The Astrocade is a second generation home video game console and simple computer system designed by a team at Midway, at that time the videogame division of Bally. It was announced as the "Bally Home Library Computer" in October 1977 and made available for mail order in December 1977, but due to production delays, the units were first released to stores in April 1978 and its branding changed to "Bally Professional Arcade". It was marketed only for a limited time; the rights were picked up by a third-party company, who re-released it and sold it until around 1984. The Astrocade is notable for its powerful graphics capabilities for the time of release, for the difficulty in accessing those capabilities. In the late 1970s, Midway contracted Dave Nutting Associates to design a video display chip that could be used in all of their videogame systems, from standup arcade games, to a home computer system; the system Nutting delivered was used in most of Midway's classic arcade games of the era, including Gorf and Wizard of Wor.
Referred to as the Bally Home Library Computer, it was released in 1977 but available only through mail order. Delays in the production meant none of the units shipped until 1978, by this time the machine had been renamed the Bally Professional Arcade. In this form it sold at computer stores and had little retail exposure. In 1979 Bally grew less interested in the arcade market and decided to sell off their Consumer Products Division, including development and production of the game console. At about the same time, a third-party group had been unsuccessfully attempting to bring their own console design to market as the Astrovision. A corporate buyer from Montgomery Ward, in charge of the Bally system put the two groups in contact, a deal was arranged. In 1981 they re-released the unit with the BASIC cartridge included for free, this time known as the Bally Computer System, with the name changing again, in 1982, to Astrocade, it sold under this name until the video game crash of 1983, disappeared around 1985.
Midway had long been planning to release an expansion system for the unit, known as the ZGRASS-100. The system was being developed by a group of computer artists at the University of Illinois at Chicago known as the'Circle Graphics Habitat', along with programmers at Nutting. Midway felt that such a system, in an external box, would make the Astrocade more interesting to the market; however it was still not ready for release. A small handful may have been produced as the ZGRASS-32 after the machine was re-released by Astrovision; the system, combined into a single box, would be released as the Datamax UV-1. Aimed at the home computer market while being designed, the machine was now re-targeted as a system for outputting high-quality graphics to video tape; these were offered for sale some time between 1980 and 1982. The basic system was powered by a Zilog Z80 driving the display chip with a RAM buffer in between the two; the display chip had two modes, a low-resolution mode at 160 × 102, a high-resolution mode at 320 × 204, both with 2-bits per pixel for four colors.
This sort of color/resolution was beyond the capabilities of RAM of the era, which could not read out the data fast enough to keep up with the TV display. The system used page mode addressing allowing them to read one "line" at a time at high speed into a buffer inside the display chip; the line could be read out to the screen at a more leisurely rate, while interfering less with the CPU, trying to use the same memory. On the Astrocade the pins needed to use this "trick", thus the Astrocade system was left with just the lower resolution 160 × 102 mode. In this mode the system used up 160 × 102 × 2bits = 4080 bytes of memory to hold the screen. Since the machine had only 4kiB of RAM, this left little room for program functions such as keeping score and game options; the rest of the program would have to be placed in ROM. The Astrocade used color registers, or color indirection, so the four colors could be picked from a palette of 256 colors. Color animation was possible by changing the values of the registers, using a horizontal blank interrupt they could be changed from line to line.
An additional set of four color registers could be "swapped in" at any point along the line, allowing you to create two "halves" of the screen, split vertically. Intended to allow you to create a score area on the side of the screen, programmers used this feature to emulate 8 color modes. Unlike the VCS, the Astrocade did not include hardware sprite support, it did, include a blitter-like system and software to drive it. Memory above 0x4000 was dedicated to the display, memory below that to the ROM. If a program wrote to the ROM space the video chip would take the data, apply a function to it, copy the result into the corresponding location in the RAM. Which function to use was stored in a register in the display chip, included common instructions like XOR and bit-shift; this allowed the Astrocade to support any number of sprite-like objects independent of hardware, with the downside that it was up to the software to re-draw them when they moved. The Astrocade was one of the early cartridge-based systems, using cartridges known as Videocades that were designed to be as close in size and shape as possible to a cassette tape.
