The Shahada is an Islamic creed, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, declaring belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads: لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh IPA: There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God. Audio audio In the English translation—"There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."—the first, lower-case occurrence of "god" is a translation of the Arabic word ilah, while the capitalized second and third occurrences of "God" are translations of the Arabic word Allah. The noun šahāda, from the verbal root šahida meaning "to observe, testify", translates as "testimony" in both the everyday and the legal senses; the Islamic creed is called, in the dual form, šahādatān. The expression al-šahāda is used in Quran as one of the "titles of God". In Sunni Islam, the Shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first Shahada and the second Shahada.
The first statement of the Shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the Shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God". In the Quran, the first statement of the Shahadah takes the form la ilaha illa'llah twice, allahu la ilaha illa hu much more often, it appears in the shorter form la ilaha illa Hu in many places. It appears in these forms about 30 times in the Quran, never attached with the other parts of the Shahadah in Sunni or Shia Islam or "in conjunction with another name". Islam's monotheistic nature is reflected in the first sentence of the Shahada, which declares belief in the oneness of God and that he is the only entity worthy of worship; the second sentence of the Shahada indicates the means by which God has offered guidance to human beings. The verse reminds Muslims that they accept not only the prophecy of Muhammad but the long line of prophets who preceded him.
While the first part is seen as a cosmic truth, the second is specific to Islam, as it is understood that members of the older Abrahamic religions do not view Muhammad as one of their prophets. The Shahada is a statement of both worship. In a well-known hadith, Muhammad defines Islam as witnessing that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, giving of alms, performing the ritual prayer, fasting during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to the Kaaba: the Five Pillars of Islam are inherent in this declaration of faith. Recitation of the Shahādah is the most common statement of faith for Muslims. In Sunni Islam, it is counted as the first of the Five Pillars of Islam, while the Shi'i Twelvers and Isma'ilis have the Shahada as among their pillars of faith, it is whispered by the father into the ear of a newborn child, it is whispered into the ear of a dying person. The five canonical daily prayers each include a recitation of the Shahada. Recitation of the Shahada in front of witnesses is the first and only formal step in conversion to Islam.
This occasion attracts more than the two required witnesses and sometimes includes a celebration to welcome the convert into their new faith. In accordance with the central importance played by the notion of intention in Islamic doctrine, the recitation of the Shahada must reflect understanding of its import and heartfelt sincerity. Intention is what differentiates acts of devotion from mundane acts and a simple reading of the Shahada from invoking it as a ritual activity. Though the two statements of the Shahada are both present in the Quran, they are not found there side by side as in the Shahada formula. Versions of both phrases began to appear in coins and monumental architecture in the late seventh century, which suggests that it had not been established as a ritual statement of faith until then. An inscription in the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem reads: "There is no god but God alone. Another variant appears in coins minted after the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad caliph: "Muhammad is the servant of God and His messenger".
Although it is not clear when the Shahada first came into common use among Muslims, it is clear that the sentiments it expresses were part of the Quran and Islamic doctrine from the earliest period. The Shahada has been traditionally recited in the Sufi ceremony of dhikr, a ritual that resembles mantras found in many other religious traditions. During the ceremony, the Shahada may be repeated thousands of times, sometimes in the shortened form of the first phrase where the word Allah is replaced by huwa; the chanting of the Shahada sometimes provides a rhythmic background for singing. The Shahada appears as an architectural element in Islamic buildings around the world, such as those in Jerusalem and Istanbul. Late-medieval and Renaissance European art displays a fascination with Middle Eastern motifs in general and the Arabic script in particular, as indicated by its use, without concern f
Gulshan is an affluent neighbourhood in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. A residential area, Gulshan is now home to a number of the city's restaurants, shopping centres and members' clubs; the neighbourhood hosts the majority of embassies and high commissions in Dhaka. Gulshan was founded as a planned model town in 1961 with its own Pourashabha, while the neighbouring Banani Model Town was founded in 1964. Gulshan Thana was established in 1972. Gulshan Pourashabha was abolished in 1982. In 1984, along with Mirpur municipality, was absorbed into Dhaka; the area was built with the purpose of being residential, over the years many commercial buildings have been set up. Gulshan is now a mix of a serene residential area and a city centre with shopping malls and commercial buildings; the Gulshan city centre only consists of Gulshan and Banani. Only the Gulshan Thana has Mohakhali. On January 3, 2017, at 2:30 a.m. BST midnight, DCC in Gulshan; the Gulshan Thana comprises an area of 53.59 km², consisting of three wards, 37 mouzas and 20 villages, including Gulshan Model Town, consisting of Gulshan circle 1 and circle 2, Banani Model Town, Baridhara Diplomatic Zone, Mohakhali.
