Gulfstream G100

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Gulfstream G100
Gulfstream Aerospace G150 - JBM.jpg
A G150 inflight, gear and flaps extended
Role Business jet
Manufacturer Gulfstream Aerospace
First flight 1994
Status In service
Primary user United States Air Force
Produced 1985-2017[1]
Number built 265 : 145 Astra/G100[2] + 120 G150[1]
Unit cost
US$15.7 million (2015)[3]
Developed from IAI Westwind
Variants Gulfstream G200

The Gulfstream G100, formerly known as the IAI Astra SPX, is an Israel Aerospace Industries-manufactured twin-engine business jet, formerly produced for Gulfstream Aerospace. The United States Air Force designation for the G100 was C-38 Courier. Gulfstream announced the final sale of the G150 (a later derivative of the G100) in September 2016 and the last delivery by mid-2017.[1]

Design and development[edit]

IAI Astra at the 1988 Paris Air Show

Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) developed the Astra from its Model 1124 Westwind business jet. Work on an improved Westwind began in the late 1970s,[4] with the first prototype flight on March 19, 1984,[5] the first production Astra flew on March 20, 1985, with FAA certification granted on August 29, 1985 and customer deliveries starting in 1986.[5]

The original 1125 Astra was replaced by the Astra SP, announced in 1989; 37 were built. The third variant, the Astra SPX, flew for the first time in August 1994, this variant was renamed G100 from September 2002 following Gulfstream's acquisition of Galaxy Aerospace, which held the Astra type certificate, in May 2001.

In September 2002, Gulfstream announced the improved G150, based on the G100, this last variant features a wider and longer fuselage, updated avionics and an increase in maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) to 26,100 pounds (11,839 kg) compared to the G100's MTOW of 24,650 pounds (11,181 kg). It was certified by the FAA in late 2005,[6] it has been certified for the steeper-than-normal approach path required to land at London City Airport.[7] Production of the G100 was discontinued following certification of the G150.[citation needed] IAI continued to manufacture G150s in Israel and the completed airframes were then flown to the U.S. for interior outfitting. In September 2016, Gulfstream announced that, owing to slow sales, production would be stopped, with delivery of the final aircraft due in mid-2017.[8]

The Astra was further developed in the 1990s; the wing was modified and mated to a completely new fuselage. This development became the IAI Galaxy (later the Gulfstream G200).[9]

Operational history[edit]

C-38A (G100) and Boeing C-40 Clipper of the United States Air National Guard

The G100 was ordered for the United States Air Force (USAF) in 1997 as the C-38A Courier, the C-38A was operated by the 201st Airlift Squadron at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland. The C-38A replaced the earlier Learjet C-21, the C-38A differs from the standard Gulfstream G100, being fitted with various military avionics systems.[10]

The C-38A was also ordered for the United States Navy, replacing North American T-2 Buckeyes at Naval Air Station Patuxent River beginning in September 2015. The C-38 is tasked with acting as a chase plane, radar test target, and pilot proficiency aircraft for the test and evaluation squadron VX-20.[11]

In 2012 an IAI Astra operated by the Eritrean Air Force as the Eritrean presidential aircraft was stolen by two pilots, both serving Eritrean Air Force officers, they flew the Astra to Saudi Arabia and requested political asylum after landing at Jizan Regional Airport.[12]

Variants[edit]

IAI 1125 Astra
Original version, powered by two 16.46 kilonewtons (3,700 lbf) Garrett TFE731-3A-200G turbofans.[13] A total of 32 built.[14]
IAI 1125 Astra SP
Version with modified aerodynamics (giving 53 nautical miles (61 mi; 98 km) increase in range), improved avionics and revised interior.[15] A total of 36 built from 1990.[16]
IAI 1125 Astra SPX
More powerful (18.90 kilonewtons (4,250 lbf) Honeywell TFE-731-40R-200G) engines and fitted with winglets. Increased weights and range.
  • Gulfstream G100
marketing name of the IAI 1125 after the programme was taken over by Gulfstream Aerospace in 2001.[14] A total of 77 Astra SPX and G100 aircraft were built.[2]
Gulfstream G150
Improved version of G100 with wider and longer cabin, a revised nose and uprated (19.7 kilonewtons (4,400 lbf)) engines.[2] Nearly 120 were in service in 2016.[1]

