Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
Ethnologue, Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains information about the 7,099 living languages in its 20th edition, which was released in 2017. The publication is well respected and widely used by linguists, Ethnologue is published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based primarily on mutual intelligibility, shared language intelligibility features are complex, and usually include etymological and grammatical evidence that is agreed upon by experts. These lists of names are not necessarily complete, in 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an SIL code, to identify each language that it described. This set of codes significantly exceeded the scope of other standards, e. g. ISO 639-1, the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into an international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard and this standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue according to rules established by ISO, and since Ethnologue relies on the standard to determine what is listed as a language. e. A language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity, in December 2015, Ethnologue launched a soft paywall, users in high-income countries who want to refer to more than seven pages of data per month must buy a paid subscription. Ethnologues 18th edition describes 228 language families and six typological categories, in 1986, William Bright, editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world. In 2008 in the journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said, Ethnologue. has become the standard reference. However, he concluded that, on balance, Ethnologue is a comprehensive catalogue of world languages. Starting with the 17th edition, new editions of Ethnologue are to be published every year, linguasphere Observatory Register Glottolog Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert, Simon Musgrave, Alexis Dimitriadis, eds.
The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies, linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Evaluating language statistics, the Ethnologue and beyond
Australian English is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia. Although English has no status in the Constitution, Australian English is the countrys de facto official language and is the first language of the majority of the population. Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles. Australian English differs from other varieties of English in vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, the earliest form of Australian English was first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales. This first generation of children created a new dialect that was to become the language of the nation, the Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England.
The native-born children of the created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them. Even when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech, a quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, and some in Great Britain, many, if not most, of the Irish spoke Irish and either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking part of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands, anthony Burgess writes that Australian English may be thought of as a kind of fossilised Cockney of the Dickensian era. According to linguist Bruce Moore, the input of the various sounds that went into constructing the Australian accent was from south-east England. Some elements of Aboriginal languages have adopted by Australian English—mainly as names for places and fauna. Many such are localised, and do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo, budgerigar, other examples are cooee and hard yakka.
The former is used as a call, for attracting attention. Cooee is a distance, if hes within cooee. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagera/Yagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region, of Aboriginal origin is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin English, meaning dead, with some extension to broken or useless. Many towns or suburbs of Australia have influenced or named after Aboriginal words. The best-known example is the capital, named after a local word meaning meeting place
Arnhem Land is one of the five regions of the Northern Territory of Australia. It is located in the corner of the territory and is around 500 km from the territory capital Darwin. The region has an area of 97,000 km2, which covers the area of Kakadu National Park. The area covers about 34,000 km2 and has an population of 16,000, of whom 12,000 are Yolngu. The region’s service hub is Nhulunbuy,600 km east of Darwin, other major population centres are Yirrkala, Gunbalanya and Maningrida. A substantial proportion of the population, which is mostly Aboriginal and this outstation movement started in the early 1980s. Many Aboriginal groups moved to very small settlements on their traditional lands. These population groups have very little western influence culturally speaking, many of the regions leaders have called and continue to call for a treaty that would allow the Yolngu to operate under their own traditional laws. In 2013-14, the region contributed around $1.3 billion or 7% to the Northern Territory’s gross state product.
Arnhem Land has been occupied by people for tens of thousands of years and is the location of the oldest-known stone axe. The Gove Peninsula was heavily involved in the defence of Australia during World War II, at least since the 18th century Muslim traders from Makassar visited Arnhem Land each year to trade and process sea cucumbers or trepang. This sea slug is highly prized in Chinese cuisine, for folk medicine and this Macassan contact with Australia is the first recorded example of interaction between the inhabitants of the Australian continent and their Asian neighbours. This contact had an effect on local indigenous Australians. The Makassans exchanged goods such as cloth, knives, Makassar pidgin became a lingua franca along the north coast among several indigenous Australian groups who were brought into greater contact with each other by the seafaring Makassan culture. These traders from the southwest corner of Sulawesi introduced the word balanda for white people, in Arnhem Land, the word is still widely used today to refer to white Australians.
The Dutch started settling in Sulawesi Island in the early 17th century, archeological remains of Makassar contact, including trepang processing plants from the 18th and 19th centuries, are still found at Australian locations such as Port Essington and Groote Eylandt. The Makassans planted tamarind trees, after processing, the sea slugs were traded by the Makassans to Southern China. In 2014, an 18th-century Chinese coin was found in the area of Wessel Islands off the coast on a beach on Elcho Island during a historical expedition
Pintupi is an Australian Aboriginal language. It is one of the Wati languages of the large Pama–Nyungan family and it is one of the varieties of the Western Desert Language. These people moved into the communities of Papunya and Haasts Bluff in the west of the Northern Territory in the 1940s–1980s. The last Pintupi people to leave their traditional lifestyle in the desert came into Kiwirrkura in 1984, over recent decades they have moved back into their traditional country, setting up the communities of Kintore in the Northern Territory and Jupiter Well in Western Australia. This has continued through the moves west so that most Pintupi people today speak Pintupi-Luritja, Pintupi is one of the healthier Aboriginal languages and is taught to local children in schools. The phonology of Pintupi has been described by K. C. and L. E, Hansen based on fieldwork conducted in Papunya, Northern Territory in 1967–68. The symbols used in the orthography are shown in brackets where they differ from the IPA symbols.