50% of the area is residential, 20% commercial, 12% is diplomatic area. 18% land in Gulshan consists of other areas, including slums, of which the biggest is the Karail slum and Gulshan Lake. Apart from the urban areas, the 37 mouzas of Gulshan Thana contain 20 villages. Gulshan is a commercial and residential area meant for offices and embassies of diplomatic missions, as well as residences; the area has seen an upsurge, since mid-1990s, in the number of high-rise buildings, residential areas, modern markets and ice-cream parlors which are open past midnight. The independent houses of the early 1970s that stood far from each other in Gulshan area have vanished because of the commercial boom, to the point of old residents claiming it is not a residential area any more. Though Gulshan and Baridhara, as well as Uttara and other satellite towns like Bashundhara are on higher lands, substantial part the Gulshan Thana area remained under water for a prolonged duration during the 1998 Bangladesh floods.
Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority conducted a survey to investigate the causes of and remedial measures in 1998 with particular focus on the Gulshan Lake and the Gulshan and Banani canals. Flood water runoff flows into these water bodies turning these into buffer flood control reservoirs, except some pockets of transient water-logging. Drains and sewerage pipes dumping wastes in the Gulshan lake has been identified as major pollution problem by DWASA; the malodorous wastes tend to spill over. As per 1991 Bangladesh census, Gulshan had a population of 281,337. Many of Dhaka's richest reside here. 21.59 % of residents are occupied with commerce. Average literacy rate of the area is 59.7% for people over the age of 47 against the national average. 93.65% of the Gulshan population are Muslims, refer to themselves as "Gulshanis". Thoroughfares in the area are beautified by major cellphone companies of Bangladesh. There are 25 mosques including Gulshan Azad Mosque and Banani Bazaar Mosque; the area features a number of churches and Christian missions, including that of the Missionaries of Charity.
Many local and multinational companies have their local headquarters located in Gulshan, including Nokia, Banglalink, Standard Chartered Bank, P&G, GSK, Reckitt Benckiser, Nokia Siemens Networks, Sony Ericsson, Coca-Cola and Pepsi. There are some 45 boutiques, markets and shopping centres in Gulshan. There are mega-stores such as Nandan, Aarong, Meena Baazar and Lavender. There are many shopping mall like Shopper's World, Pink City and the ABC Shopping Complex. A plethora of food and fashion outlets are located all over the area; the area hosts a number of private clubs. While the Gulshan Club and International Club have their own policies, most of the rest are sponsored by the various diplomatic missions; these include the American Recreation Association, the Canadian Club, the Dutch Club, the Australian Club, the Nordic Club and the German Club. The BAGHA Club falls under the British High Commission umbrella and accepts membership from EU citizens. While it is not a club as such, the quarters of the American Embassy's Marine Guard unit maintains a small private bar.
