Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits and sugar stored in glass jam jars. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash; the ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves. In English, the word, in plural form, "preserves" is used to describe all types of jellies; the term preserves is interchangeable with jams. Other names include: chutney, conserve, fruit butter, fruit curd, fruit spread and marmalade; some cookbooks define preserves as cooked and gelled whole fruit, which includes a significant portion of the fruit. In the English speaking world, the two terms are more differentiated and, when this is not the case, the more usual generic term is'jam'; the singular preserve or conserve is used as a collective noun for high fruit content jam for marketing purposes. Additionally, the name of the type of fruit preserves will vary depending on the regional variant of English being used.
A chutney is a relish of Indian origin made of fruit and herbs. Although intended to be eaten soon after production, modern chutneys are made to be sold, so require preservatives – sugar and vinegar – to ensure they have a suitable shelf life. Mango chutney, for example, is mangoes reduced with sugar. While confit, the past participle of the French verb confire, "to preserve", is most applied to preservation of meats, it is used for fruits or vegetables seasoned and cooked with honey or sugar till jam-like. Savory confits, such as ones made with garlic or fennel, may call for a savory oil, such as virgin olive oil, as the preserving agent. Konfyt is a type of jam eaten in Southern Africa, it is made by boiling selected fruit or fruits and sugar, optionally adding a small quantity of ginger to enhance the flavour. The origins of the jam is obscure but it is theorized that it came from the French; the word is based on the French term confiture via the Dutch confijt. A conserve, or whole fruit jam, is a preserve made of fruit stewed in sugar.
Traditional whole fruit preserves are popular in Eastern Europe where they are called varenye, the Baltic region where they're known by a native name in each of the countries, as well as in many regions of Western and Southern Asia, where they are referred to as murabba. The making of conserves can be trickier than making a standard jam; this process can be achieved by spreading the dry sugar over raw fruit in layers, leaving for several hours to steep into the fruit just heating the resulting mixture only to bring to the setting point. As a result of this minimal cooking, some fruits are not suitable for making into conserves, because they require cooking for longer periods to avoid issues such as tough skins. Currants and gooseberries, a number of plums are among these fruits; because of this shorter cooking period, not as much pectin will be released from the fruit, as such, conserves will sometimes be softer set than some jams. An alternative definition holds that conserves are preserves made from a mixture of fruits or vegetables.
Conserves may include dried fruit or nuts. Fruit butter, in this context, refers to a process where the whole fruit is forced through a sieve or blended after the heating process. "Fruit butters are made from larger fruits, such as apples, peaches or grapes. Cook until softened and run through a sieve to give a smooth consistency. After sieving, cook the pulp... add sugar and cook as as possible with constant stirring.… The finished product should mound up when dropped from a spoon, but should not cut like jelly. Neither should there be any free liquid."—Berolzheimer R et al. Fruit curd is a dessert topping and spread made with lemon, orange, or raspberry; the basic ingredients are beaten egg yolks, fruit juice and zest which are cooked together until thick and allowed to cool, forming a soft, intensely flavored spread. Some recipes include egg whites or butter. Although the FDA has Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies and Related Products, there is no specification of the meaning of the term Fruit spread.
Although some assert it refers to a jam or preserve with no added sugar, there are many fruit spreads by leading manufacturers that do contain added sugar. This can be verified by searching the listings under fruit spread on common web sites, such as those of Amazon or Walmart, or to look at the ingredient list and nutritional information on specific fruit spread products. Jam contains both the juice and flesh of a fruit or vegetable, although one cookbook defines it as a cooked and jelled puree; the term "jam" refers to a product made of whole fruit cut into pieces or crushed heated with water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers: "Jams are made from pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a com
Marmalade refers to a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits boiled with sugar and water. It can be produced from kumquats, limes, mandarins, sweet oranges and other citrus fruits, or any combination of them though the original Portuguese marmalade is produced only from quince. For many decades now, the preferred citrus fruit for marmalade production in the British Isles has been the Spanish Seville orange, Citrus aurantium var. aurantium, prized for its high pectin content, which sets to the thick consistency expected of marmalade. The peel imparts a bitter taste; the term "marmalade" is a translation of the Portuguese marmelada that originated from the word marmelo. Unless otherwise stated, marmalade is distinguished from jam by its fruit peel. However, it may be distinguished from jam by the choice of fruit; the term was more used in senses other than just citrus conserves. The Romans learned from the Greeks that quinces cooked with honey would "set" when cool. Greek μελίμηλον transformed into Portuguese marmelo— from the Greek μῆλον stood for all globular fruits, most quinces are too astringent to be used without honey.
