Molise is a region of Southern Italy. Until 1963, it formed part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise, alongside the region of Abruzzo; the split, which did not become effective until 1970, makes Molise the youngest region in Italy. The region covers 4,438 square kilometres and has a population of 313,348 The region is split into two provinces, named after their respective capitals Campobasso and Isernia. Campobasso serves as the regional capital. Molise is bordered by Abruzzo to the north, Apulia to the east, Lazio to the west, Campania to the south, it has 35 kilometres of sandy coastline to the northeast, lying on the Adriatic Sea looking out towards the Tremiti islands. The countryside of Molise is mountainous, with 55% covered by mountains and most of the rest by hills that go down to the sea. Castello Monforte Terzano Tower Campobasso Cathedral Church of Sant'Antonio Church of San Bartolomeo Church of San Giorgio Savoia Theater San Giorgio Palace Provincial Museum of "Sanniti" Isernia Cathedral Fountain Fraterna Monumental complex and museum of Santa Maria delle Monache Abbey Sanctuary of Santi Cosma e Damiano Archeological site Isernia La Pineta Museum of Paleolithic in the site of La Pineta Cathedral of San Basso from Lucera Medieval castle of Frederick II Sinarca Tower Rinascimental Gallery Museum Trivento Cathedral Church of Santa Maria Maggiore Santuario di Santa Maria del Canneto Caldora Castle Castle Anjou Longobard Castle Bojano Cathedral Medieval fortress Civita Superiore Angioina Tower Larino Cathedral Archeological site and Roman theater of Larinum Archeological site and museum of Altilia Italic sanctuary of San Pietro dei Cantoni Megalithic wall of Saipins Church of Santa Maria della Strada Guardialfiera old town Capua castle Abbey of San Vincenzo al Volturno Marinelli Bells Factory and Museum Theatre and Italic temple in the archeological site of Pietrabbondante Parish church and belfry of Saint Silvestro Bagnoli del Trigno Rupestrian church of Pietracupa Church of Sant'Antonio Abate Capracotta Neogothic basilica of Santa Maria Addolorata Venafro Cathedral Castle Pandone Castle Pandone Abbey of Santa Maria del Carmelo Pescolanciano Castle Colli al Volturno Agriculture, involving small and micro holdings, is offering high-quality products.
The agricultural holdings produce wine, olive oil, vegetables and dairy products. Traditional products are Grass Farro. Molise's autochthonous grape is Tintilia, rediscovered during the last ten years, many other PDO wines, both red and white. Though there is a large Fiat plant, the industrial sector is dominated by the farming industry with small and medium-sized farms spread throughout the region. Another important industry is food processing: pasta, milk products and wine are the traditional products of the region. In the services sector the most important industries are distribution and catering, followed by transport and communications and insurance. With few exceptions, in all sectors firms are small, this explains the difficulties encountered when marketing products on a national scale. International tourism is growing as a result of the recent opening of international flights from other European countries to Pescara Airport, not far to the north in Abruzzo and connected to Molise by the A14 highway.
The density of the population in Molise is well below the national average. In 2008, Molise registered 72.3 inhabitants per km2, compared to a national figure of 198.8. The region is subdivided into two provinces: Campobasso and Isernia, which together cover 1.5% of Italy's territory and less than 1% of its population. The larger province in terms of area is Campobasso at 2,909 km2, while the smaller is Isernia at 1,529 km2; the province of Campobasso is the more densely populated of the two provinces, with 79.4 inhabitants per km2, whereas Isernia registers 58.9 inhabitants per km2. At the end of 2008 the most populous towns were Campobasso and Isernia. In the period 1951-71, large-scale emigration to other countries of the European Union, to other parts of Italy and overseas led to a significant decline in the population of Molise. Negative net migration persisted until 1981. Large-scale emigration has caused many of the smaller towns and villages to lose over 60% of their population, while only a small number of larger towns have recorded significant gains.
From 1982 to 1994, net migration has been positive followed by a negative trend until 2001. Between 1991 and 2001, the population of the region decreased by 3.1%. The region is home to two main ethnic minorities: the Molisan Croats, those who speak the "arbereshe" dialect of Albanian in five towns of "basso Molise" in the province of Campobasso. Molise comprises two provinces: Molise has much tradition from the religious to the pagans, many museum, archeological sites and food events. Tradition The Festival dei Misteri in Campobasso Feast of Saint Pardo with ox chariot in Larino Ox chariots (La Carr
Gulf of Pozzuoli
The Gulf of Pozzuoli known as the Gulf of Puteoli, is a large bay or small gulf in the northwestern end of the Gulf of Naples in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is named for its port of Pozzuoli; the Roman Sinus Baianus was located near the resort town of Baiae. Along with the island of Ischia and gulfs of Naples and Gaeta, local waters are rich in productions enough to support various species whales and dolphins including fin and sperm whales. Geography of Italy
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Gulf of Naples
The Gulf of Naples called the Bay of Naples, is a 15-kilometer-wide gulf located along the south-western coast of Italy. It opens to the west into the Mediterranean Sea, it is bordered on the north by the cities of Naples and Pozzuoli, on the east by Mount Vesuvius, on the south by the Sorrentine Peninsula and the main town of the peninsula, Sorrento. The Peninsula separates the Gulf of Naples from the Gulf of Salerno, which includes the Amalfi coast; the islands of Capri and Procida are located in the Gulf of Naples. The area is a tourist destination, with the seaside Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, along the north coast. Along with the island of Ischia and gulfs of Pozzuoli and Gaeta, local waters are home to varieties of whales and dolphins including fin and sperm whales, it is said that the Roman emperor Caligula built a bridge of boats across the bay and rode across it in a chariot wearing the armor of Alexander the Great. The Gulf of Naples hosted the sailing events for the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome.