There is a 250-room five star hotel, located at circle 2. The headquarters of icddr,b is in Mahakhali. Gulshan Mother and Child Clinic, Gulshan Group Clinic and Eye Center, DNS Diagnostics and Telemedicine, Sikder's Women's Hospital, Ear Care Center, Balaka Pharmacy are in Gulshan Model Town; the Dental Studio, Sarah Dental Clinic, Johnson's Dental Clinic are in Banani Model Town. The Apollo Hospital is in Bashundhara. There Japan Bangladesh Friendship Hospital in Gulshan, Aysha Memorial Specialized Hospital and Life Line in Mohakhali, Nova Medical Center, Peerless Diagnistic & Treatment Centre and Prince Medical Center in Banani. There Midway Clinic, Adventist Dental Clinic, Modern Clinic & Blood Center and Shifa Pharmacy in Gulshan, Christian Medical Hospital in Baridhara, Metropolitan Medical Center and Marie Stopes Clinic in Mohakhali. Source: Embassy World Australian International Sc
History of Islam
The history of Islam concerns the political, social and developments of the Islamic civilization. Despite concerns about the reliability of early sources, most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century 600 years after the founding of Christianity. Muslims, believe that it did not start with Muhammad, but that it was the original faith of others whom they regard as prophets, such as Jesus, Moses, Abraham and Adam. In 610 CE, Muhammad began receiving. Muhammad's message won over a handful of followers and was met with increasing opposition from Meccan notables. In 618, after he lost protection with the death of his influential uncle Abu Talib, Muhammad migrated to the city of Yathrib. With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. By the 8th century, the Islamic empire extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads, Abbasids and Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world.
The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable astronomers, mathematicians and philosophers during the Middle Ages. In the early 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate took over the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the 13th and 14th centuries, destructive Mongol invasions and those of Tamerlane from the East, along with the loss of population in the Black Death weakened the traditional centers of the Islamic world, stretching from Persia to Egypt. Islamic Iberia was conquered by Christian forces during the Reconquista. Nonetheless, in the Early Modern period, the Ottomans, the Safavids, the Mughals were able to create new world powers again. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, most parts of the Muslim world fell under the influence or direct control of European "Great Powers." Their efforts to win independence and build modern nation states over the course of the last two centuries continue to reverberate to the present day. The following timeline can serve as a rough visual guide to the most important polities in the Islamic world prior to the First World War.
It covers major historical centers of power and culture, including Arabia, Persia, Egypt, Maghreb, al-Andalus, Transoxania and Anatolia. It is an approximation, since rule over some regions was sometimes divided among different centers of power, authority in larger polities was distributed among several dynasties. For example, during the stages of the Abbasid Caliphate the capital city of Baghdad was ruled by other dynasties such as the Buyyids and the Seljuks, while the Ottomans delegated executive authority over outlying provinces to local potentates, such as the Deys of Algiers, the Beys of Tunis, the Mamluks of Iraq. Dates are approximate, consult particular articles for details; the study of the earliest periods in Islamic history is made difficult by a lack of sources. For example, the most important historiographical source for the origins of Islam is the work of al-Tabari. While al-Tabari was an excellent historian by the standards of his time and place, use of his work as a source is problematic for two reasons.
For one, his style of historical writing permitted liberal use of mythical, stereotyped and polemical presentations of its subject matter. Second, al-Tabari's descriptions of the beginning of Islam post-date the events by a large amount of time, al-Tabari having died in 923. Differing views about how to deal with the available sources has led to the development of four different approaches to the history of early Islam. All four methods have some level of support today; the descriptive method uses the outlines of Islamic traditions, while being adjusted for the stories of miracles and faith-centred claims within those sources. Edward Gibbon and Gustav Weil represent some of the first historians following the descriptive method. On the source critical method, a comparison of all the sources is sought in order to identify which informants to the sources are weak and thereby distinguish spurious material; the work of William Montgomery Watt and that of Wilferd Madelung are two source critical examples.
