In Norse mythology, Sigmund is a hero whose story is told in the Völsunga saga. He and his sister, Signý, are the children of his wife Hljod. Sigmund is best known as the father of Sigurð the dragon-slayer, though Sigurð's tale has no connections to the Völsung cycle. In the Völsunga saga, Signý marries the king of Gautland. Völsung and Sigmund are attending the wedding feast, when Odin, disguised as a beggar, plunges a sword into the living tree Barnstokk around which Völsung's hall is built; the disguised Odin announces. Only Sigmund is able to free the sword from the tree. Siggeir is smitten with desire for the sword, he tries to buy it but Sigmund refuses. Siggeir invites Sigmund, his father Völsung and Sigmund's nine brothers to visit him in Gautland to see the newlyweds three months later; when the Völsung clan arrive, they are attacked by the Gauts. Signý beseeches her husband to put them in stocks instead of killing them; as Siggeir thinks that the brothers deserve to be tortured before they are killed, he agrees.
He lets his shapeshifting mother turn into a wolf and devour one of the brothers each night. During that time, Signý fails every time until only Sigmund remains. On the ninth night, she has a servant smear honey on Sigmund's face and when the she-wolf arrives, she starts licking the honey off and sticks her tongue into Sigmund's mouth, whereupon Sigmund bites her tongue off, killing her. Sigmund escapes his bonds and hides in the forest. Signý brings Sigmund everything. Bent on revenge for their father's death, she sends her sons to him in the wilderness, one by one, to be tested; as each fails, she urges Sigmund to kill them, until one day when he refuses to continue killing innocent children. In despair, she comes to him in the guise of a völva and conceives a child by him, Sinfjötli. Sinfjötli, born of their incest, passes the test. Sigmund and his son/nephew, Sinfjötli, grow wealthy as outlaws. In their wanderings, they come upon men sleeping in cursed wolf skins. Upon killing the men and putting on the wolf skins, they are cursed with a type of lycanthropy.
They avenge the death of Völsung. After Signý dies and Sinfjötli go harrying together. Sigmund marries a woman named Borghild and has two sons, one of them named Helgi. Sinfjötli slays Borghild's brother while vying for a woman. Borghild avenges her brother by poisoning Sinfjötli. Sigmund marries a woman named Hjördís. After a short time of peace, Sigmund's lands are attacked by King Lyngi. In battle, Sigmund matches up against an old man, Odin in disguise. Odin shatters Sigmund's sword, Sigmund falls at the hands of others. Dying, he tells Hjördís that she is pregnant and that her son will one day make a great weapon out of the fragments of his sword; that son was to be Sigurd. Sigurd himself had a son named Sigmund, killed when he was three years old by a vengeful Brynhild. Sigmund/Siegmund is the name of Sigurd/Siegfried's father in other versions of the Sigurd story, but without any of the details about his life or family that appear in Norse Völsung tales and poems. On the other hand, the Old English poem Beowulf includes Sigemund the Wælsing and his nephew Fitela in a tale of dragon slaying told within the main story.
Herein the story of Sigemund is told to Beowulf, a warrior from Gautland. Parallels to Sigmund's pulling the sword from the tree can be found in other mythologies. Sinfjötli and Mordred share the characteristic of being nephew and son to the main characters; the story of Sigmund, beginning with the marriage of Signy to Siggeir and ending with Sigmund's vengeance on Siggeir, was retold in the novelette "Vengeance" by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur, which appeared in the magazine Adventure, June 30, 1925. Brodeur was a professor at Berkeley and became well known for his scholarship on Beowulf and Norse sagas. Simonside Hills Orchard, Andy. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-34520-2
In Norse mythology, the einherjar are those who have died in battle and are brought to Valhalla by valkyries. In Valhalla, the einherjar eat their fill of the nightly-resurrecting beast Sæhrímnir, valkyries bring them mead; the einherjar prepare daily for the events of Ragnarök, when they will advance for an immense battle at the field of Vígríðr. The einherjar are attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, the poem Hákonarmál as collected in Heimskringla, a stanza of an anonymous 10th century poem commemorating the death of Eric Bloodaxe known as Eiríksmál as compiled in Fagrskinna. An etymological connection exists between the einherjar and the Harii, scholars have connected the einherjar to the eternal battle of Hjaðningavíg and the Wild Hunt; the einherjar have been the subject of works of poetry. In the poem Vafþrúðnismál, Odin engages the wise jötunn Vafþrúðnir in a game of wits.