The lamino-alveolars are frequently palatalised, and /t̻/ often has an affricated allophone, the trill /r/ usually has a single contact in ordinary speech, but multiple contacts in slow, emphatic, or angry speech. The retroflex approximant /ɻ/ may be realised as a flap and Hansen refer to the retroflex consonants as apico-domal. Pintupi has six vowel phonemes, three long and three short, all are monophthongal at the phonemic level. Again, the used in the practical orthography are shown enclosed in brackets where they differ from the phonemic symbols. The short vowel phonemes are devoiced when word-final at the end of a clause, as in he finally to camp, we all water for him, short vowels are rhotacised before retroflex consonants, as in tree, and a shelter. The open vowel /a/ is diphthongised to and before /j/ and /w/ respectively, as in pare, an orthography was developed by the Hansens and is used in their publications, which include a dictionary, a grammar sketch and bible portions. This orthography is used in the bilingual school, and especially in the schools Literature Production Centre.
The orthography is shown in the tables of consonants and vowels. Pintupi has only two possible types, CV and CVC. In the middle of a word, /m/ and /ŋ/ may appear in the syllable coda only when followed by a plosive, as in /t̻ampu/ left side. Otherwise, only coronal sonorants may appear in the syllable coda, all consonants except the apico-alveolars and /l̻/ may appear in word-initial position, only coronal sonorants may appear in word-final position
Agglutination is a process in linguistic morphology derivation in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics. Languages that use agglutination widely are called agglutinative languages, an example of such a language is Turkish, where for example, the word evlerinizden, or from your houses, consists of the morphemes, ev-ler-iniz-den with the meanings house-plural-your-from. However, both fusional and isolating languages may use agglutination in the most-often-used constructs, and use agglutination heavily in certain contexts and this is the case in English, which has an agglutinated plural marker -s and derived words such as shame·less·ness. Agglutinative suffixes are often inserted irrespective of syllabic boundaries, for example, Agglutinative languages have large inventories of enclitics, which can be and are separated from the word root by native speakers in daily usage. Note that the term agglutination is sometimes used more generally to refer to the process of adding suffixes or other morphemes to the base of a word.
This is treated in detail in the section on other uses of the term. However, contemporary linguistics views this proposal as controversial, on the other hand, it is the case that some languages that have developed from agglutinative proto-languages have lost this feature. For example, contemporary Estonian, which is so related to Finnish that the two languages are mutually intelligible, has shifted towards the fusional type. Examples of agglutinative languages include the Uralic languages, such as Finnish and these have highly agglutinated expressions in daily usage, and most words are bisyllabic or longer. Grammatical information expressed by adpositions in Western Indo-European languages is found in suffixes. Hungarian uses extensive agglutination in almost all and any part of it, the suffixes follow each other in special order, and can be heaped in extreme amount, resulting words conveying complex meanings in very compact form. An example is fiaié where the root fi- means son, the subsequent three vowels are all separate suffixes, and the word means of his/her sons.
The nested possessive structure and expression of plurals is quite remarkable, almost all Austronesian languages, such as Malay, and most Philippine languages, belong to this category, thus enabling them to form new words from simple base forms. The Indonesian and Malay word mempertanggungjawabkan is formed by adding active-voice and transitive affixes to the compound verb tanggung jawab, in Tagalog, nakakapágpabagabag is formed from the root bagabag. Japanese is a language, adding information such as negation, passive voice, past tense, honorific degree. Common examples would be hatarakaseraretara, which combines causative, passive or potential, and if could make work, and tabetakunakatta, which combines desire and past tense conjugations to mean did not want to eat. All Dravidian languages, including Kannada, Telugu and Tamil, are agglutinative, agglutination is used to very high degrees both in formal written forms in Telugu. Agglutination is a feature of Basque
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Kalaw Lagaw Ya
Kalaw Lagaw Ya, or the Western Torres Strait language, is the language indigenous to the central and western Torres Strait Islands, Australia. On some islands it has now largely replaced by Brokan. Before colonisation in the 1870s–1880s, it was the lingua franca of the area in both Australia and Papua, and is still widely spoken by neighbouring Papuans and by some Aboriginal people. How many second language speakers it has is unknown and it has a light form, as well as a pidginised form. The simplified form is prevalent on Badu and neighbouring Moa. Mabuiag Westen or West Torres or Western Torres Strait Dhadhalagau Ya Sentrel or Central Islands, one of the very few length contrasts in the Kalaw Lagaw Ya dialect is kaaba dance performance, knot in bamboo etc. vs kaba, kab paddle, oar. Such length contrasts are more widespread in the other dialects, the exceptions are the small class or words that include ber rib and kab oar and emotive words. Emotive words are those that equate to an extent to diminutives in languages such as Irish and German.