The unit included two games built into the ROM, Gunfight and Checkmate, along with the simple but useful
Glossary of video game terms
This is a glossary of video game terms which lists the general terms as used in Wikipedia articles related to video games and its industry. 1-up An object that gives the player an extra life in games where the player has a limited number of chances to complete a game or level. It can be used to mean beating someone else at something by a small amount. 100% To collect all collectibles within a game, either indicated within games as a percentage counter or determined by player community consensus. 1CC Abbreviation of "one credit clear". The act of completing an arcade game without using more than one credit, although it can be applied to any console or PC game that uses some form of continues; the term "1LC" or "no miss clear" are used instead when completing a game without losing a life as well. This can be further extended into a "no damage clear" or "no damage completion" in games where the player-character has a health gauge; some arcade games offer special ending sequences or challenges when the player achieves a 1CC.
1v1 Abbreviation of 1 versus 1, which means two players battling against each other. This term is synonymous with the term PvP. See player versus player. 2D graphics Graphic rendering technique in a two-dimensional perspective using sprites. 2.5D graphics Graphic rendering technique of three-dimensional objects set in a two-dimensional plane of movement. 3D graphics Graphic rendering technique featuring three-dimensional objects. 4X A genre of strategic video games, short for "explore, expand and exterminate". 8-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the third generation of video game consoles, targeting 8-bit computer architecture. 16-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fourth generation of video game consoles, targeting 16-bit computer architecture. 32-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fifth generation of video game consoles, targeting 32-bit computer architecture. 64-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fifth generation of video game consoles, targeting 64-bit computer architecture.
AAA Also triple A. A high-budget game with a large development team, or game studios that make them. AAA games are multiplatform, have multimillion-dollar budgets, expect to sell millions of copies. Abandonware The idea of a game being forgotten about or abandoned by its developers for any number of reasons, including copyright issues. Act Sometimes used to refer to individual levels or groups of levels that make up a larger world or storyline. Action game A game genre emphasizing hand -- eye coordination and reflexes, it includes fighting games and platformers. Action point A subunit of a player's turn. For example, a game may allow an action to occur only so long as the player has sufficient'action points' to complete the action. Action role-playing game A genre of role-playing video game where battle actions are performed in real-time instead of a turn-based mechanic. Actions per minute The total number of actions the player can perform in a minute. Most professional-level players train with an emphasis on high APM in addition to raw skill.
Adds Commonly used in role-playing video game and MMORPGs where the boss calls in for reinforcements to help them take down the party members. Adventure game A game genre which emphasizes puzzle-solving. AFK Away from keyboard. Said through a chat function in online multiplayer games when a player intends to be temporarily unavailable; the term BRB from texting is used, although whether these two terms are interchangeable varies from person to person. Aggro An abbreviation of'aggravation' or'aggression'.'Causing aggro' in a video game means to attract hostile attention from NPCs to attack the player-character.'Managing aggro' involves keeping aggressive NPCs from overwhelming the player or party. The term may be facetiously used in reference to irritated bystanders. See hate. Aimbot A first-person shooter cheat. In most cases, the aiming reticle locks on to a target within the player's line of sight and the player only has to pull the trigger. Aimbots are one of the most popular cheats in multiplayer FPS, used since 1996's Quake.
Compare to the feature auto-aim. Aiming down sights Also aim down sights. Refers to the common alternate method of firing a gun in a first-person shooter game activated by the right mouse button; the real-life analogue is when a person raises a rifle up and places the stock just inside the shoulder area, leans their head down so they can see in a straight line along the top of the rifle, through both of the iron sights or a scope, if equipped. In most games this increases accuracy, but can limit vision, situational awareness and require a small amount of time to change the weapon position. Alpha release An incomplete version of a game. Alpha versions are released early in the development process to test a game's most critical functionality and prototype design concepts. Compare with beta release. Always-on DRM A type of digital rights management that requires a connection to the Internet while playing the game. Analog stick Also control thumbstick. A small variation of a joystick placed on a game controller to allow a player more fluent 2-dimensional input than is possible with a D-pad.
Animatic A animated storyboard with sound effects used during early game development. Animation priority A
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine installed in public businesses such as restaurants and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers. While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost; the first popular "arcade games" included early amusement-park midway games such as shooting galleries, ball-toss games, the earliest coin-operated machines, such as those that claimed to tell a person's fortune or that played mechanical music. The old Midways of 1920s-era amusement parks provided the inspiration and atmosphere for arcade games.