Disguised as Gagnráðr, Odin asks Vafþrúðnir "where men fight in courts every day." Vafþrúðnir responds that: In the poem Grímnismál, Odin tells the young Agnar that the cook Andhrímnir boils the beast Sæhrímnir, which he refers to as "the best of pork", in the container Eldhrímnir, yet adds that "but few know by what the einheriar are nourished." Further into Grímnismál, Odin gives a list of valkyries, states that they bear ale to the einherjar. Towards the end of the poem, another reference to the einherjar appears when Odin tells the king Geirröd that Geirröd is drunk, that Geirröd loses much when he loses his favor and the favor of "all the Einherjar."In the poem Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, the hero Sinfjötli flyts with Guðmundr. Sinfjötli accuses Guðmundr of having once been a female, including that he was "a witch, unnatural, among Odin's valkyries" and that all of the einherjar "had to fight, headstrong women, on your account". In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, the einherjar are introduced in chapter 20.
In chapter 20, Third tells Gangleri that Odin is called Valföðr "since all those who fall in battle are his adopted sons," and that Odin assigns them places in Valhalla and Vingólf where they are known as einherjar. In chapter 35, High quotes the Grímnismál valkyrie list, says that these valkyries wait in Valhalla, there serve drink, look after tableware and drinking vessels in Valhalla. In addition, High says that Odin sends valkyries to every battle, that they allot death to men, govern victory. In chapter 38, High provides more detail about the einherjar. Gangleri says that "you say that all those men that have fallen in battle since the beginning of the world have now come to Odin in Val-hall. What has he got to offer them food? I should have thought that there must be a pretty large number there." High replies that it is true there are a pretty large number of men there, adding many more have yet to arrive, yet that "there will seem too few when the wolf comes." However, High adds that food is not a problem because there will never be too many people in Valhalla that the meat of Sæhrímnir cannot sufficiently feed.
High says that Sæhrímnir is cooked every day by the cook Andhrímnir in the pot Eldhrimnir, is again whole every evening. High quotes the stanza of Grímnismál mentioning the cook and container in reference. Further into chapter 38, Gangleri asks. High responds that Odin gives the food on his table to his two wolves Geri and Freki, that Odin himself needs no food, for Odin gains sustenance from wine as if it were drink and meat. High quotes another stanza from Grímnismál in reference. In chapter 39, Gangleri asks what the einherjar drink, as plentiful as their food, if they drink water. High responds that it is strange that Gangleri is asking if Odin, the All-Father, would invite kings and other "men of rank" to his home and give them water to drink. High says that he "swears by his faith" that many who come to Valhalla would think that he paid a high price for a drink of water if there were no better beverages there, after having died of wounds and in agony. High continues that atop Valhalla stands the goat Heiðrún, it feeds on the foliage of the tree called Læraðr.
From Heiðrún's udders flow mead. The vat is so large. In chapter 40, Gangleri says that Valhalla must be an immense building, yet it must be crowded around the doorways. High responds that there are plenty of doors, that crowding doesn't occur around them. In support, High again quotes a stanza from Grímnismál. In chapter 41, Gangleri notes that there are many people in Valhalla, that Odin is a "very great lord when he commands such a troop". Gangleri asks what entertainment the einherjar have when they're not drinking. High responds that every day, the einherjar get dressed and "put on war-gear and go out into the courtyard and fight each other and fall upon each other; this is their sport." High says that when dinner time arrives, the einherjar sit down to drink. In reference, High quotes a stanza from Grímnismál. In chapter 51, High foretells the events of Ragnarök. After the god
In Norse mythology, Ragnarök (. After these events, the world will resurface anew and fertile, the surviving and returning gods will meet and the world will be repopulated by two human survivors. Ragnarök is an important event in Norse mythology and has been the subject of scholarly discourse and theory in the history of Germanic studies; the event is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In the Prose Edda and in a single poem in the Poetic Edda, the event is referred to as Ragnarök or Ragnarøkkr, a usage popularised by 19th-century composer Richard Wagner with the title of the last of his Der Ring des Nibelungen operas, Götterdämmerung, "Twilight of the Gods" in German; the Old Norse compound ragnarok has a long history of interpretation. Its first element, ragna, is unproblematic, being the genitive plural of regin "the ruling powers, gods"; the second element is more problematic, as it occurs in - rök and - røkkr.
Writing in the early 20th century, philologist Geir Zoëga treats the two forms as two separate compounds, glossing ragnarök as "the doom or destruction of the gods" and ragnarøkkr as "the twilight of the gods". The plural noun rök has several meanings, including "development, cause, fate"; the word ragnarök as a whole is usually interpreted as the "final destiny of the gods". The singular form ragnarøkr is found in a stanza of the Poetic Edda poem Lokasenna, in the Prose Edda; the noun røkr means "twilight", suggesting a translation "twilight of the gods". This reading was considered a result of folk etymology, or a learned reinterpretation, of the original term due to the merger of /ɔ:/ and /ø/ in Old Icelandic after c. 1200. Other terms used to refer to the events surrounding Ragnarök in the Poetic Edda include aldar rök from a stanza of Vafþrúðnismál, tíva rök from two stanzas of Vafþrúðnismál, þá er regin deyja from Vafþrúðnismál, unz um rjúfask regin from Vafþrúðnismál, Sigrdrífumál, aldar rof from Helgakviða Hundingsbana II, regin þrjóta from Hyndluljóð, and, in the Prose Edda, þá er Muspellz-synir herja can be found in chapters 18 and 36 of Gylfaginning.
The Poetic Edda contains various references to Ragnarök: In the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá, references to Ragnarök begin from stanza 40 until 58, with the rest of the poem describing the aftermath. In the poem, a völva recites information to Odin. In stanza 41, the völva says: The völva describes three roosters crowing: In stanza 42, the jötunn herdsman Eggthér sits on a mound and cheerfully plays his harp while the crimson rooster Fjalar crows in the forest Gálgviðr; the golden rooster Gullinkambi crows to the Æsir in Valhalla, the third, unnamed soot-red rooster crows in the halls of the underworld location of Hel in stanza 43. After these stanzas, the völva further relates that the hound Garmr produces deep howls in front of the cave of Gnipahellir. Garmr's bindings break and he runs free; the völva describes the state of humanity: The "sons of Mím" are described as being "at play", though this reference is not further explained in surviving sources. Heimdall raises the Gjallarhorn into the air and blows into it, Odin converses with Mím's head.
The world tree Yggdrasil groans. The jötunn Hrym comes from his shield before him; the Midgard serpent Jörmungandr furiously writhes. "The eagle shrieks, pale-beaked he tears the corpse," and the ship Naglfar breaks free thanks to the waves made by Jormungandr and sets sail from the east. The fire jötnar inhabitants of Muspelheim come forth; the völva continues that Jötunheimr, the land of the jötnar, is aroar, that the Æsir are in council. The dwarfs groan by their stone doors. Surtr advances from the south, his sword brighter than the sun. Rocky cliffs open and the jötnar women sink; the gods do battle with the invaders: Odin is swallowed whole and alive fighting the wolf Fenrir, causing his wife Frigg her second great sorrow. Odin's son Víðarr avenges his father by rending Fenrir's jaws apart and stabbing it in the heart with his spear, thus killing the wolf; the serpent Jörmungandr opens its gaping maw, yawning in the air, is met in combat by Thor. Thor a son of Odin and described here as protector of the earth, furiously fights the serpent, defeating it, but Thor is only able to take nine steps afterward before collapsing.
The god Freyr loses. After this, people flee their homes, the sun becomes black while the earth sinks into the sea, the stars vanish, steam rises, flames touch the heavens; the völva sees the earth reappearing from the water, an eagle over a waterfall hunting fish on a mountain. The surviving Æsir meet together at the field of Iðavöllr, they discuss Jörmungandr, great events of the past, the runic alphabet. In stanza 61, in the grass, they find the golden game pieces that the gods are described as having once enjoyed playing games with long
The Prose Edda known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda or simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland in the early 13th century. The work is assumed to have been written, or at least compiled, by the Icelandic scholar and historian Snorri Sturluson around the year 1220, it begins with a euhemerized Prologue, a section on the Norse cosmogony and myths. This is followed by three distinct books: Skáldskaparmál and Háttatal. Seven manuscripts, dating from around 1300 to around 1600, have independent textual value. Sturluson planned the collection as a textbook, it was to enable Icelandic poets and readers to understand the subtleties of alliterative verse, to grasp the meaning behind the many kenningar that were used in skaldic poetry. The Prose Edda was referred to as Edda, but was titled the Prose Edda in modern collections to distinguish it from the collections titled Poetic Edda that are based on Codex Regius, a collection of poetry composed after Edda in 13th century Iceland.
