 20 kilometres north to south along the northeast coast of Madagascar. The waters average a depth of more than 20 metres, the main channel can be as deep as 50 metres; the bay, protected by a narrow inlet that provides shelter from strong Indian Ocean winds, is believed to be the result of a submerging coastline or a drowned river valley that formed many peninsulas around the bay. The bay's principal city, Antsiranana, is located on a headland; the bay was first recorded by European explorers in 1500. The bay was used for shelter by a number of pirates and privateers during the Golden Age of Piracy, it has been speculated as a possible location of the legendary pirate colony Libertalia. Media related to Bays of Madagascar at Wikimedia Commons Sea-seek.com: nautical map of the Bay of Diego Suarez
Gulf of Sirte
Gulf of Sirte, or Gulf of Sidra after the port of Sidra, is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya. It has been known as the Great Sirte or Greater Syrtis; the Gulf of Sirte has been a major centre for tuna fishing in the Mediterranean for centuries. It gives its name to the city of Sirte situated on its western side; the gulf measures 439 kilometres from the promontory of Boreum on the East side to the promontory of Cephalae on the West. The greatest extension of the gulf inland is 177 kilometres land inward and occupies an area of 57,000 square kilometers. Syrtis is referred to in the New Testament of the Bible, where the Apostle Paul relates being sent in chains to Rome to stand trial before the Roman emperor, Nero; the crew of his ship was worried about being driven by a storm into Syrtis, he took precautions to prevent it, but the ship was shipwrecked on the island of Malta, in the Mediterranean Sea. In ancient literature, the Syrtes were notorious sandbanks, which sailors always took pains to avoid.
The local climate features frequent calms and a powerful north wind. The shoreline between Cyrene in the east and Carthage in the west featured few ports. Ancient writers mention the sandbanks and their vicinity as dangerous for shipping; the Syrtes maiores are unusually tidal and feature a strong clockwise current, at the rising tide, which switches when the tide ebbs. That feature may explain the curious corkscrew shape in the area on the Peutinger Table; the landward side was a featureless plain which contrasted with the fertility of the rest of Tripolitania, to the west. Ancient writers mention serpents in this area. Strabo describes a march by the Roman general, Cato the Younger in 47 BC which took thirty days ‘ through deep and scorching sand’. Strabo gives a full account of the dangers for shipping: the difficulty with both the Greater and the Lesser Syrtes is that in many places the water is shallow, at the rise and fall of the tides ships sometimes fall into the shallows and settle there, it is rare for them to be saved.
Pomponius Mela gives a melodramatic description: The Syrtes … have no ports and are alarming because of the frequent shallows and more dangerous because of the reversing movements of the sea as it flows in and out...then a second Syrtes, equal in name and nature to the first, but about twice the size. These sources should not however be taken at face value: Mela goes on to say that there were no ports in the Greater Syrtes either, but his reliability on this point – and therefore others – is questionable: Pseudo-Scylax, writing in the early 4th century BC, records a port in the larger gulf, Strabo places a ‘very large emporium’ in the smaller one before Mela’s time. Furthermore, the ancient textual evidence is not unambiguous in its condemnation of the Syrtes. Plutarch gives a much less melodramatic account of Cato’s march than Strabo’s, saying that it took only seven days, that locals were engaged to protect his troops from serpents, and while Strabo pointed out the dangers of the sandbanks, he continues: On this account sailors travel along the coast at a distance, taking care lest they are caught off their guard and driven into these gulfs by winds.
As in Cato, they do not avoid the area, but take precautions against its relative dangers. Pliny’s warning that the gulf was ‘formidable because of the shallow and tidal water of the two Syrtes’ at Natural History 5.26 should be seen in the context of his broader claim in that work that all the coastlines of the Mediterranean were welcoming. Their infamous reputation is, found in Roman poetry, from Virgil on; the information in this section is taken from The Syrtes between East and West by Josephine Crawley Quinn. First Battle of Sirte, World War II naval battle between Regia Marina and Royal Navy in December 1941. Second Battle of Sirte, World War II naval battle between Regia Marina and Royal Navy in March 1942. After the coup d'état which brought Muammar Gaddafi to power in 1969, there were a number of international incidents concerning territorial claims of the Gaddafi regime over the waters of the Gulf of Sirte; the gulf was referred to by the US military in those times as'Gulf of Sidra', after the important oil port of Sidra on its shores.
In 1973, Gaddafi claimed much of the Gulf of Sirte to be within Libyan internal waters by drawing a straight line at 32 degrees, 30 minutes north between a point near Benghazi and the western headland of the gulf at Misrata with an exclusive 62 nautical miles fishing zone. Gaddafi declared it The Line of Death; the US claimed its rights to conduct naval operations in international waters, using the modern international standard of 12-nautical-mile territorial limit from a country's shore as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Gaddafi claimed it to be a territorial sea, not just a coastal area. In response the United States authorized Naval exercises in the Gulf of Sidra to conduct Freedom of Navigation operations. On 21 March 1973, Libyan fighter planes intercepted and fired on a U. S. Air Force C-1