On the tradition critical method, the sources are believed to be based on oral traditions with unclear origins and transmission history, so are treated cautiously. Ignaz Goldziher was the pioneer of the tradition critical method, Uri Rubin gives a contemporary example; the skeptical method doubts nearly all of the material in the traditional sources, regarding any possible historical core as too difficult to decipher from distorted and fabricated material. An early example of the skeptical method was the work of John Wansbrough. Nowadays, the popularity of the different methods employed varies on the scope of the works under consideration. For overview treatments of the history of early Islam, the descriptive approach is more popular. For scholars who look at the beginnings of Islam in depth, the source critical and tradition critical methods are more followed. After the 8th century, the quality of sources improves; those sources which treated earlier times with a large temporal and cultural gap now begin to give accounts which are more contemporaneous, the quality of genre of available historical accounts improves, new documentary sources—such as official documents and poetry—
Angels in Islam
In Islam, angels are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them. The angels from the angelic realm are subordinates in a hierarchy headed by one of the archangels in the highest heavens. Belief in angels is one of the six articles of faith in Islam. Islam acknowledges the concept of angels both abstract, it does not mean Islamic scholars depict them as either personified creatures or abstract forces: Some scholars distinguished between the angels, charged with carrying the laws of nature dwelling on earth as being abstract, the angels in heaven prostrating before God and spiritual creatures of the supreme world, such as the archangels, as personified. Angels are another kind of creature created by God, known to mankind dwelling in the heavenly spheres. Although the Quran does not mention the time when angels were created, they are considered as the first creation of God, they are created from a luminous substance with no bodily desires, never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.
Al-Kindi and Ibn Sina both define angels as simple substances endowed with life and immortality. In contrast to humans, who are substances endowed with life and reason but are mortal, who is, in turn, distinguished by unreasonable but mortal animals. In chapter 10 of Sahih Muslim The Book of Zuhd and Softening of Hearts by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, a hadith states: The Angels were born out of light and the Jann was born out of the mixture of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined for you and many Islamic sources talk of angels being created from light, based on the hadith by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. However, many scholars have argued. According to the famous exegete al-Tabari, God may have created angels from fire and other things, as well as from light; some angels are thought to be composed of elements such as water or fire those who carry the Throne of God. According to the Isra and Mi'raj-narrations, Muhammad met an angel composed of fire and ice and both pass into one another without cooling down the fire, nor melting the ice, demonstrating God's power over the usual laws of nature.
Islamic scholars evaluated — in the view of the prevailing Jewish opinion at the time that angels were created by God from fire — whether angels were created from fire or not and how they are distinguished from those created from light. Al-Suyuti stated that angels are composed either of light. Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi divided the angels into two groups: The angels of mercy created from light, angels of Punishment created from the fire. Qazwini and Ibishi assert that all supernatural creatures, due to their invisibility, are composed of a subtle matter, equivalent to fire but which differs in intensity and are distinguished by the part of fire they originated from. Accordingly, the angels are created from the light of a fire, the jinn from the tongue of fire and the demons from its smoke. Furthermore, scholars such as al-Tabari stated that light and fire do not appeal to different elements, but to a luminous origin of angels which should not be taken literally. Angels as abstract concepts belong to Al-Ghaib.
Angels here are used as expressions of natural laws. They carry the Divine command into execution. References to specific angels, like Jabra'il or Azrail, are respective leaders, with a multitude of subordinative angels, who perform for a specific function. Qazwini portrays the earthly angels as indwelling forces of nature, who keep the world in order and never deviate from their duty. Qazwini believed that the existence of these angels could be proven by reason and the things these angels affect. Islamic philosophy stressed that humans own angelic and demonic qualities and that the human soul is seen as a potential angel or potential demon. Depending on whether the sensual soul or the rational soul develop, the human soul becomes an angel or a demon. Angels may give inspirations opposite to the evil suggestions, called waswās, from Satan; the modern astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum has pointed to modern Islamic scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez in his book "Islam's Quantum Question" who have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.
A question in Islamic theology deals with the impeccability of the angels. The majority of Islamic scholars prefer the opinion. Advocates of angels' infallibility cite certain verses from the Quran, which support their claim such as 16:49: "To Allah prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, including animals and angels, they are not arrogant". However, these verses cannot prove the impeccability for all angels at any time and in any situation; the motif of erring angels is known to Islam. This is supported by verses being tested. Al-Baydawi argued, angels are only impeccable. Others speak of Islamic angels as continuously obedient and refer to Ijma. One of the first scholars who asserted the doctrine of impeccable angels was Hasan of Basra, he not only advocated the impeccability of angels by quoting certain Quranic verses, but reinterpreted verses, which speak against the impeccability of angels. With the discussion whether angels are able to or not, a dispute arises concerning whether humans, prophets or angels are the superior.
