Philippine Normal University
The Philippine Normal University is a public research university in Manila, Philippines established during the early days of American colonial rule. Pursuant to Republic Act No. 9647, it is now operated as a National Center for Teacher Education. The Philippine Normal University was established as the Philippine Normal School by virtue Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission, which traces its roots to the Escuela Normal de Maestros or Normal School for Teachers, created by a Spanish Educational Decree of 1863. Enacted on January 21, 1901, the Phlippine Commission mandated for the establishment of a normal and trade school; the Philippine Normal School formally opened on September 1, 1901 on the site of the former Spanish Normal School in the Escuela Municipal in Intramuros. It served as an institution for the training of teachers. For more than two decades, PNS offered a two-year general secondary education program. In 1928 it became a junior college offering a two-year program to graduates of secondary schools.
When PNS was converted into the Philippine Normal College in 1949 through Republic Act No. 416 the four-year Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education program was introduced. Subsequently, other undergraduate programs started, such as the Bachelor of Science in Education with specialization in Elementary Education. In 1953, the Graduate School was established. Equipped with a legal mandate, PNC included the Master of Arts in Education curriculum in the academic program; the organization of a full-fledged Graduate School came five years later. In 1970 the Bachelor of Science in Education curriculum, offering major and minor subjects, was introduced; the passage of Republic Act No. 6515 in July 1972, which amended Republic Act No. 416, paved the way for the offering and conferment of the Doctor of Education and the Doctor of Philosophy degrees and the provision of other academic programs relevant to the in-service training of teachers, school supervisors, administrators and other education specialists and personnel.
Curriculum development, adaptation played an important role in ensuring high scholastic standards for the institution. As it gained its foothold in teacher education, PNC established branches in Agusan del Sur and Negros Occidental by virtue of Republic Act No. 4242 of 1965. Aside from the creation of campuses, the college expanded its services, most significant of, its designation as the Curriculum Development Center for Communication Arts under the Language Study Center-Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force Project and afterward as Center of Excellence in English and Values Education, its major functions included the development of English and Filipino textbooks and teacher manuals for use in public elementary and secondary schools nationwide, the conduct of national level trainers-training programs for the Bureau of Secondary Education, Department of Education and Sports, the Fund for Assistance to Private Education. The school was elevated to university status on December 26, 1991, under Republic Act No. 7168.
A fourth campus was born in Quezon province. It continues to serve as collaborative partner in government and private-sector education projects. In further recognition of its leadership role, the university was designated as Center of Excellence in Teacher Education for the National Capital Region and Center of Excellence in Filipino at the national level. On September 1, 2001, the university celebrated its centennial founding anniversary. In 2008, it was declared the country's National Center for Teacher Education by virtue of Republic Act No. 9647. Dr. Fe Hidalgo, an alumnus and former Department of Education undersecretary, served as officer-in-charge of the university until December 31 that year. On November 16, 2010, Dr. Ester B. Ogena, a director from the Department of Science and Technology was elected and appointed by the university's Board of Regents as the 10th president, she assumed office on January 1, 2011. The Manila Campus is the oldest campus of the university. In 1909, American architect William E. Parsons was tasked by the Philippine Commission to draw up designs for schools to be established in the Philippines.
In 1911, he designed the Philippine Normal School, completed in 1914. It was designed using the California Mission style to juxtapose with the capiz window panes and ornately grilled ventanillas, it was erected at the corner of Ayala Boulevard. The building, three storeys in height, followed a V-configuration plan, where an auditorium was at the apex, while the rest of its segments were used as classrooms and laboratories linked by corridors; the construction budgeted at P374,000, was made of reinforced concrete. The exterior was relieved by panels of glazed polychromatic glazed tiles set in concrete; the PNU North Luzon is the third regional hub of the university based in Cagayan Valley in the flourishing municipality of Alicia, Isabela. RA 4242 became the legal basis of its creation, principally authored and sponsored by former Congressman Delfin Albano. On July 26, 1971, the PNC Isabela Campus was established. From the curricula offering of Bachelor of Elementary Education, new curricular programs have been added, enrolment has increased, the physical plant has grown and services have been established.