In the 1930s the first coin-operated pinball machines emerged. These early amusement machines differed from their electronic cousins in that they were made of wood, they lacked plungers or lit-up bonus surfaces on the playing field, used mechanical instead of electronic scoring-readouts. By around 1977 most pinball machines in production switched to using solid-state electronics both for operation and for scoring. In 1966 Sega introduced an electro-mechanical game called Periscope - an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine, it became an instant success in Japan and North America, where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play, which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come. In 1967 Taito released an electro-mechanical arcade game of their own, Crown Soccer Special, a two-player sports game that simulated association football, using various electronic components, including electronic versions of pinball flippers.
Sega produced gun games which resemble first-person shooter video games, but which were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen. The first of these, the light-gun game Duck Hunt, appeared in 1969; that same year, Sega released an electro-mechanical arcade racing game, Grand Prix, which had a first-person view, electronic sound, a dashboard with a racing wheel and accelerator, a forward-scrolling road projected on a screen. Another Sega 1969 release, Missile, a shooter and vehicle-combat simulation, featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen, it was the earliest known arcade game to feature a joystick with a fire button, which formed part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move the player's tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen.
In 1970 Midway released the game in North America as S. A. M. I.. In the same year, Sega released Jet Rocket, a combat flight-simulator featuring cockpit controls that could move the player aircraft around a landscape displayed on a screen and shoot missiles onto targets that explode when hit. In the course of the 1970s, following the release of Pong in 1972, electronic video-games replaced electro-mechanical arcade games. In 1972, Sega released an electro-mechanical game called Killer Shark, a first-person light-gun shooter known for appearing in the 1975 film Jaws. In 1974, Nintendo released Wild Gunman, a light-gun shooter that used full-motion video-projection from 16 mm film to display live-action cowboy opponents on the screen. One of the last successful electro-mechanical arcade games was F-1, a racing game developed by Namco and distributed by Atari in 1976; the 1978 video game Space Invaders, dealt a yet more powerful blow to the popularity of electro-mechanical games. In 1971 students at Stanford University set up the Galaxy Game, a coin-operated version of the video game Spacewar.
This ranks as the earliest known instance of a coin-operated video game. In the same year, Nolan Bushnell created the first mass-manufactured game, Computer Space, for Nutting Associates. In 1972, Atari was formed by Ted Dabney. Atari created the coin-operated video game industry with the game Pong, the first successful electronic ping pong video game. Pong proved to be popular, but imitators helped keep Atari from dominating the fledgling coin-operated video game market. Taito's Space Invaders, in 1978, proved to be the first blockbuster arcade video game, its success marked the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games. Video game arcades sprang up in shopping malls, small "corner arcades" appeared in restaurants, grocery stores and movie theaters all over the United States and other countries during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Space Invaders, Pac-Man, Battlezone and Bosconian were popular. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth US$8 billion. During the late 1970s and 1980s, chains such as Chuck E.
Cheese's, Ground Round and Busters, ShowBiz Pizza Place and Gatti's Pizza combined
Fujitsu Ltd. is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. In 2015, it was the world's fourth-largest IT services provider measured by IT services revenue. Fortune named Fujitsu as a Global 500 company. Fujitsu chiefly makes computing products, but the company and its subsidiaries offer a diversity of products and services in the areas of personal computing, enterprise computing, including x86, SPARC and mainframe server products, as well as storage products, telecommunications, advanced microelectronics, air conditioning, it has 140,000 employees and its products and services are available in over 100 countries. Fujitsu is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. Fujitsu is the second oldest IT company after IBM and before Hewlett Packard, established on June 20, 1935, under the name Fuji Telecommunications Equipment Manufacturing, as a spin-off of the Fuji Electric Company, itself a joint venture between the Furukawa Electric Company and the German conglomerate Siemens, founded in 1923.
Despite its connections to the Furukawa zaibatsu, Fujitsu escaped the Allied occupation of Japan after the Second World War unscathed. In 1954, Fujitsu manufactured Japan's first computer, the FACOM 100 mainframe, in 1961 launched its second generation computers the FACOM 222 mainframe; the 1968 FACOM230 "5" Series marked the beginning of its third generation computers. Fujitsu offered mainframe computers from 1955 until at least 2002 Fujitsu's computer products have included minicomputers, small business computers and personal computers. In 1955, Fujitsu founded Kawasaki Frontale as a company football club. In 1967, the company's name was changed to the contraction Fujitsū. Since 1985, the company fields a company American football team, the Fujitsu Frontiers, who play in the corporate X-League, have appeared in 7 Japan X Bowls, winning two, winning two Rice Bowls. In 1971, Fujitsu signed an OEM agreement with the Canadian company Consolidated Computers Limited to distribute CCL's data entry product, Key-Edit.