Hasa of Basra advocated that angels are better than both humans and prophets because of their purity, a position, opposed by Sunnis and Shias. On the other hand, the prostration of angels before Adam is seen a
Islamic banking and finance
Islamic banking or Islamic finance or sharia-compliant finance is banking or financing activity that complies with sharia and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics. Some of the modes of Islamic banking/finance include Mudarabah, Musharaka and Ijara. Sharia prohibits usury, defined as interest paid on all loans of money. Investment in businesses that provide goods or services considered contrary to Islamic principles is haraam; these prohibitions have been applied in varying degrees in Muslim countries/communities to prevent un-Islamic practices. In the late 20th century, as part of the revival of Islamic identity, a number of Islamic banks formed to apply these principles to private or semi-private commercial institutions within the Muslim community, their number and size has grown, so that by 2009, there were over 300 banks and 250 mutual funds around the world complying with Islamic principles, around $2 trillion was sharia-compliant by 2014. Sharia-compliant financial institutions represented 1% of total world assets, concentrated in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries and Malaysia.
Although Islamic banking still makes up only a fraction of the banking assets of Muslims, since its inception it has been growing faster than banking assets as a whole, is projected to continue to do so. The industry has been lauded for returning to the path of "divine guidance" in rejecting the "political and economic dominance" of the West, noted as the "most visible mark" of Islamic revivalism, its most enthusiastic advocates promise "no inflation, no unemployment, no exploitation and no poverty" once it is implemented. However, it has been criticized for failing to develop profit and loss sharing or more ethical modes of investment promised by early promoters, instead selling banking products that "comply with the formal requirements of Islamic law", but use "ruses and subterfuges to conceal interest", entail "higher costs, bigger risks" than conventional banks. Although Islamic finance contains many prohibitions—such as on consumption of alcohol, uncertainty, etc. -- the belief that "all forms of interest are riba and hence prohibited" is the idea upon which it is based.
The word "riba" means “excess or addition”, has been translated as "interest", "usury", "excess", "increase" or "addition". According to Islamic economists Choudhury and Malik, the elimination of interest followed a "gradual process" in early Islam, "culminating" with a "fully fledged Islamic economic system" under Caliph Umar. Other sources, do not agree, state that the giving and taking of interest continued in Muslim society "at times through the use of legal ruses more or less openly," including during the Ottoman Empire. In the late 19th century Islamic Modernists reacted to the rise of European power and influence and its colonization of Muslim countries by reconsidering the prohibition on interest and whether interest rates and insurance were not among the "preconditions for productive investment" in a functioning modern economy. Syed Ahmad Khan, argued for a differentiation between sinful riba "usury", which they saw as restricted to charges on lending for consumption, legitimate non-riba "interest", for lending for commercial investment.
However, in the 20th century, Islamic revivalists/Islamists/activists worked to define all interest as riba, to enjoin Muslims to lend and borrow at "Islamic Banks" that avoided fixed rates. By the 21st century this Islamic Banking movement had created "institutions of interest-free financial enterprises across the world”; the movement started with activists and scholars such as Anwar Qureshi,Naeem Siddiqui, Abul A'la Maududi, Muhammad Hamidullah, in the late 1940 and early 1950s. They believed commercial banks were a "necessary evil," and proposed a banking system based on the concept of Mudarabah, where shared profit on investment would replace interest. Further works devoted to the subject of interest-free banking were authored by Muhammad Uzair, Abdullah al-Araby, Mohammad Najatuallah Siddiqui, al-Najjar and Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr; the involvement of institutions and various conferences and studies on Islamic banking were instrumental in applying the application of theory to practice for the first interest-free banks.