To date, the campus offers graduate programs that cater to the needs of teachers in the nearby public and private schools. Today, the campus has strategically placed itself as one of the most respected teacher training institutions in the region responsiv
A bolo is a large cutting tool of Filipino origin similar to the machete. It is used in the Philippines, the jungles of Indonesia, in the sugar fields of Cuba; the primary use for the bolo is clearing vegetation, whether for agriculture or during trail blazing. The bolo is used in Filipino martial arts or Arnis as part of training; the bolo knife is common in the countryside due to its use. As such, it was used extensively during Spanish colonial rule as a manual alternative to ploughing with a carabao. Used for cutting coconuts, it was a common harvesting tool for narrow row crops found on terraces such as rice, mungbeans and peanuts; because of its availability, the bolo became a common choice of improvised weaponry to the everyday peasant. Bolos are characterized by having a native hardwood or animal horn handle, a full tang, by a steel blade that both curves and widens considerably so, at its tip; this moves the centre of gravity as far forward as possible, giving the knife extra momentum for chopping.
So-called "jungle bolos", intended for combat rather than agricultural work, tend to be longer and less wide at the tip. Bolos for gardening have rounded tips. Various types of bolos are employed for different purposes: The all-purpose bolo: Used for all sorts of odd jobs, such as breaking open coconuts; the haras: Similar to a small scythe, it is used for cutting tall grass. It is called "Lampas" by people from Mindanao; the kutsilyo: The term comes from the Spanish word cuchillo. Used to kill and bleed pigs during slaughter. A smaller bolo; the bolo-guna: A bolo shaped for digging out roots and weeding. The garab: Used to harvest rice. A large pinuti: Traditionally it is tipped in snake, spider, or scorpion venom and used for self-defence; the sundang: Supposedly used to open coconuts, the sundang was a popular weapon of choice in the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and during the subsequent Philippine–American War. The bolo was the primary weapon used by the Katipunan during the Philippine Revolution.
It was used by the Filipino guerrillas and bolomen during the Philippine-American War. During World War I, United States Army soldier Henry Johnson gained international fame repelling a German raid in hand-to-hand combat using a Bolo knife. During World War II, the 1st Filipino Regiment was called the Bolo Battalion and used bolos for close quarters combat. On 7 December 1972, would-be assassin Carlito Dimahilig used a bolo to attack former First Lady Imelda Marcos as she appeared onstage at a live televised awards ceremony. Dimahilig stabbed Marcos in the abdomen several times, she parried the blows with her arms, he was shot dead by security forces. The bolo serves as a symbol for the Katipunan and the Philippine Revolution the Cry of Pugad Lawin. Several monuments of Andres Bonifacio, as with other notable Katipuneros, depict him holding a bolo in one hand and the Katipunan flag in the other. In the United States Military, the slang term "to bolo" – to fail a test, exam or evaluation, originated from the combined Philippine-American military forces including recognized guerrillas during the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War.
During the Vietnam War, 8th Tactical Fighter Wing commander Col Robin Olds, USAF devised "Operation: BOLO" to lure North Vietnamese MiG-21 Fishbed fighters into the air against US Air Force F-4 Phantom II fighters. It was a deception-based plan that had the F-4s behave like the inagile F-105 Thunderchief fighter-bombers; the operations name came from the bolo. To date, Operation Bolo is considered one of the most successful ruses in aerial combat
The kris is an asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron. Kris is most associated with the culture of Indonesia; the kris is famous for its distinctive wavy blade. Kris have been produced in many regions of Indonesia for centuries, but nowhere—although the island of Bali comes close—is the kris so embedded in a mutually-connected whole of ritual prescriptions and acts, mythical backgrounds and epic poetry as in Central Java; as a result, in Indonesia the kris is associated with Javanese culture, although other ethnicities are familiar with the weapon as part of their culture, such as the Balinese, Sundanese, Banjar and Makassar. A kris can be divided into three parts: blade and sheath; these parts of the kris are objects of art carved in meticulous detail and made from various materials: metal, precious or rare types of wood, or gold or ivory. A kris's aesthetic value covers the dhapur, the pamor, tangguh referring to the age and origin of a kris.
