United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Fisher is a town in Polk County, United States. It is part of the Grand Forks-ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 435 at the 2010 census. Fisher has become a bedroom community for the nearby Greater Grand Forks Metropolitan Area; the city took its name from a local riverboat landing named for William H. Fisher, a railroad official. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.43 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 435 people, 180 households, 114 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,011.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 196 housing units at an average density of 455.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.7% from other races, 0.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.6% of the population. There were 180 households of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.7% were non-families.
29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age in the city was 32.2 years. 25.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.3% male and 49.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 435 people, 177 households, 120 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,092.3 people per square mile. There were 197 housing units at an average density of 494.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.62% White, 1.15% from other races, 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.30% of the population. There were 177 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,750, the median income for a family was $49,444. Males had a median income of $32,656 versus $20,208 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,083. About 5.5% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Mentor is a city in Polk County, United States. It is part of the Grand Forks-ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 153 at the 2010 census. The city is located near Maple Lake. A post office called Mentor has been in operation since 1882; the city was named after Ohio. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.87 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 153 people, 79 households, 39 families residing in the city; the population density was 81.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 95 housing units at an average density of 50.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.7% White, 1.3% Native American, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population. There were 79 households of which 17.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.2% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 50.6% were non-families.
43.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.94 and the average family size was 2.59. The median age in the city was 50.8 years. 15% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.3% male and 47.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 150 people, 82 households, 45 families residing in the city; the population density was 79.3 people per square mile. There were 102 housing units at an average density of 53.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White. There were 82 households out of which 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.1% were non-families. 41.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 26.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.83 and the average family size was 2.44.
In the city, the population was spread out with 14.0% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 30.7% from 45 to 64, 26.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,705, the median income for a family was $27,917. Males had a median income of $24,688 versus $16,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,972. There were 3.6% of families and 13.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 29.4% of those over 64
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the state of North Dakota and is the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while the total of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461. Grand Forks, along with its twin city of East Grand Forks, forms the center of the Grand Forks, ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, called Greater Grand Forks or the Grand Cities. Located on the western banks of the north-flowing Red River of the North, in a flat region known as the Red River Valley, the city is prone to flooding; the Red River Flood of 1997 devastated the city. Called Les Grandes Fourches by French fur traders from Canada, who had long worked and lived in the region, steamboat captain Alexander Griggs platted a community after being forced to winter there; the Grand Forks post office was established in 1870, the town was incorporated on February 22, 1881. The city was named for its location at the fork of the Red Lake River. Dependent on local agriculture, the city's economy now encompasses higher education, health care, food processing, scientific research.
Grand Forks is served by Grand Forks Air Force Base. The city's University of North Dakota is the oldest institution of higher education in the state; the Alerus Center and Ralph Engelstad Arena host athletic and other events, while the North Dakota Museum of Art and Chester Fritz Auditorium are the city's largest cultural venues. Prior to settlement by Europeans, the area where the city developed, at the forks of the Red River and Red Lake River, for thousands of years had been an important meeting and trading point for Native Americans. Early French explorers, fur trappers, traders called the area Les Grandes Fourches, meaning "The Grand Forks". By the 1740s, French fur trappers relied on Les Grandes Fourches as an important trading post; this was French colonial territory. The United States acquired the territory from British Rupert's Land with the Treaty of 1818, but indigenous tribes dominated the area until the late 19th century. After years of warfare, the United States made treaties to extinguish the land claims of the Ojibwe and other Native American peoples.
When a U. S. post office was established on the site on June 15, 1870, the name was changed to the English "Grand Forks". Alexander Griggs, a steamboat captain, is regarded as "The Father of Grand Forks". Griggs' steamboat froze in the Red River on a voyage in late 1870, forcing the captain and his crew to spend the winter camping at Grand Forks. Griggs platted a community in 1875, Grand Forks was incorporated on February 22, 1881. Thousands of settlers were attracted to the Dakota Territory in the 1870s and 1880s for its cheap land, the population began to rise. Many established small family farms, but some investors bought thousands of acres for bonanza farms, where they supervised the cultivation and harvesting of wheat as a commodity crop; the city grew after the arrival of the Great Northern Railway in 1880 and the Northern Pacific Railway in 1887. In 1883, the University of North Dakota was established, six years before North Dakota was admitted as an independent state born from the Dakota Territory.