A Roman cookbook attributed to Apicius gives a recipe for preserving whole quinces and leaves attached, in a bath of honey diluted with defrutum—Roman marmalade. Preserves of quince and lemon appear—along with rose, apple and pear—in the Book of ceremonies of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, "a book, not only a treatise on the etiquette of imperial banquetting in the ninth century, but a catalogue of the foods available and dishes made from them."Medieval quince preserves, which went by the French name cotignac, produced in a clear version and a fruit pulp version, began to lose their medieval seasoning of spices in the 16th century. In the 17th century, La Varenne provided recipes for both clear cotignac. In 1524, Henry VIII received a "box of marmalade" from Mr Hull of Exeter; as it was in a box, this was marmelada, a solid quince paste from Portugal, still made and sold in southern Europe. Its Portuguese origins can be detected in the remarks in letters to Lord Lisle, from William Grett, 12 May 1534, "I have sent to your lordship a box of marmaladoo, another unto my good lady your wife" and from Richard Lee, 14 December 1536, "He most heartily thanketh her Ladyship for her marmalado".
The English recipe book of Eliza Cholmondeley, dated from 1677 and held at the Chester Record Office in the Cheshire county archivists, has one of the earliest marmalade recipes which produced a firm, thick dark paste. The Scots are credited with developing marmalade as a spread, with Scottish recipes in the 18th century using more water to produce a less solid preserve; the first printed recipe for orange marmalade, though without the chunks used now, was in Mary Kettilby's 1714 cookery book, A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts. Kettilby called for whole oranges, lemon juice and sugar, with the acid in the lemon juice helping to create the pectin set of marmalade, by boiling the lemon and orange juice with the pulp. Kettilby directs: "boil the whole pretty fast'till it will jelly" – the first known use of the word "jelly" in marmalade making. Kettilby instructs that the mixture is poured into glasses and left until set; as the acid would create a jelly, this meant that the mixture could be pulled from the heat before it had turned to a paste, keeping the marmalade much brighter and the appearance more translucent, as in modern-day marmalade.
The Scots moved marmalade to the breakfast table, in the 19th century the English followed the Scottish example and abandoned the eating of marmalade in the evening. Marmalade's place in British life appears in literature. James Boswell remarks that he and Samuel Johnson were offered it at breakfast in Scotland in 1773; when American writer Louisa May Alcott visited Britain in the 1800s, she described "a choice pot of marmalade and a slice of cold ham" as "essentials of English table comfort". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, marmalade appeared in the English language in 1480, borrowed from French marmelade which, in turn, came from the Galician-Portuguese word marmelada. According to José Pedro Machado’s Dicionário Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa, the oldest known document where this Portuguese word is to be found is Gil Vicente’s play Comédia de Rubena, written in 1521: Temos tanta marmelada Que a minha mãe vai me dar um poucoThe extension of marmalade in the English language to refer to a preserve made from citrus fruits occurred in the 17th century, when citrus first began to be plentiful enough in England for the usage to become common.
In Portuguese, according to the root of the word, marmelo, "quince", marmelada is a preserve made from quinces, quince cheese. Marmelo in turn derives from Latin melimelum, "honey apple", which in turn comes from the earlier Greek μελίμηλον, from μέλι, "honey" + μήλον, "apple". There is an apocryphal story that Mary, Queen of Scots, ate it when she had a headache, that the name is derived from her maids' whisper of Marie est malade. In reality, the word's origin has nothing to do with Mary. In much of Europe and Latin America, cognates for the English term "marmalade" are still used as a generic term for preserves of all fruits, whereas in Britain it refers to a citrus preserve; the name originates in Portuguese, where marmelada applies to quince jam. In Spanish the term refers to what in English is called jam, jalea — used in Mexico and
Nevşehir Neapolis and Muşkara, is a city and the capital district of Nevşehir Province in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. According to the 2010 census, the population of the district is 117,890 of which 85,634 live in the city of Nevşehir; the district covers an area of 535 km2, the town lies at an elevation of 1,224 m. A settlement was founded on the slopes of Mount Kahveci in the valley of Kızılırmak by the Hittites; the town along with the region came under the rule of the Assyrian Empire around the 8th century BC. In 333 BC, Alexander the Great defeated the Persians. After his death, Cappadocia came under the rule of the dynasty of Ariarathes with Mazaka as capital; the Cappadocian kingdom became part -as province- of the Roman empire in the reign of Emperor Tiberius. It has been held for the site of the bishopric of Nyssa; the underground shelters around Nevşehir and Göreme were built to escape persecution by the pagan Roman authorities. Many of the churches, hewn in the rocks, date from these early years of Christianity.
When Theodosius I made Christianity the official religion of the empire, the caves offered protection for the local people during raids by the Sassanid Persians circa 604 AD and by the Islamic Caliphate circa 647 AD. And when Iconoclasm became state policy in the Byzantine empire, again the caves of Nevşehir became shelters for those escaping persecution; the castle on the hill dates from the Byzantine period, when the region was on the frontline in the wars against the Islamic Caliphate. At the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 AD, the Byzantine emperor Romanos IV was defeated by the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan; this led to the occupation of Anatolia by the Seljuks by 1074 AD and Nevşehir along with the rest of the region became part of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum under the rule of the Karamanid dynasty in 1328 AD and under rule of the Ottoman Empire around 1487 AD and was renamed "Muşkara". It remained a insignificant settlement until the early 18th century; the present-day city owes its foundation to the grand vizier and son-in-law of the Sultan Ahmed III, Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha, born in Muşkara and therefore took a great interest in its construction as a city.
The small village with only 18 houses under the administration of the kaza of Ürgüp, was transformed with the building of mosques, schools, soup kitchens and bath houses, its name was changed from Muşkara to "Nevşehir". The city is located at a distance of 290 km from the capital Ankara, is within the historical region of Cappadocia; the traditional main sources of income of the city -- carpet weaving and viticulture -- have been overtaken by tourism, because of its proximity to the underground shelters, the fairy chimneys, monasteries and the famous rock-hewn churches of Göreme. A multiday track running ultramarathon of desert concept, called Runfire Cappadocia Ultramarathon, is held since 2012 annually in July; the race tours 244 km in six days through several historic places across Cappadocia reaching out to Lake Tuz. Nevşehir has a warm dry-summer continental climate, with cold and snowy winters and warm and dry summers. Rainfall occurs during late spring. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Nevşehir, Turkey".
Retrieved 2008-04-12. Kenthaber.com. "General information on Nevşehir, Turkey". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2008-04-12. Nevşehir and Ürgüp Avanos Göreme Uçhisar website Nevşehir governor's official website Map of Nevşehir district Nevşehir municipality's official website Nevşehir Administrative map of Nevşehir district
Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23 percent of pulp, skins and seeds is referred to as "must"; the sugars in grape juice allow it to be used as a sweetener, fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar. In North America, the most common grape juice is purple and made from Concord grapes while white grape juice is made from Niagara grapes, both of which are varieties of native American grapes, a different species from European wine grapes. In California, Sultana grapes are sometimes diverted from the raisin or table market to produce white juice. Grape juice can be made from all grape varieties after reaching appropriate maturity; because of consumers' preferences for characteristics in colour and aroma, grape juice is produced from American cultivars of Vitis labrusca species. The method of pasteurizing grape juice to halt the fermentation has been attributed to an American physician and dentist, Thomas Bramwell Welch in 1869.
A strong supporter of the temperance movement, he produced a non-alcoholic wine to be used for church services in his hometown of Vineland, New Jersey. His fellow parishioners continued to use regular wine, his son, Charles E. Welch, a dentist gave up his practice to promote grape juice. In 1893 he founded Welch's Grape Juice Company at New York; the product was given to visitors at international exhibitions. The oldest extant structure associated with the company is Welch Factory Building No. 1, located at Westfield, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. As the temperance movement grew, so did the popularity of grape juice. In 1913, Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan served grape juice instead of wine during a full-dress diplomatic function, in 1914, Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, forbade any alcoholic drinks on board of naval ships replacing them with grape juice. During World War I, the company supplied "grapelade", a type of grape jam, to the military and advertised aggressively.