Depending on the quality and historical value of the kris, it can fetch thousands of dollars or more. Both a weapon and spiritual object, kris are considered to have an essence or presence, considered to possess magical powers, with some blades possessing good luck and others possessing bad. Kris are used for display, as talismans with magical powers, weapons, a sanctified heirloom, auxiliary equipment for court soldiers, an accessory for ceremonial dress, an indicator of social status, a symbol of heroism, etc. Legendary kris that possess supernatural power and extraordinary ability were mentioned in traditional folktales, such as those of Empu Gandring, Taming Sari, Setan Kober. In 2005, UNESCO gave the title Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity to the kris of Indonesia; the word kris derives from the Old Javanese term ngiris which means to wedge or sliver. "Kris" is the more used spelling in the West, but "keris" is more popular in the dagger's native lands, as exemplified by the late Bambang Harsrinuksmo's popular book entitled Ensiklopedi Keris.
Two notable exceptions are the Philippines where it is called kalis or kris, Thailand where it is always spelled kris and pronounced either as kris or krit. In the Yala dialect the word is kareh. Other spellings used by European colonists include "cryse", "crise", "criss", "kriss" and "creese". Kris history is traced through the study of carvings and bas-relief panels found in Southeast Asia, it is believed that the earliest kris prototype can be traced to Dongson bronze culture in Vietnam circa 300 BC that spread to other parts of Southeast Asia. Another theory is; some of the most famous renderings of a kris appear on the bas-reliefs of Borobudur and Prambanan temple. However, Raffles' study of the Candi Sukuh states that the kris recognized today came into existence around 1361 AD in the kingdom of Majapahit, East Java; the scene in bas relief of Sukuh Temple in Central Java, dated from 15th century Majapahit era, shows the workshop of a Javanese keris blacksmith. The scene depicted Bhima as the blacksmith on the left forging the metal, Ganesha in the center, Arjuna on the right operating the piston bellows to blow air into the furnace.
The wall behind the blacksmith displays various items manufactured in the forge, including kris. These representations of the kris in the Candi Sukuh established the fact that by the year 1437 the kris had gained an important place within Javanese culture. In Yingya Shenglan—a record about Zheng He's expedition —Ma Huan describes that "all men in Majapahit, from the king to commoners, from a boy aged three to elders, slipped pu-la-t'ou in their belts; the daggers are made of steel with intricate motifs smoothly drawn. The handles are made of gold, rhino's horn or ivory carved with a depiction of demon; this Chinese account reported that public execution by stabbing using this type of dagger is common. Majapahit knows no caning for minor punishment, they tied the guilty men's hands in the back with rattan rope and paraded them for a few paces, stabbed the offender one or two times in the back on the gap between the floating ribs, which resulted in severe bleeding and instant death. The Kris of Knaud is the oldest known surviving kris in the world.
Given to Charles Knaud, a Dutch physician, by Paku Alam V in the 19th century Yogyakarta in Java, the kris is on display at the Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam. The kris bears the date of 1264 Saka in its iron blade. Scientists suspect that due to its special features the kris might be older, but was decorated during Majapahit period to celebrate an important event; the kris bears scenes from the Ramayana on an unusual thin copper layer which covers it. Although the people of Southeast Asia were familiar with this type of stabbing weapon, the development of the kris most took place in Java, Indonesia; the spread of the kris to other
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit