Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Valda Rosemary Osborn is a British former figure skater. She is the 1953 European champion and World bronze medalist, she represented her country at the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, where she placed 11th. Osborn was born in Wembley, England in 1934. During the Second World War, she moved to Richmond, lived close to Richmond Bridge, a short walk to Richmond Ice Rink, she had private tutors for her schooling. After turning professional in 1953, Osborn resided in Brighton, Whitley Bay and Feltham. Following the end of her performing career, she travelled around Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, she spent thirteen years in Northern Cyprus and settled in Rustington on the English south coast. Osborn started skating at 2½ years at Wembley Ice Rink, she was taught by Arnold Gerschwiler, her only coach during her entire amateur career. At age 5, Osborn won her first competition for "Under Sixes". During Second World War, the Wembley rink was closed to save electricity, she moved to the Richmond Ice Rink, the only rink left open during the war.
At 9½ years she passed the NSA gold medal at Richmond Ice Rink on 6 June 1944. She continues to hold the record. Osborn continued skating at Richmond after the war, she became the British national champion in 1952 and was selected for the 1952 Winter Olympics, where she finished 11th. In 1953, Osborn won her second national title and went on to win gold at the European Championships in Dortmund. After her victory in Germany, she was awarded the Harry E. Radix skating pin. Osborn remains the last British skater to win the European title in ladies' singles. In 1953, she won the bronze medal at the World Championships in Davos, Switzerland. During her amateur career, Osborn was featured in British magazines such as Everybody's Weekly and Illustrated, she was interviewed on the BBC radio show In Town Tonight. Osborn turned professional in 1953, she starred in Tom Arnold's Ice Circus in Brighton and Tom Arnold's Robinson Crusoe on Ice in the winter of 1953 at the Grand Theatre, Leeds. Osborn turned to coaching ice skaters in Manchester, Whitley Bay, Brighton and in Richmond.
When Richmond Ice Rink closed down and the property was redeveloped, she retired
European Figure Skating Championships
The European Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition in which figure skaters compete for the title of European champion. Medals are awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, women's singles, pair skating, ice dance; the event is sanctioned by the International Skating Union, is the sport's oldest competition. The first European Championships was held in 1891 in Hamburg and featured one segment, compulsory figures, with seven competitors, all men from Germany and Austria, it has been, other than four periods, held continuously since 1891, has been sanctioned by the ISU since 1893. Women were allowed to compete for the first time in 1930, the first time pairs skating was added to the competition. Ice dance was added in 1954. Only eligible skaters from ISU member countries in Europe can compete, skaters must have reached at least the age of 15 before July 1 preceding the competition. ISU member countries can submit 1-3 skaters to compete in the European Championships.
Although they were not held continuously, the European Championships is figure skating's oldest championship. The first European Championships were held in 1891 in Germany, it featured one segment, compulsory figures, with seven competitors, five from Germany and two from Austria. The event was sponsored by the Austrian and German skating federations, after they combined to become one federation. All the medalists were from Germany; the second European Championships were held in Vienna in 1892. The event had 10 competitors: one from Hungary, two from Germany, seven from Austria, it included compulsory figures and free skating. It was sponsored by the German/Austrian federation. Austrian Eduard Englemann won the gold medal, Hungarian Tibor von Földváry came in second place, Georg Zachariades from Austria was third; the next European Championships was held in 1893 in Berlin. The championships were sponsored by the Berlin Skating Club, like the previous two years, was organized by the German/Austrian federation.
There were eight competitors: three from Austria, two from Germany, one each from Hungary and Norway. Englemann is listed as the gold medalist. Figure skating historian James Hines called the 1893 European Championships "clearly a success from a skating standpoint", but it marked figure skating's "first major controversy", due to "different interpretations of the scoring rules, which could result in a tie depending upon one's interpretation of them"; the Berlin Skating Club declared Grenander the winner. The problem was never resolved. ISU historian Benjamin T. Wright said that the controversy "nearly led to the demise" of the newly-formed ISU; the next two European Championships, 1894 and 1895, "experienced a marked decrease in participation a result of the scoring debacle". In 1894, five skaters competed in Vienna. Engelmann won his third Europeans gold medal, Austrian Gustav Hügel came in second, Földváry came in third. In 1895, held in Budapest, three skaters competed, with one withdrawal. Földváry won the gold medal, Hügel again came in second, Gilbert Fuchs from Germany, who competed in 10 Europeans, came in third.