At the First International Conference on Islamic Economics, "several hundred Muslim intellectuals, Shari'ah scholars and economists unequivocally declared... that all forms of interest" were riba. By 2004, the strength of this belief was demonstrated in the world's second largest Muslim country—Pakistan—when a minority member of the Pakistani parliament questioned it
Islamic culture and Muslim culture refer to cultural practices common to Islamic people. The early forms of Muslim culture, from the Rashidun Caliphate to early Umayyad perioud, were predominantly Arab, Byzantine and Levantine. With the rapid expansion of the Islamic empires, Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the Persian, Caucasian, Mongol, South Asian, Somali, Berber and Moro cultures. Islamic culture includes all the practices which have developed around the religion of Islam. There are variations in the application of Islamic beliefs in different traditions. Arabic literature is both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language; the Arabic word used for literature is "Adab", derived from a meaning of etiquette, which implies politeness and enrichment. Arabic literature emerged in the 5th century with only fragments of the written language appearing before then; the Qur'an regarded by people as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language, would have the greatest lasting effect on Arabic culture and its literature.
Arabic literature flourished during the Islamic Golden Age, but has remained vibrant to the present day, with poets and prose-writers across the Arab world, as well as rest of the world, achieving increasing success. Persian literature comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures, it spans over two-and-a-half millennia. Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, Turkey, regions of Central Asia and South Asia where the Persian language has been either the native or official language. For instance, one of best-loved Persian poets born in Balkh or Vakhsh, wrote in Persian and lived in Konya the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia; the Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, Azerbaijan, the wider Caucasus, western parts of Pakistan, India and other parts of Central Asia.
Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic and Indic poets and writers have used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures. Described as one of the great literatures of humanity, including Goethe's assessment of it as one of the four main bodies of world literature, Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Behistun Inscription; the bulk of surviving Persian literature, comes from the times following the Arab conquest of Persia c. 650 CE. After the Abbasids came to power, the Iranians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Arab empire and also its writers and poets; the New Persian language literature arose and flourished in Khorasan and Transoxiana because of political reasons, early Iranian dynasties such as the Tahirids and Samanids being based in Khorasan.
Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Sa'di, Attar, Nezami and Omar Khayyam are known in the West and have influenced the literature of many countries. For a thousand years, since the invasion of India by the Ghaznavids, the Persian-Islamic culture of the eastern half of the Islamic world started to dominate the Indian culture. Persian was the official language of most Indian empires such as the Ghaznavids, the Delhi Sultanate, the Bengal Sultanate, the Deccan Sultanates and the Mughal Empire. Persian artistic forms in literature and poetry such as ghazals have come to affect Urdu and other Indian literature. More Persian literature was produced in India than in the Iranian world; as late as the 20th century, Allama Iqbal chose Persian for some of his major poetic works. The first Persian language newspaper was published in India, given that printing machines were first implemented in India. In Bengal, the Baul tradition of mystic music and poetry merged Sufism with many local images; the most prominent poets were Lalon Shah.
During the early 14th century, the liberal poet Kazi Nazrul Islam espoused intense spiritual rebellion against oppression and religious fundamentalism. Sultana's Dream by Begum Rokeya, an Islamic feminist, is one earliest works of feminist science fiction. From the 11th century, there was a growing body of Islamic literature in the Turkic languages. However, for centuries to come the official language in Turkish-speaking areas would remain Persian. In Anatolia, with the advent of the Seljuks, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be revived. A branch of the Seljuks, the Sultanate of Rum, took Russian language and letters to Anatolia, they adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire. The Ottomans, which can "roughly" be seen as their eventual successors, took this tradition over. Persian was the official court language of the empire, for some time, the official language of the empire, though the lingua franca amongst common people from the 15th/16th century would become Turkish as well as having laid an active "foundation" for the Turkic language as earl
A combination of Islam and feminism has been advocated as "a feminist discourse and practice articulated within an Islamic paradigm" by Margot Badran in 2002. Islamic feminists ground their arguments in Islam and its teachings, seek the full equality of women and men in the personal and public sphere, can include non-Muslims in the discourse and debate. Islamic feminism is defined by Islamic scholars as being more radical than secular feminism and as being anchored within the discourse of Islam with the Quran as its central text; as a "school of thought", it is said to refer to Moroccan sociologist "Fatema Mernissi and scholars such as Amina Wadud and Leila Ahmed". Advocates refer to the observation that Muslim majority countries produced several female heads of state, prime ministers, state secretaries such as Lala Shovkat of Azerbaijan, Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, Mame Madior Boye of Senegal, Tansu Çiller of Turkey, Kaqusha Jashari of Kosovo, Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia. In Bangladesh, Khaleda Zia was elected the country's first female prime minister in 1991, served as prime minister until 2009, when she was replaced by Sheikh Hasina, who maintains the prime minister's office at present making Bangladesh the country with the longest continuous female premiership.