Specifications (G-100)[edit]

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004[17]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity: 6-9 passengers
  • Length: 16.94 m (55 ft 7 in)
  • Wingspan: 16.64 m (54 ft 7 in) (over winglets)
  • Height: 5.54 m (18 ft 2 in)
  • Wing area: 29.41 m2 (316.6 sq ft)
  • Aspect ratio: 8.8:1
  • Airfoil: IAI Sigma-2
  • Empty weight: 6,214 kg (13,700 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 11,181 kg (24,650 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 4,910 L (1,300 US gal; 1,080 imp gal) usable
  • Powerplant: 2 × Honeywell TFE731-40-R-200G turbofans, 18.9 kN (4,250 lbf) thrust each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.875
  • Cruise speed: 896 km/h; 557 mph (484 kn)
  • Range: 5,462 km; 3,394 mi (2,949 nmi) (max fuel, four passengers)
  • Service ceiling: 14,000 m (45,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 19.33 m/s (3,805 ft/min)
  • Fuel consumption: 1750 lb. per hour[18]

Avionics

  • Collins Pro Line 4

Operators[edit]

Eritrea
India
Israel
United States

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Gulfstream sells final G150, marks end of 10-year production run" (Press release). Gulfstream. September 28, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c Gerzanics, Mike (February 28, 2006). "FLIGHT TEST: Gulfstream G150 - Space Machine". Flightglobal. Retrieved April 24, 2016. 
  3. ^ "Business Jets Specification and Performance Data" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. May 2015. 
  4. ^ Relman 1993, p. 314.
  5. ^ a b Relman 1993, p. 316.
  6. ^ "FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet No. A16NM Revision 8 - Gulfstream Aerospace 1125 Westwind Astra; Astra SPX; Gulfstream 100; Gulfstream G150" (PDF). 23 May 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2016. 
  7. ^ G150 Steep Approach to London City approaches reach 5.5 degrees Aviation Week. Accessed: 9 January 2011.
  8. ^ Sarsfield, Kate (September 28, 2016). "Gulfstream calls time on struggling G150". Flightglobal. Retrieved September 29, 2016. 
  9. ^ "The Israel IAI-1126 Galaxy/Gulfstream G200"
  10. ^ "C-38 Courier". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 24 April 2016. 
  11. ^ T-2C Buckeye ends 56-year Navy career Naval Air Systems Command
  12. ^ a b Oliva, Leandro (October 7, 2012). "REPORT: Air Force Captains Steal Eritrean Presidential Jet, Defect to Saudi Arabia". Business Insider. Allure Media. Retrieved April 20, 2018. 
  13. ^ Lambert 1993, pp. 182–183.
  14. ^ a b Jackson 2003, p. 623.
  15. ^ Lambert 1993, p. 182.
  16. ^ Jackson 2003, pp. 622–623.
  17. ^ Jackson 2003, pp. 623–624.
  18. ^ David Esler (Oct 27, 2016). "Honeywell's Super-Midsize HTF7000 Engine". Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. 
  19. ^ Hoyle Flight International 8–14 December 2015, p. 39.
  • Hoyle, Craig (8–14 December 2015). "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 188 no. 5517. pp. 26–53. ISSN 0015-3710. 
  • Jackson, Paul, ed. (2003). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5. 
  • Lambert, Mark, ed. (1993). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–1994. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Data Division. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1. 
  • Relman, Paul (December 1993). "IAI Astra: Israel's star-struck biz jet". Air International. Vol. 45 no. 6. pp. 313–319. ISSN 0306-5634. 

External links[edit]