There were no European Championships for two years, which Hines speculated was because of the small number of contestants in 1894 and 1895, although the competition returned in 1898. Hines reported that the European Championships were again interrupted in 1902 and 1903, "for lack of ice". By the beginning of World War I, 20 European Championships were held. There were two more interruptions of the European Championships: between 1915 and 1922 due to World War I, between 1940 and 1946 due to World War II. Only men competed at the European Championships until 1930, when women single skaters and pair skating were added. All members of the ISU, not just skaters from Europe, were allowed to compete at Europeans until 1948. Ice dance was added to Europeans in 1954.}} The first time the U. S. S. R. sent skaters to the European Championships was in 1956. Competitions were held in outdoor rinks until 1967, when the ISU ruled that both the European and World Championships be held in covered ice rinks. Only those competitors who are "members of a European ISU Member" are eligible to compete in the European Championships.
According to the ISU's Constitution, in order to be eligible to compete in international senior competitions, ISU senior championships, the Olympics, skaters must have "reached at least the age of fifteen before July 1 preceding the Events". Each ISU member country can send at least one competitor per discipline, if they earn the minimum total element scores, determined and published each season by the ISU, during the current or during the previous season. Skaters who earn the minimum elements score/points during the Olympic season or during the previous season, as established for the European and Four Continents championships, are eligible to compete in the Olympics. In 2018, the ISU determined that skaters and couples participating in the 2019 European Championships had to earn the following minimum total elements scores: The number of additional competitors eligible to compete from ISU member countries is determined by the accumulation of points "equal to the sum of placements of their Competitors who w
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice. It was the first winter sport included in the Olympics, in 1908; the four Olympic disciplines are men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dance. Non-Olympic disciplines include synchronized skating, Theater on Ice, four skating. From juvenile through senior-level competition, skaters perform two programs which, depending on the discipline, may include spins, moves in the field, throw jumps, death spirals, other elements or moves; the blade has a groove on the bottom creating two distinct edges: outside. Judges prefer that skaters glide on one edge of the blade and not on both at the same time, referred to as a flat edge. During a spin, skaters use the "sweet spot" of the blade, formally called a rocker, the roundest portion of the blade, just behind the pick and near the middle of the blade. Skates used in single and pair skating have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front of the blade.
Toe picks are used for the take-off on jumps. Ice dance blades have smaller toe picks. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level at local, regional and international competitions; the International Skating Union competitions. These include the Winter Olympics, the World Championships, the World Junior Championships, the European Championships, the Four Continents Championships, the Grand Prix series, the ISU Challenger Series; the sport is associated with show business. Major competitions conclude with exhibition galas, in which the top skaters from each discipline perform non-competitive programs. Many skaters, both during and after their competitive careers skate in ice shows, which run during the competitive season and the off-season; the term "professional" in skating refers not to skill competitive status. Figure skaters competing at the highest levels of international competition are not "professional" skaters, they are sometimes referred to as amateurs.
Professional skaters include those who have lost their ISU eligibility and those who perform only in shows. They may include former Olympic and World champions who have ended their competitive career as well as skaters with little or no international competitive experience. In languages other than English, Korean, Italian and Russian, figure skating is referred to by a name that translates as "artistic skating." The most visible difference in relation to ice hockey skates is that figure skates have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front part of the blade. These are used in jumping and should not be used for stroking or spins. If used during a spin, the toe pick will cause the skater to lose momentum, or move away from the center of the spin. Blades are mounted to the heel of the boot with screws. High-level figure skaters are professionally fitted for their boots and blades at a reputable skate shop. Professionals are employed to sharpen blades to individual requirements. Blades are about 3/16 inch thick.
When viewed from the side, the blade of a figure skate is not flat, but curved forming an arc of a circle with a radius of 180–220 cm. This curvature is referred to as the rocker of the blade; the "sweet spot" is the part of the blade on which all spins are rotated. The blade is "hollow ground"; the inside edge of the blade is on the side closest to the skater. In figure skating, it is always desirable to skate on only one edge of the blade. Skating on both at the same time may result in lower skating skills scores; the effortless power and glide across the ice exhibited by elite figure skaters fundamentally derives from efficient use of the edges to generate speed. Ice dancers' blades are about an inch shorter in the rear than those used by skaters in other disciplines, to accommodate the intricate footwork and close partnering in dance. Dancers' blades have a smaller toe pick as they do not require the large toe pick used for jumping in the other disciplines. Hard plastic skate guards are used when the skater must walk in his or her skates when not on the ice, to protect the blade from dirt or material on the ground that may dull the blade.
Soft blade covers called soakers are used to absorb condensation and protect the blades from rust when the skates are not being worn. In competition, skaters are allowed three minutes to make repairs to their skates. Off-ice training is the term for physical conditioning. Besides regular physical exercise, skaters do walk-throughs of jumps off the ice in order to practice sufficient rotation and height of their jumps, to practice consistency in landing on one foot. There is significant variation in the dimensions of ice rinks. Olympic-sized rinks have dimensions of 30 m × 60 m, NHL-sized rinks are 26 m × 61 m, while European rinks are sometimes 30 m × 64 m; the ISU prefers Olympic-sized rinks for figure skating competitions for major events. According to ISU rule 342, a figure skating rink for an ISU event "if possible, shall measure sixty meters in one direction and thirty meters in the other, but not larger, not less than fifty-six meters in one direct
Single skating is a discipline of figure skating in which male and female skaters compete individually. Men's singles and women's singles, along with the other figure skating disciples, pair skating, ice dance, synchronized skating, are governed by the International Skating Union. There are two segments in all international competitions, the short program and the free skating program. Compulsory figures, from which the sport of figure skating gets its name, was a crucial part of the sport for most of its history until the ISU voted to remove them in 1990. Singles skating has required elements that skaters must perform during a competition and that make up a well-balanced skating program, they include: jumps, step sequences, choreographic sequences. They must be performed in specific ways, as described by published communications by the ISU, unless otherwise specified; the ISU publishes their points values yearly. Deductions in singles skating include violations in time and clothing, as well as regulations regarding falls and interruptions.
The short program is the first segment of single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters. The short program must be skated before the second component in competitions; the short program lasts, for both senior and junior singles and pairs, 40 seconds. Vocal music with lyrics has been allowed in single skating and in all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season. Yuzuru Hanyu from Japan holds the two highest single men's short program scores: 110.53 points, which he earned at the 2018 Rostelecom Cup, 106.69, earned at the 2018 Grand Prix of Helsinki. Russian skater Alina Zagitova holds the highest single women's short program score of 82.92, which she earned at the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang, South Korea. The short program for senior single skaters consists of seven required elements.
The sequence of the elements is optional. Skaters can choose their own music. Men single senior skaters must have the following elements in their short program: a double or triple axel. Women single senior skaters must perform seven elements in their short program: a double or triple axel. Junior single skaters have seven required elements. Free skating called the free skate or long program, is the second segment in single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters, its duration, across all disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior skaters and teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior skaters. American skater Nathan Chen holds the highest single men's free skating program score of 216.02, which he earned at the 2019 World Championships. Alina Zagitova from Russia holds the highest single women's free skating score of 158.50, which she earned at the 2018 CS Nebelhorn Trophy.
According to the ISU, free skating "consists of a well balanced program of Free Skating elements, such as jumps, spins and other linking movements". A well-balanced free skate for both senior men and women single skaters must consist of the following: up to seven jump elements, one of which has to be an axel jump. Junior men and women single skaters have the same requirements, except that they do not have to perform a choreographic sequence. Compulsory figures called school figures, are the "circular patterns which skaters trace on the ice to demonstrate skill in placing clean turns evenly on round circles"; until 1947, for the first half of the existence of figure skating as a sport, compulsory figures made up for 60 percent of the total score at most competitions around the world. After World War II, the numbers of figures skaters had to perform during competitions decreased, after 1968, they began to be progressively devalued, until the ISU voted to remove them from all international competitions in 1990.
Despite the apparent demise of compulsory figures from the sport of figure skating, coaches continued to teach figures and skaters continued to practice them because figures gave skaters an advantage in developing alignment, core strength, body control, discipline. The World Figure Sport Society has conducted festivals and competitions of compulsory figures, endorsed by the Ice Skating Institute, since 2015; the ISU defines a jump element as "an individual jump, a jump combination or a jump sequence". The six most common jumps can be divided into two groups: toe jumps and edge jumps (the Salchow, the loop
West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and