At that time, versions of the Edda were well known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that there once was an Elder Edda which contained the poems which Snorri quotes in his Edda. The etymology of "Edda" remains uncertain; some argue that the word derives from the name of Oddi, a town in the south of Iceland where Snorri was raised. Edda could therefore mean "book of Oddi." However, this assumption is rejected. Faulkes in his English translation of the Prose Edda commented that this is "unlikely, both in terms of linguistics and history" since Snorri was no longer living at Oddi when he composed his work. Another connection was made with the word "óðr", which means "inspiration" in Old Norse. According to Faulkes, though such a connection is plausible semantically, it is unlikely that "Edda" could have been coined in the 13th century on the basis of "óðr", because such a development "would have had to have taken place gradually", "Edda" in the sense of "poetics" is not to have existed in the preliterary period.
Edda means "great-grandparent", a word used by Snorri himself in the Skáldskaparmál. That is, with the same meaning, the name of a character in the Rigsthula and other medieval texts; this hypothesis has attracted François-Xavier Dillmann, author of a French translation of the Edda, who said "it seems that this person's name was chosen as the title of the work due to the fact that it was a collection of ancient knowledge" or, in the words of Régis Boyer, the "grandparent of all sacred knowledge". A final hypothesis is derived from the Latin "edo", meaning "I write", it relies on the fact that the word "kredda" is certified and comes from the Latin "credo", "I believe." It seems Snorri would have been able to invent the word. Edda in this case could be translated as "Poetic Art"; this is the meaning that the word was given in the Middle Ages. The name Sæmundar Edda was given by the Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson to the collection of poems contained in the Codex Regius, many of which are quoted by Snorri.
Brynjólfur, along with many others of his time incorrectly believed that they were collected by Sæmundr fróði, so the Poetic Edda is known as the Elder Edda. Seven manuscripts of the Edda have survived: six compositions of the Middle Ages and another dating to the 1600s. No one manuscript is complete, each has variations. In addition to three fragments, the four main manuscripts are Codex Regius, Codex Wormianus, Codex Trajectinus and the Codex Upsaliensis. Codex Upsaliensis was composed in the first quarter of the fourteenth century and is the oldest manuscript preserved of the Edda of Snorri, it has the advantage of providing some variants that are not found in any of the three other major manuscripts. It is preserved in the library of the University of Uppsala; the Codex Regius was written in the first half of the fourteenth century. It is the most comprehensive of the four manuscripts, seems closer to the original; this is why it is the basis for translations of the Edda. Its name is derived from its conservation in the Royal Library of Denmark for several centuries.
From 1973 to 1997, hundreds of ancient Icelandic manuscripts were returned from Denmark to Iceland, including, in 1985, the Codex Regius, now preserved by the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavík. Codex Wormianus was written in the mid-fourteenth century, it is still part of the Arnamagnæan Manuscript Collection created by Árni Magnússon, in Copenhagen. Codex Trajectinus was written around 1600, it is a copy of a manuscript, made in the second half of the thirteenth century. It is preserved in the library of the University of Utrecht. Although some scholars have doubted whether a sound stemma of the manuscripts can be created, due to the possibility of scribes drawing on multiple exemplars or from memory, recent work has found that the main sources of each manuscript can be readily ascertained; the assumption that Snorri Sturluson is responsible for writing the Edda is based on the following paragraph from a portion of Codex Upsaliensis, an early 14th-century manuscript containing the Edda: This book is called Edda.
Snorri Sturluson compiled it in the way. First it tells about the Æsir and Ymir comes the poetic diction section with the poetic n
Lee Oscar Lawrie was one of the United States' foremost architectural sculptors and a key figure in the American art scene preceding World War II. Over his long career of more than 300 commissions Lawrie's style evolved through Modern Gothic, to Beaux-Arts and into Moderne or Art Deco, he created a frieze on the Nebraska State Capitol building in Lincoln, including a portrayal of the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation. He created some of the architectural sculpture and his most prominent work, the free-standing bronze Atlas at New York City's Rockefeller Center. Lawrie's work is associated with some of the United States' most noted buildings of the first half of the twentieth century, his stylistic approach evolved with building styles that ranged from Beaux-Arts to neo-Gothic to Art Deco. Many of his architectural sculptures were completed for buildings by Bertram Goodhue of Cram & Goodhue, including the chapel at West Point. C.. He completed numerous pieces in Washington, D. C. including the bronze doors of the John Adams Building of the Library of Congress, the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception south entrance portal, the interior sculpture of George Washington at the National Cathedral.
