Cadbury Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes, is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International since 2010. It is the second-largest confectionery brand in the world after Mars. Cadbury is internationally headquartered in Uxbridge, West London, operates in more than 50 countries worldwide, it is known for its Dairy Milk chocolate, the Creme Egg and Roses selection box, many other confectionery products. One of the best-known British brands, in 2013 The Daily Telegraph named Cadbury among Britain's most successful exports. Cadbury was established in Birmingham, England in 1824, by John Cadbury who sold tea and drinking chocolate. Cadbury developed the business with his brother Benjamin, followed by his sons George. George developed the Bournville estate, a model village designed to give the company's workers improved living conditions. Dairy Milk chocolate, introduced in 1905, used a higher proportion of milk within the recipe compared with rival products. By 1914, the chocolate was the company's best-selling product.
Cadbury, alongside Rowntree's and Fry, were the big three British confectionery manufacturers throughout much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Cadbury was granted its first Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria in 1854, it has been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Elizabeth II since 1955. Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons in 1919, Schweppes in 1969, known as Cadbury Schweppes until 2008, when the American beverage business was split as Dr Pepper Snapple Group. Cadbury was a constant constituent of the FTSE 100 on the London Stock Exchange from the index's 1984 inception until the company was bought by Kraft Foods in 2010. In 1824, John Cadbury, a Quaker, began selling tea and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England. From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. In 1847, John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as "Cadbury Brothers".
In 1847, Cadbury's competitor Fry's of Bristol produced the first chocolate bar. Cadbury introduced his brand of the chocolate bar in 1849, that same year and Fry's chocolate bars were displayed publicly at a trade fair in Bingley Hall, Birmingham; the Cadbury brothers opened an office in London, in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. The company went into decline in the late 1850s. John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861. At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, the company was losing money. By 1866, Cadbury was profitable again; the brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, by increasing the quality of their products. The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean.
The firm began exporting its products in the 1850s. In 1861, the company created Fancy Boxes — a decorated box of chocolates — and in 1868 they were sold in boxes in the shape of a heart for Valentine's Day. Boxes of filled chocolates became associated with the holiday. In 1878, the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham; the move to the countryside was unprecedented in business. Better transport access for milk, inward shipped by canal, cocoa, brought in by rail from London and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres of countryside 5 miles south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next to the Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year. In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'.
By 1900 the estate included 314 houses set on 330 acres of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate. In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars. In 1899 Cadbury became a private limited company. In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate. From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper, it was a great sales success, became the company's best selling product by 1914. The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906. Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company's rapid pre-war expansion. In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time. Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War.
More than 2,000 of Cadbury's male employees joined the British Armed Forces, to support the British war effort, Cadbury provided chocolate and clothing to the troops. George Cadbury handed over two com
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. On, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others; the presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges produces a magnetic field; when a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge, thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is measured in volts.
Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for: electric power where electric current is used to energise equipment. Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity were few, it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use; the rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an limitless set of applications which include transport, lighting and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BCE referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile", described them as the "protectors" of all other fish.
Electric fish were again reported millennia by ancient Greek and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and electric rays, knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them; the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning ra‘ad applied to the electric ray. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales of Miletus made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BCE, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing.
Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According to a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature. Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber, he coined the New Latin word electricus to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted in the 17th and early 18th centuries by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay.
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand showed that lightning was indeed electrical in nature, he explained the paradoxical behavior of the Leyden jar as a device for storing large amounts of electrical charge in terms of electricity consisting of both positive and negative charges. In 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines used; the recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric
Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid, transparent and has widespread practical and decorative uses in, for example, window panes and optoelectronics. The most familiar, the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica, the primary constituent of sand; the term glass, in popular usage, is used to refer only to this type of material, familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of 75% silicon dioxide, sodium oxide from sodium carbonate, calcium oxide called lime, several minor additives. Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Glass will transmit and refract light. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, can be painted and printed with vitreous enamels; these qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows.
Although brittle, silicate glass is durable, many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, bottles and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms it has been used for paperweights and beads; when extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermal insulating material, when these glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass. Some objects were so made of silicate glass that they are called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses. Scientifically, the term "glass" is defined in a broader sense, encompassing every solid that possesses a non-crystalline structure at the atomic scale and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses.
These sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses are a lighter alternative than traditional glass. Silicon dioxide is a common fundamental constituent of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurites. Fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure silica, it has excellent resistance to thermal shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. However, its high melting temperature and viscosity make it difficult to work with. Other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate; the soda makes the glass water-soluble, undesirable, so lime, some magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass is called a soda-lime glass. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass.
Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties. Lead glass or flint glass is more "brilliant" because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eyeglasses. Iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared radiation, for example in heat-absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium oxide can be used for glass that absorbs ultraviolet wavelengths; the following is a list of the more common types of silicate glasses and their ingredients and applications: Fused quartz called fused-silica glass, vitreous-silica glass: silica in vitreous, or glass, form. It has low thermal expansion, is hard, resists high temperatures, it is the most resistant against weathering. Fused quartz is used for high-temperature applications such as furnace tubes, lighting tubes, melting crucibles, etc.
Soda-lime-silica glass, window glass: silica + sodium oxide + lime + magnesia + alumina. Is transparent formed and most suitable for window glass, it has a high thermal expansion and poor resistance to heat. It is used for windows, some low-temperature incandescent light bulbs, tableware. Container glass is a soda-lime glass, a slight variation on flat glass, which uses more alumina and calcium, less sodium and magnesium, which are more water-soluble; this makes it less susceptible to water erosion. Sodium borosilicate glass, Pyrex: silica + boron trioxide + soda + alumina. Stan
Quarter (United States coin)
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a United States coin worth 25 cents, one-fourth of a dollar. It has a thickness of.069 inches. The coin sports the profile of George Washington on its obverse, its reverse design has changed frequently, it has been produced on and off since 1796 and since 1831. The choice of 1⁄4 as a denomination—as opposed to the 1⁄5 more common elsewhere—originated with the practice of dividing Spanish milled dollars into eight wedge-shaped segments. "Two bits" is a common nickname for a quarter. The current clad version is two layers of cupronickel, 75% copper and 25% nickel, on a core of pure copper; the total composition of the coin is 8.33% nickel, with the remainder copper. It weighs 1/80th of a pound, 0.1823 troy oz. The diameter is 0.955 inches, the width of 0.069 inches. The coin has a 0.069-inch reeded edge. Owing to the introduction of the clad quarter in 1965, it was called a "Johnson Sandwich" after Lyndon B. Johnson, the US President at the time; as of 2011, it cost 11.14 cents to produce each coin.
The U. S. Mint began producing silver quarters again in 1992 for inclusion in the annual Silver Proof set. Early quarters were larger in diameter and thinner than the current coin; the current regular issue coin is the George Washington quarter, showing George Washington on the front. The reverse featured an eagle prior to the 1999 50 State Quarters Program; the Washington quarter was designed by John Flanagan. It was issued as a circulating commemorative, but was made a regular issue coin in 1934. In 1999, the 50 State Quarters program of circulating commemorative quarters began; these have a modified Washington obverse and a different reverse for each state, ending the former Washington quarter's production completely. On January 23, 2007, the House of Representatives passed H. R. 392 extending the state quarter program one year to 2009, to include the District of Columbia and the five inhabited US territories: Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
The bill passed through the Senate and was signed into legislation by President George W. Bush as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, Pub. L. 110–161, on December 27, 2007. The typeface used in the state quarter series varies a bit from one state to another, but is derived from Albertus. On June 4, 2008, a bill titled America's Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Coin Act of 2008, H. R. 6184, was introduced to the House of Representatives. On December 23, 2008, President Bush signed the bill into law as Pub. L. 110–456. The America the Beautiful Quarters program will continue for 12 years. Silver quartersWright 1792 Draped Bust 1796–1807 Draped Bust, Small Eagle 1796 Draped Bust, Heraldic Eagle 1804–1807 Capped Bust 1815–1838 Capped Bust, With Motto 1815–1828 Capped Bust, No Motto 1831–1838 Seated Liberty 1838–1891 Seated Liberty, No Motto 1838–1865 Seated Liberty, With Motto 1866–1891 Barber 1892–1916 Standing Liberty 1916–1930Standing Liberty 1916–1917 Standing Liberty 1917–1924 Standing Liberty 1925-1930 Washington Quarter 1932–1964, 1992–1998 Washington Bicentennial 1975–1976 Washington U.
S. Statehood Series 1999–2008 Washington District of Columbia and U. S. Territories 2009 Washington America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021 Copper-nickel quartersWashington Quarter 1965–1974, 1977–1998 Washington Bicentennial 1975–1976 Washington U. S. Statehood Series 1999–2008 Washington District of Columbia and U. S. Territories 2009 Washington America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021 Non-clad silver quarters weigh 6.25 grams and are composed of 90% silver, 10% copper, with a total silver weight of 0.1808479 troy ounce pure silver. They were issued from 1932 through 1964; the current rarities for the Washington Quarter silver series are: Branch Mintmarks are D = Denver, S = San Francisco. Coins without mintmarks are all made at the main Mint in Philadelphia; this listing is for Business strikes, not Proofs 1932-D 1932-S 1934 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1935-D 1936-D 1937 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1937-S 1938-S 1939-S 1940-D 1942-D – with Doubled Die Obverse 1943 – with Doubled Die Obverse 1943-S – with Doubled Die Obverse 1950-D/S Over mintmark 1950-S/D Over mintmark The 1940 Denver Mint, 1936 Denver mint and the 1935 Denver Mint coins, as well as many others in the series, are more valuable than other coins.