Fujitsu joined both ICL who earlier began marketing Key-Edit in the British Commonwealth of countries as well as in both western and eastern Europe. Mers Kutt, inventor of Key-Edit and founder of CCL, was the common thread that led to Fujitsu’s association with ICL and Gene Amdahl. In 1986, Fujitsu and The Queen's University of Belfast business incubation unit established a joint venture called Kainos, a held software company based in Belfast, Northern Ireland. In 1990, Fujitsu acquired 80% of the UK-based computer company International Computers Limited for $1.29 billion. In September 1990, Fujitsu announced the launch of a new series of mainframe computers which were at that time the fastest in the world. In July 1991, Fujitsu acquired more than half of the Russian company KME-CS. In 1992, Fujitsu introduced the world's first 21-inch full-color plasma display, it was a hybrid, based upon the plasma display created at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NHK STRL, achieving superior brightness.
In 1993, Fujitsu formed a flash memory manufacturing joint venture with Spansion. As part of the transaction, AMD contributed its flash memory group, Fab 25 in Texas, its R&D facilities and assembly plants in Thailand and China. From February 1989 until mid-1997, Fujitsu built the FM Towns PC variant, it started as a proprietary PC variant intended for multimedia applications and computer games, but became more compatible with regular PCs. In 1993, the FM Towns Marty was released. Fujitsu agreed to acquire the 58 percent of Amdahl Corporation that it did not own for around $850 million in July 1997. In April 1997, the company acquired a 30 percent stake in GLOVIA International, Inc. an El Segundo, Calif. manufacturing ERP software provider whose software it had begun integrating into its electronics plants starting in 1994. In June 1999 Fujitsu's historical connection with Siemens was revived, when the two companies agreed to merge their European computer operations into a new 50:50 joint venture called Fujitsu Siemens Computers, which became the world's fifth-largest computer manufacturing company.
In April 2000, Fujitsu acquired the remaining 70% of GLOVIA International. In April 2002 ICL re-branded itself as Fujitsu. On March 2, 2004, Fujitsu Computer Products of America lost a class action lawsuit over hard disk drives with defective chips and firmware. In October 2004, Fujitsu acquired the Australian subsidiary of Atos Origin, a systems implementation company with around 140 employees which specialized in SAP. In August 2007, Fujitsu signed a £500 million, 10-year deal with Reuters Group under which Reuters outsourced the majority of its internal IT department to Fujitsu; as part of the agreement around 300 Reuters staff and 200 contractors transferred to Fujitsu. In October 2007, Fujitsu announced that it would be establishing an offshore development centre in Noida, India with a capacity to house 1,200 employees, in an investment of US$10 million. In October 2007, Fujitsu's Australia and New Ze
A cartoon is a type of illustration animated in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage refers to either: an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a cartoonist, in the second sense they are called an animator; the concept originated in the Middle Ages, first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, beginning in Punch magazine in 1843, cartoon came to refer – at first – to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers. In the early 20th century, it began to refer to animated films. A cartoon is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass, or tapestry. Cartoons were used in the production of frescoes, to link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days; such cartoons have pinpricks along the outlines of the design so that a bag of soot patted or "pounced" over a cartoon, held against the wall, would leave black dots on the plaster.
Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London, examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons colored, were followed with the eye by the weavers on the loom. In print media, a cartoon is an illustration or series of illustrations humorous in intent; this usage dates from 1843, when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster; the original title for these drawings was Mr Punch's face is the letter Q and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians. Cartoons can be divided into gag cartoons, which include editorial cartoons, comic strips. Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath, or—less often—a speech balloon. Newspaper syndicates have distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman, Gary Larson, George Lichty, Fred Neher and others.