There are substantial differences to be noted between the terms'Islamic feminist' and'Islamist'. Any of these terms can be used of women. Islamic feminists interpret the religious texts in a feminist perspective, they can be viewed as a branch of interpreters who ground their arguments in Islam and its teachings, seek the full equality of women and men in the personal and public sphere, can include non-Muslims in the discourse and debate. Islamic feminism is defined by Islamic scholars as being more radical than secular feminism, as being anchored within the discourse of Islam with the Quran as its central text. During recent times, the concept of Islamic feminism has grown further with Islamic groups looking to garner support from many aspects of society. In addition, educated Muslim women are striving to articulate their role in society. Islamists are advocates of political Islam, the notion that the Quran and hadith mandate a caliphate, i.e. an Islamic government. Some Islamists advocate women's rights in the public sphere but do not challenge gender inequality in the personal, private sphere.
Su'ad al-Fatih al-Badawi, a Sudanese academic and Islamist politician, has argued that feminism is incompatible with taqwa, thus Islam and feminism are mutually exclusive. Margot Badran of Georgetown University’s Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding argues that Islam and feminism are not mutually exclusive and that “Islamic feminism, which derives its understanding and mandate from the Qur'an, seeks rights and justice for women, for men, in the totality of their existence. Islamic feminism is both contested and embraced.” During the early days of Islam in the 7th century CE, changes in women's rights affected marriage and inheritance. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam argues for a general improvement of the status of women in Arab societies, including the prohibition of female infanticide, though some historians believe that infanticide was practiced both before and after Islam. Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a status but rather as a contract, in which the woman's consent was imperative, either by active consent or silence.
"The dowry regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as part of her personal property". William Montgomery Watt states that Muhammad, in the historical context of his time, can be seen as a figure who testified on behalf of women's rights and improved things considerably. Watt explains: "At the time Islam began, the conditions of women were terrible – they had no right to own property, were supposed to be the property of the man, if the man died everything went to his sons." Muhammad, however, by "instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance and divorce, gave women certain basic safeguards." Haddad and Esposito state that "Muhammad granted women rights and privileges in the sphere of family life, marriage and economic endeavors, rights that help improve women's status in society."Feminist critics of the notion that Islam bettered the status of women include Leila Ahmed, who states that Islamic records show that at least some women in pre-Islamic Arabia inherited wealth, ran businesses, chose their own husbands, worked in respected professions.
Fatima Mernissi argues that customs in pre-Islamic Arabia were more permissive of female sexuality and social independence, not less. Mahood A, Moel J, Hudson C, Leathers L. conducted a study and questioned individual women about how their role as a woman in their religion and if it empowering them in any way, an interviewee states "In Islam and its teachings are capable of giving women an equal footing in society to men, that Islam does not relegate women to the private sphere. I believe some Muslims have distorted our teachings and forgotten our heritage. I believe that Islam can be used as a source of empowerment for women.” Whilst the pre-modern period lacked a formal feminist movement a number of important figures argued for improving women's rights and autonomy. These range from the medieval mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi, who argued that women could achieve spiritual stations as high as men. In eras, Nana Asma’u, daughter of eighteenth-century reformer Usman Dan Fodio, pushed for literacy and the education of Muslim women.
Wealthy noblewomen funded Islamic religious and learning establishments, though few of those establishments admitted female students