This is not due to their mintages. Many of these coins are worth only melt value in low grades. Other coins in the above list are expensive because of their low mintages, such as the 1932 Denver and San Francisco issues; the overstruck mintmark issues are scarce and expensive in the higher grades. The 1934 Philadelphia strike appears in two versions: one with a light motto, the same as that used on the 1932 strikings, the other a heavy motto seen after the dies were reworked. Except in the highest grades, the difference in value between the two is minor; the Silver Series of Was
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are organic polymers of high molecular mass and contain other substances, they are synthetic, most derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including paper clips and spacecraft, they have prevailed over traditional materials, such as wood, stone and bone, metal and ceramic, in some products left to natural materials. In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and the same in buildings in applications such as piping, plumbing or vinyl siding.
Other uses include automobiles and toys. In the developing world, the applications of plastic may differ—42% of India's consumption is used in packaging. Plastics have many uses in the medical field as well, with the introduction of polymer implants and other medical devices derived at least from plastic; the field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic materials, but rather the meaning of the word plasticity, with regard to the reshaping of flesh. The world's first synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who coined the term'plastics'. Many chemists have contributed to the materials science of plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger, called "the father of polymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics"; the success and dominance of plastics starting in the early 20th century led to environmental concerns regarding its slow decomposition rate after being discarded as trash due to its composition of large molecules.
Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling. The word plastic derives from the Greek πλαστικός meaning "capable of being shaped or molded" and, in turn, from πλαστός meaning "molded"; the plasticity, or malleability, of the material during manufacture allows it to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes, such as: films, plates, bottles, amongst many others. The common noun plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic; the adjective is applicable to any material which undergoes a plastic deformation, or permanent change of shape, when strained beyond a certain point. For example, aluminum, stamped or forged exhibits plasticity in this sense, but is not plastic in the common sense. By contrast, some plastics will, in their finished forms, break before deforming and therefore are not plastic in the technical sense. Most plastics contain organic polymers; the vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms,'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.
The chains comprise many repeat units, formed from monomers. Each polymer chain will have several thousand repeating units; the backbone is the part of the chain, on the "main path", linking together a large number of repeat units. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from this backbone; these pendant units are "hung" on the monomers, before the monomers themselves are linked together to form the polymer chain. It is the structure of these side chains; the molecular structure of the repeating unit can be fine tuned to influence specific properties in the polymer. Plastics are classified by: the chemical structure of the polymer's backbone and side chains. Plastics can be classified by: the chemical process used in their synthesis, such as: condensation and cross-linking. Plastics can be classified by: their various physical properties, such as: hardness, tensile strength, resistance to heat and glass transition temperature, by their chemical properties, such as the organic chemistry of the polymer and its resistance and reaction to various chemical products and processes, such as: organic solvents and ionizing radiation.
In particular, most plastics will melt upon heating to a few hundred degrees celsius. Other classifications are based on qualities that are relevant for product design. Examples of such qualities and classes are: thermoplastics and thermosets, conductive polymers, biodegradable plastics and engineering plastics and other plastics with particular structures, such as elastomers. One important classification of plastics is by the permanence or impermanence of their form, or whether they are: thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics are the plastics that, when heated, do not undergo chemical change in their composition and so can be molded again and again. Examples include: polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to 500,000 amu, while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. Thermosets, or thermosetting polymers, can melt and take shape only once: after they have solidified, they stay solid. In the thermosetting process, a chemical reaction occurs, irreversible.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine. The first modern vending machines were developed in England in the early 1880s and dispensed postcards. Vending machines exist in many countries, in more recent times, specialized vending machines that provide less common products compared to traditional vending machine items have been created; the earliest known reference to a vending machine is in the work of Hero of Alexandria, an engineer and mathematician in first-century Roman Egypt. His machine accepted a coin and dispensed holy water; when the coin was deposited, it fell upon a pan attached to a lever. The lever opened a valve; the pan continued to tilt with the weight of the coin until it fell off, at which point a counterweight snapped the lever up and turned off the valve. Coin-operated machines that dispensed tobacco were being operated as early as 1615 in the taverns of England.
The machines were portable and made of brass. An English bookseller, Richard Carlile, devised a newspaper dispensing machine for the dissemination of banned works in 1822. Simeon Denham was awarded British Patent no. 706 for his stamp dispensing machine in 1867, the first automatic vending machine. The first modern coin-operated vending machines were introduced in London, England in the early 1880s, dispensing postcards; the machine was invented by Percival Everitt in 1883 and soon became a widespread feature at railway stations and post offices, dispensing envelopes and notepaper. The Sweetmeat Automatic Delivery Company was founded in 1887 in England as the first company to deal with the installation and maintenance of vending machines. In 1893, Stollwerck, a German chocolate manufacturer, was selling its chocolate in 15,000 vending machines, it set up separate companies in various territories to manufacture vending machines to sell not just chocolate, but cigarettes, chewing gum and soap products.
The first vending machine in the U. S. was built in 1888 by the Thomas Adams Gum Company. The idea of adding games to these machines as a further incentive to buy came in 1897 when the Pulver Manufacturing Company added small figures, which would move around whenever somebody bought some gum from their machines; this idea spawned a whole new type of mechanical device known as the "trade stimulators". Internal communication in vending machines is based on the MDB standard, supported by National Automatic Merchandising Association and European Vending & Coffee Service Association. After payment has been tendered, a product may become available by: the machine releasing it, so that it falls in an open compartment at the bottom, or into a cup, either released first, or put in by the customer, or the unlocking of a door, drawer, or turning of a knob; some products need to be prepared to become available. For example, tickets are printed or magnetized on the spot, coffee is freshly concocted. One of the most common form of vending machine, the snack machine uses a metal coil which when ordered rotates to release the product.
The main example of a vending machine giving access to all merchandise after paying for one item is a newspaper vending machine found in the U. S. and Canada. It contains a pile of identical newspapers. After a sale the door automatically returns to a locked position. A customer could open the box and take all of the newspapers or, for the benefit of other customers, leave all of the newspapers outside of the box return the door to an unlatched position, or block the door from closing, each of which are discouraged, sometimes by a security clamp; the success of such machines is predicated on the assumption that the customer will be honest, need only one copy. A change machine is a vending machine that accepts large denominations of currency and returns an equal amount of currency in smaller bills or coins; these machines are used to provide coins in exchange for paper currency, in which case they are often known as bill changers. In the past, cigarettes were sold in the United States through these machines, but this is rare due to concerns about underage buyers.
Sometimes a pass has to be inserted in the machine to prove one's age. In the United Kingdom, legislation banning them outright came into effect on 1 October 2011. In Germany, Italy, Czech Republic and Japan, cigarette machines are still common. Since 2007, age verification has been mandatory in Germany and Italy - buyers must be 18 or over; the various machines installed in pubs and cafés, other publicly accessible buildings and on the street accept one or more of the following as proof of age: the buyer's identity card, bank debit card or European Union driver's license. In Japan, age verification has been mandatory since 1 July 2008 via the Taspo card, issued only to persons aged 20 or over; the Taspo card uses RFID, stores monetary value, is contactless. A birth control machine is a vending machine for the sale of birth control, such as condoms or emergency contraception. Condom machines are placed in public toilets, subway stations, airports or schools as a public health measure to promote safe sex.
Many pharmacies keep one outside, for after-hours access. Rare examples exist that dispense the morning after pill. Various types of food and snack vending machines exist in the world. Food vending machines that provide shelf-stable foods such as chips, cookies and other such snacks are
Bubble gum is a type of chewing gum, designed to be inflated out of the mouth as a bubble. While there is a well-known "bubblegum flavor", that being a generic "fruity" flavor, which artificial flavorings called esters are mixed to obtain it varies from one company to another. It's thought to have a vaguely cherry-banana flavor. In modern chewing gum, if natural rubber such as chicle is used, it must pass several purity and cleanliness tests. However, most modern types of chewing gum use synthetic gum based materials; these materials allow for longer lasting flavor, a better texture, a reduction in tackiness. In 1928, Walter Diemer, an accountant for the Fleer Chewing Gum Company in Philadelphia, was experimenting with new gum recipes. One recipe, based on a formula for a chewing gum called "Blibber Blubber", was found to be less sticky than regular chewing gum, stretched more easily, it was a dingy grey color, so Diemer added red dye, that being what he had on hand at the time. This gum became successful and was named by the president of Fleer as Dubble Bubble because of its stretchy texture.
The original bubble gum was pink in color because, the dye that Diemer had most on hand at the time. This remained the dominant kind of bubble gum until after WWII, when Bazooka bubble gum entered the market; until the 1970s, bubble gum still tended to stick to one's face. At that time, synthetic gum was introduced, which would never stick as a bubble popped; the two first brands in the US were Bubble Yum. In taste tests, children tend to prefer strawberry and blue raspberry flavors, rejecting more complex flavors as they say these make them want to swallow the gum rather than continue chewing. In 1996, Susan Montgomery Williams of Fresno, California set the Guinness World Record for largest bubblegum bubble blown, 26 inches in diameter. Chad Fell holds the record for "Largest Hands-free Bubblegum Bubble" at 20 inches, achieved on 24 April 2004. Blibber-Blubber Bubblegum broccoli Functional gum Gum base Gum industry Inca Kola List of chewing gum brands