During the first half of the 20th century, new residential neighborhoods were developed south and west of downtown Grand Forks. In the 1920s, the state-owned North Dakota Mill and Elevator was constructed on the city's north side. In 1954, Grand Forks was chosen as the site for an Air Force base. Grand Forks Air Force Base brought thousands of new residents to the community; the military base and the University of North Dakota became integral to the city's economy. With construction of federal highways, during the postwar years residential and business development became suburbanized, spreading to new areas as land was available. Interstate 29 was built on the western side of the city, two enclosed shopping malls – South Forks Plaza and Columbia Mall – were built on the south side; the Red River had a history of seasonal flooding, aggravated by the broad ancient lake bed that formed the Red River Valley. The 1997 Red River Flood caused extensive damage in the city. Fargo was upstream from the bulk of the flood waters that season, Winnipeg had built an extensive system of flood control structures in the 1960s.
In 1997, Grand Forks suffered the most damage of any major city in the Red River Valley. During the height of the flooding, a major fire destroyed 11 buildings in the downtown area; the government began developing a new levee system to protect the city, completed 10 years later. It required the relocation of numerous residents, as some neighborhoods were emptied for this construction; the city and government decided to change the type of development allowed near the river. The floodplain bordering the Red River was converted into a large park known as the Greater Grand Forks Greenway; this provided new recreation space for city residents, as well as space for future floodwaters to be absorbed by trees and other plants, without damage to infrastructure. East Grand Forks developed a related greenway park on its side of the river, as it has suffered extensive flooding that year. Since the 1997 flood and private developments have been constructed throughout Grand Forks. Two new, large sports venues opened in 2001: the Alerus Center and the Ralph Engelstad Arena.
In 2007, the Winnipeg-based Canad Inns hotel chain opened a 13-story hotel and waterpark next to the Alerus Center. By 2007 Grand Forks had a larger population. Area employment and taxable sales had surpassed pre-flood levels. Grand Forks is 74 miles north of
Area code 218
Area code 218 is part of the North American Numbering Plan of the public switched telephone network for the northern part of the US state of Minnesota. It is one of Minnesota's original two codes, although its geographical area has been modified since inception. By area, the region is the largest area code in Minnesota, covering the northern half of the state, it includes the cities of Duluth, Brainerd, Fergus Falls, Moorhead. According to a 1947 map of the NANP, the 218 region was r-shaped and covered about two-thirds of Minnesota. Area code 612 covered the remaining southeastern portion. In 1954, the shape of 218 was modified to coincide with its current shape when the original southwestern portion of 218 was combined with the southern portion of 612 to form area code 507, which stretched across the southern fifth of Minnesota. A small change in the 1990s brought the Northwest Angle into the 218 area after being part of Bell Canada's Clearwater Bay exchange in Area code 807; because of the low population density in northern Minnesota, the region was unaffected when the 612 area was subdivided in 1996.
The resulting area code 320, the former western portion of 612, runs the length of the southern border with 218, the 612 area code has been reduced in size so much that it now just covers the city of Minneapolis and a few nearby suburbs. The western portion of 218—generally everything from Brainerd westward—shares a LATA with the eastern half of North Dakota, including Fargo and Grand Forks; this means. Under present projections, northern Minnesota will not need another area code until mid-2028 at the earliest. Despite the proliferation of cell phones and pagers in Duluth and Fargo-Moorhead, 218 is nowhere near exhaustion. List of NANP area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Minnesota List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 218 Area Code Area code history. AreaCode-Info.com.. 1947 Area Code Assignment Map. GIF image at AreaCode-Info.com
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year