Subsequent development of new grape products and sponsorship of radio and television programs made the company successful. Grape juice, because of its non-alcoholic content, is used by Christians who oppose the partaking of alcoholic beverages, as the "cup" or "wine" in the Lord's Supper; the Catholic Church does not use grape juice because it believes that bread and wine become the body and blood of Jesus Christ, a dogma known as transsubstantiation. Therefore, it is believed that not using wine impedes the transsubstantiation from happening; the Code of Canon Law of the Catholic Church, Canon 924 says that the wine used must be natural, made from grapes of the vine, not corrupt. Although alcohol is permitted in Judaism, grape juice is sometimes used as an alternative for kiddush on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and it has the same blessing as wine. However, many authorities maintain that grape juice must be capable of turning into wine in order to be used for kiddush. Common practice, however, is to use any kosher grape juice for kiddush
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component removed. This will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension, such as the removal of water from fruit juice. One benefit of producing a concentrate is that of a reduction in weight and volume for transportation, as the concentrate can be reconstituted at the time of usage by the addition of the solvent; the process of concentrating orange juice was patented in 1948. It was developed to provide World War II troops with a reliable source of vitamin C. Today, the majority of retailed orange juice is made from reconstituted orange juice concentrate. Most sodas and soft drinks are produced as concentrated syrups and diluted with carbonated water directly before consumption or bottling; such concentrated syrups are sometimes retailed to the end-consumer because of their low price and considerable weight savings. Condensed milk is produced for transport weight savings and resistance to spoilage. Most juice and soda concentrates have a long shelf-life due to high sugar content and/or added preservatives
Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings. Vinegar contains 5–20% acetic acid by volume; the acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol or sugars by acetic acid bacteria. There are many types of vinegar, depending upon the source materials. Vinegar is now used in the culinary arts: as a flavorful, acidic cooking ingredient, or in pickling; as the most manufactured mild acid, it has had a wide variety of industrial and domestic uses. The word vinegar arrived in Middle English from Old French, which in turn derives from Latin: vinum + acer; the conversion of ethanol and oxygen to acetic acid takes place by the following reaction: CH3CH2OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O Vinegar contains numerous flavonoids, phenolic acids, aldehydes, which vary in content depending on the source material used to make the vinegar, such as orange peel or various fruit juice concentrates. Vinegar was used for conservation by the Babylonians as much as 5,000 years ago.
Traces of it have been found in Egyptian urns from around 3000 BC. Commercial vinegar is produced either by a slow fermentation process. In general, slow methods are used in traditional vinegars, where fermentation proceeds over the course of a few months to a year; the longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. Fast methods add mother of vinegar to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in one to three days; the source materials for making vinegar are varied: different fruits, alcoholic beverages, other fermentable materials are used. Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, raspberry and tomato; the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product. Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a market for high-price vinegars made from specific fruits.
Several varieties are produced in Asia. Persimmon vinegar, called gam sikcho, is common in South Korea. Jujube vinegar, called zaocu or hongzaocu, wolfberry vinegar are produced in China. Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must, has a brownish-gold color, it is sometimes sold unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present. It can be sweetened for consumption. A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of misshapen or otherwise-rejected fruit and kiwifruit pomace. One of the uses for pomace is the production of kiwifruit vinegar, produced commercially in New Zealand since at least the early 1990s, in China in 2008. Pomegranate vinegar is used in Israel as a dressing for salad, but in meat stew and in dips. Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East, it is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East, used in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries. Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water or sap, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine, as well as in some cuisines of India and Sri Lanka Goan cuisine.
A cloudy white liquid, it has a sharp, acidic taste with a yeasty note. In the Philippines, there are other types of vinegar made from palm sap. Like coconut vinegar, they are by-products of tubâ production; the two of the most produced are nipa palm vinegar and kaong palm vinegar. Along with coconut and cane vinegar, they are the four main traditional vinegar types in the Philippines and are an important part of Filipino cuisine. Nipa palm vinegar is made from the sap of the leaf stalks of nipa palm, it imparts a distinctly musky aroma. Kaong palm vinegar is made from the sap of flower stalks of the kaong palm, it is sweeter than all the other Philippine vinegar types and are used in salad dressing. Vinegar from the buri palm sap is produced, but not the same prevalence as coconut and kaong vinegars. Kaong palm vinegar is produced in Indonesia and Malaysia, though it's not as prevalent as in the Philippines because the palm wine industry is not as widespread in these Muslim-majority countries. Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy.
The original product — traditional balsamic vinegar — is made from the concentrated juice, or must, of white Trebbiano grapes. It is dark brown, rich and complex, with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak, chestnut, cherry and ash wood. A costly product available to only the Italian upper classes, traditional balsamic vinegar is marked "tradizionale" or "DOC" to denote its Protected Designation of Origin status, is aged for 12 to 25 years. A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as "aceto balsamico di Modena" became known and available around the world in the late 20th century made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar coloured and sweetened with caramel and sugar. Balsamic vine