Emotive words in the Kalaw Lagaw Ya dialect include familiar kinship terms, 2) Syntax The main syntactic differences are, a) Verb negative construction, In all dialects except Kalau Kawau Ya, the verb negative is the nominalised privative form of the verbal noun. In the other dialects bongel last night is a fully functioning temporal adverb used in conjunction with either the today past or the recent past, KKY -pa in all cases, -ka often in poetry/singing. In stems of three or more syllables, the suffix is reduced to -l in all dialects, while retained as -lai with stems of one syllable, these have allophonic variants /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, which are the norm in Australia languages. All the stops, except for the t and d, have fricative allophones, thus p can be or, k can be or, b or. Furthermore, it is one of the few Australian languages with fully functioning voiced-voiceless distinctions -, the language is one of the few Australian languages with only one rhotic, one l and one n. The earliest recorded dialect, Kaiwalgau Ya, did have two rhotics, the tap and the glide, the rhotic glide has in general become /j/, /w/ or zero in the other dialects, rarely /r/.
Notes, The consonant /d/ varies to some extent with /r/, particularly in KKY/KY kadai-/karai-, the long vowel ùù is only found in Kala Lagaw Ya. Length is to a certain extent contrastive, and partly allophonic, the +/-round contrast is reminiscent of Papuan phonology. The mid long vowels are allophonic variants of the mid short vowels that are in the process of developing phonemic status, while the short vowel ò is similarly in origin an allophone of òò. In normal speech, vowel shortening and the change of a to œ are the norm, which the changes of e to i and o to u are sporadic, and most common in unstressed syllables
Gunbalanya, Northern Territory
Gunbalanya is an Aboriginal community in west Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia. The main language spoken in the community is Kunwinjku, at the 2011 census, Gunbalanya had a population of 1,174. The large and uncommon Oenpelli python, Morelia oenpelliensis, shares the name of this community. The area now known as Gunbalanya was originally called Uwunbarlany by Erre-speaking people who were its original inhabitants, Oenpelli was the way Paddy Cahill, the founder of the original cattle station in the area, pronounced the local word. The sealed Arnhem Highway links Darwin to Jabiru, the town within Kakadu National Park, about four kilometres before Jabiru, the sealed road turns off to Ubirr, the Border Store, Cahills Crossing on the East Alligator River and Oenpelli. The road is dirt from the East Alligator to just before Gunbalanya, while this road is generally navigable by four wheel drive vehicle, the river crossing is a causeway which is closed by flooding during the wet season and at high tides.
Dry season travellers are able to drive the 300 km from Darwin in about three hours and 60 km from Jabiru in under an hour, Northern Land Council permits are required to cross the East Alligator River, the western boundary of Arnhem Land, and travel east to Gunbalanya. Oenpelli Airport is an all weather airstrip located in Gunbalanya. The local radio station is called RIBS for Remote Indigenous Broadcasting Service, permits for road travel into Arnhem Land can be organised at the Northern Land Council offices in Darwin or Jabiru and may take up to two weeks to finalise. Many visitors prefer to see Arnhem Land through a tour operation. The Stone Country Festival is usually held in August and access for this is allowed without permit, though an annual event, it is sometimes not able to be organised in a given year. Western Arnhem Land is home to some of the most significant rock art in the world and it has arguably the worlds longest continuing artistic traditions - with rock art dating back thousands of years and still being produced today.
Local artistic traditions are continued and adapted by the Injalak Arts Centre, Injalak Arts is named after nearby Injalak Hill, which has many rock art galleries and is the main tourist attraction in Gunbalanya. Oenpelli, as it was then, was established by the Rev Alfred Dyer as a mission in 1925 by the Church of Englands Church Missionary Society. Dyer and his wife Mary established a mission station, with church, dispensary and store, to which they added pastoral work with feral cattle. Among those who attended the school was the celebrated Gagudju elder and interpreter of culture. Oenpelli remained a mission until 1975, when responsibility was transferred to a town council. The 1948 American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land visited Oenpelli for three months and collected a large array of local artefacts and specimens