Many consider New Yorker cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon. The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes Charles Addams, Charles Barsotti, Chon Day. Bill Hoest, Jerry Marcus, Virgil Partch began as magazine gag cartoonists and moved to syndicated comic strips. Richard Thompson illustrated numerous feature articles in The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip; the sports section of newspapers featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester "Chet" Brown's All in Sport. Editorial cartoons are found exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they employ humor, they are more serious in tone using irony or satire; the art acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social or political topics. Editorial cartoons include speech balloons and sometimes use multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, David Low, Jeff MacNelly, Mike Peters, Gerald Scarfe. Comic strips known as cartoon strips in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, are a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence.
In the United States, they are not called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are referred to as "cartoonists". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter and drama are represented in this medium; some noteworthy cartoonists of humorous comic strips are Scott Adams, Steve Bell, Charles Schulz, E. C. Segar, Mort Walker and Bill Watterson. Political cartoons are like illustrated editorial that serve visual commentaries on political events, they offer subtle criticism which are cleverly quoted with humour and satire to the extent that the criticized does not get embittered. The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is regarded as a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th century England. George Townshend produced some of caricatures in the 1750s; the medium began to develop in the latter part of the 18th century under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London.
Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon. By calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account for their behaviour, many of Gillray's satires were directed against George III, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of revolutionary France and Napoleon. George Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray, from 1815 until the 1840s, his career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications. By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many other countries featured cartoons commenting on the politics of the day. Thomas Nast, in New York City, showed how realistic German drawing techniques could redefine American cartooning, his 160 cartoons relentlessly pursued the criminal c
The American frontier comprises the geography, history and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912. A "frontier" is a zone of contact at the edge of a line of settlement; the leading theorist Frederick Jackson Turner went deeper, arguing that the frontier was the defining process of American civilization: "The frontier," he asserted, "promoted the formation of a composite nationality for the American people." He theorized it was a process of development: "This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward...furnish the forces dominating American character." Turner's ideas since 1893 have inspired generations of historians to explore multiple individual American frontiers, but the popular folk frontier concentrates on the conquest and settlement of Native American lands west of the Mississippi River, in what is now the Midwest, the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, the West Coast.
In 19th- and early 20th-century media, enormous popular attention was focused on the Western United States in the second half of the 19th century, a period sometimes called the "Old West" or the "Wild West". Such media exaggerated the romance and chaotic violence of the period for greater dramatic effect; this inspired the Western genre of film, which spilled over into television shows and comic books, as well as children's toys and costumes. This era of massive migration and settlement was encouraged by President Thomas Jefferson following the Louisiana Purchase, giving rise to the expansionist philosophy known as "Manifest destiny"; as defined by Hine and Faragher, "frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, the formation of states." They explain, "It is a tale of conquest, but one of survival and the merging of peoples and cultures that gave birth and continuing life to America." Through treaties with foreign nations and native tribes, political compromise, military conquest, establishment of law and order, the building of farms and towns, the marking of trails and digging of mines, the pulling in of great migrations of foreigners, the United States expanded from coast to coast, fulfilling the dreams of Manifest Destiny.
Turner, in his "Frontier Thesis", theorized that the frontier was a process that transformed Europeans into a new people, the Americans, whose values focused on equality and optimism, as well as individualism, self-reliance, violence. As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the West in fiction and film took a firm hold in the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. In David Murdoch's view, America is exceptional in choosing its iconic self-image: "No other nation has taken a time and place from its past and produced a construct of the imagination equal to America's creation of the West." The frontier line was the outer line of European-American settlement. It moved westward from the 1630s to the 1880s. Turner favored the Census Bureau definition of the "frontier line" as a settlement density of two people per square mile; the "West" was the settled area near that boundary. Thus, parts of the Midwest and American South, though no longer considered "western", have a frontier heritage along with the modern western states.
In the 21st century, the term "American West" is most used for the area west of the Great Plains. In the colonial era, before 1776, the west was of high priority for politicians; the American frontier began when Jamestown, Virginia was settled by the English in 1607. In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, until about 1680, the frontier was any part of the interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the Atlantic coast. English, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada. Although French fur traders ranged through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they settled down. French settlement was limited to a few small villages such as Kaskaskia, Illinois as well as a larger settlement around New Orleans; the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages.
They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York. Areas in the north that were in the frontier stage by 1700 had poor transportation facilities, so the opportunity for commercial agriculture was low; these areas remained in subsistence agriculture, as a result by the 1760s these societies were egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main: The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized. The wealthy speculator, if one was involved remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident; the class of landless poor was small. The great majority were landowners, most of whom were poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day ma