According to information from Mario Scaramella, twenty nuclear torpedo sea mines were alleged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to have been laid on 10 January 1970, by a Soviet November class attack submarine, in the Gulf of Naples at the time of the Cold War to destroy or deny access to the US Sixth Fleet. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. P. 86. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Part 2. Pp. 963–1023. Purcell, N. R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 433059". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley; the countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania and Herzegovina, Italy and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast, it is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas; the prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally; the Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin.
The surface water temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 12 °C in winter moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era; the plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast; the western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity; the sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic and threatened ones.
The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire; the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania; the former disintegrated during the 1990s. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Bosnian-Herzegovinian, Montenegrin waters are still disputed.
Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast. Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year; the largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year. The origins of the name Adriatic are linked to the Etruscan settlement of Adria, which derives its name from the Illyrian adur meaning water or sea. In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum or, less as Mare Superum, " upper sea"; the two terms were not synonymous, however. Mare Adriaticum corresponds to the Adriatic Sea's extent, spanning from the Gulf of Venice to the Strait of Otranto; that boundary became more defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete.
Mare Superum on the other hand encompassed both the modern Adriatic Sea and the sea off the Apennine peninsula's southern coast, as far as the Strait of Sicily. Another name used in the period was Mare Dalmaticum, applied to waters off the coast of Dalmatia or Illyricum; the names for the sea in the languages of the surrounding countries include Albanian: Deti Adriatik. In Croatian and Slovene, the sea is referred to as Jadran; the Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea, bordered in the southwest by the Apennine or Italian Peninsula, in the northwest by the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in the northeast by Slovenia, Croatia, B
The Isole Tremiti are an archipelago in the Adriatic Sea, north of the Gargano Peninsula. They constitute a comune of form part of the Gargano national park; the name of the islands relates to their seismic hazard, with a history of earthquakes in the area: tremiti means "tremors". The islands were used for the internment of political prisoners during Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime; this was nothing new: two millennia earlier Augustus had exiled his granddaughter Julia the Younger to one of these islands. The islands are now an important tourist attraction because of the clear waters surrounding them. Up to 100,000 visitors come to the islands in the summer season. Ferry services from the mainland operate from Termoli, Rodi Garganico and Capoiale, while Alidaunia offers flights from San Domino Heliport to Foggia and Vieste. San Domino has the only sand beach in the archipelago. San Nicola is, it is the site of a monastery. Legend has it that every time someone tried to move his corpse off the island, a violent storm would break out, preventing navigation around the island.
Capraia is deserted. Cretaccio is a large block of clay and thus uninhabited. Pianosa is a uninhabited island, its maximum elevation is 15 metres. Sometimes, during storms, the waves cover it. Inhabited since late Iron Age times, the Tremiti Islands have been a confinement place since ancient times. Roman emperor Augustus had his granddaughter Julia the Younger transferred here, where she died after 20 years. In the Middle Ages the archipelago was ruled by the Abbey of Santa Maria a Mare at San Nicola island founded here in the 9th century by Benedictine monks from Montecassino. In the 13th century the abbey had gained its autonomy from the father monastery, owned lands from the Biferno to Trani on the Apulian mainland. After an alleged period of moral decadence, in 1237 the Benedictines were replaced by the Cistercian order. In 1334 the abbey was sacked by Dalmatian pirates from Omiš. In 1412 the Lateran Canons took ownership of the islands, restored the abbey with cisterns and fortifications which withstood the assault of Ottoman ships in 1567.
The abbey was suppressed in 1783 by King Ferdinand IV of Naples. During the Napoleonic age the islands were a stronghold of Joachim Murat's supporters, who resisted a British fleet in 1809. In 1843, to repopulate the islands, King Ferdinand II of Two Sicilies moved a number of people from Naples' slums to the islands, who became fishermen. In 1911, about 1,300 Libyans who had resisted Italian colonial rule were confined to Tremiti. After a year, around one-third of them had died from typhus. During the Fascist era, the archipelago continued to perform its function of confinement, among others, Amerigo Dumini, future president of the Republic, Sandro Pertini. Mussolini had hundreds of homosexuals deported to San Domino, in 1938. No law prohibited homosexuality at the time, Mussolini denied its existence, saying that, "In Italy there are only real men". However, suspected or reported homosexuals deported; the conditions on the island were difficult, a few died. San Domino had the distinction of being the only internment camp in which all the prisoners were gay.
Mussolini's regime had unwittingly created a part of Italy in which men were expected to be gay. The dormitories were spartan, with running water. A bell would ring at 8 p.m. each day. For the remainder of the night they were locked under police supervision; the internment camp closed in 1939, as Italy became enmeshed in the beginnings of World War II. In May 2012 the provincial government caused a scandal by attempting to sell-off blocks of land on two of the islands for development for a reported €4m. Local environmental groups campaigned vigorously and in the event there were no bidders. List of islands of Italy Punta del Diavolo Lighthouse Mancini, Enzo. Isole Tremiti, sassi di Diomede: natura, arte, turismo. Milan: Mursia. Tremiti Islands. How to get there, plan a day trip, excursion with kids Collecting landraces and wild relatives in the Tremiti Islands Isole Tremiti
Gulf of Salerno
The Gulf of Salerno is a gulf of the Tyrrhenian Sea in the coast of the province of Salerno in south-western Italy. The northern part of this coast is the Costiera Amalfitana, including towns like Amalfi, Maiori and the city of Salerno itself; the Gulf of Salerno is separated from the Gulf of Naples by the Sorrentine Peninsula, while from the south it is bounded by the Cilento coast. "Salerno, Gulf of". New International Encyclopedia. 1905