Lee Lawrie was born in Rixdorf, Germany, in 1877 and immigrated to the United States in 1882 as a young child with his family. It was there, at the age of 14. At the age of 15, in 1892 Lawrie worked as an assistant to many of the sculptors in Chicago, for their part in constructing the "White City" for the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. Following the completion of that work, Lawrie went East, where he became an assistant to William Ordway Partridge. During the next decade, he worked with other established sculptors: Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Philip Martiny, Alexander Phimister Proctor, John William Kitson and others, his work at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St Louis, 1904, under Karl Bitter, the foremost architectural sculptor of the time, allowed Lawrie to develop both his skills and his reputation as an architectural sculptor. Lawrie received a bachelor's degree in fine arts from Yale University in 1910, he was an instructor in Yale's School of Fine Arts from 1908 to 1919 and taught in the architecture program at Harvard University from 1910 to 1912.
Lawrie's collaborations with Ralph Adams Cram and Bertram Goodhue brought him to the forefront of architectural sculptors in the United States. After the breakup of the Cram, Goodhue firm in 1914, Lawrie continued to work with Goodhue until the architect died in 1924, he next worked with Goodhue's successors. Lawrie sculpted numerous bas reliefs for El Fureidis, an estate in Montecito, California designed by Goodhue; the bas reliefs remain intact at the estate today. The Nebraska State Capitol and the Los Angeles Public Library both feature extensive sculptural programs integrated with the surface, spatial grammar, social function of the building. Lawrie's collaborations with Goodhue are arguably the most developed example of architectural sculpture in American architectural history. Lawrie served as a consultant to the 1933-34 Century of Progress International Exposition in Chicago, he was a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the National Academy of Design, the Architectural League of New York.
Among his many awards was the AIA Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects in 1921 and 1927, a medal of honor from the Architectural League of New York in 1931, an honorary degree from Yale University. He served on the U. S. Commission of Fine Arts in Washington, DC from 1933 to 1937 and again from 1945 to 1950. Marble reliefs above the windows of the Deborah Cook Sayles Public Library, Rhode Island, 1902 Chapel at West Point, West Point, New York Church of St. Vincent Ferrer, New York City Pulpit and Lectern and Apse carvings at St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, reredos at Saint Thomas Church on Fifth Avenue in New York City reredos at St. John's Episcopal Church Nebraska State Capitol, Nebraska Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles, California Trinity English Lutheran Church, Fort Wayne, Indiana National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D. C. Rockefeller Chapel, University of Chicago, Illinois Christ Church Cranbrook, in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan Church of the Heavenly Rest, New York City After Goodhue's death, Lawrie produced important and visible work under Raymond Hood at Rockefeller Center in New York City, which included the Atlas in collaboration with Rene Paul Chambellan.
By November 1931 Hood said, "There has been too much talk about the collaboration of architect and sculptor." He relegated Lawrie to the role of a decorator. Lawrie's most noted work is not architectural: it is the freestanding statue of Atlas, on Fifth Avenue at Rockefeller Center, standing a total 45 feet tall, with a 15-foot human figure supporting an armillary sphere. At its unveiling, some critics were reminded of Benito Mussolini, while James Montgomery Flagg suggested that it looked as Mussolini thought he looked; the international character of Streamline Moder
In Germanic mythology, Odin is a revered Germanic god. In Norse mythology, from which stems most surviving information about the god, Odin is associated with wisdom, death, the gallows, war, victory, poetry and the runic alphabet, is the husband of the goddess Frigg. In wider Germanic mythology and paganism, the god was known in Old English as Wōden, in Old Saxon as Wōdan, in Old High German as Wuotan or Wōtan, all stemming from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz. Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania through the tribal expansions of the Migration Period and the Viking Age. In the modern period, Odin continued to be acknowledged in the rural folklore of Germanic Europe. References to Odin appear in place names throughout regions inhabited by the ancient Germanic peoples, the day of the week Wednesday bears his name in many Germanic languages, including English. In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, he is referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards.
Forms of his name appear throughout the Germanic record, though narratives regarding Odin are found in Old Norse works recorded in Iceland around the 13th century. These texts make up the bulk of modern understanding of Norse mythology. In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded wielding a spear named Gungnir, wearing a cloak and a broad hat, he is accompanied by his animal companions and familiars—the wolves Geri and Freki and the ravens Huginn and Muninn, who bring him information from all over Midgard—and rides the flying, eight-legged steed Sleipnir across the sky and into the underworld. Odin is the son of Bestla and Borr and has two brothers, Vili and Vé. Odin is attested as having many sons, most famously the gods Thor and Baldr, is known by hundreds of names. In these texts, he seeks greater knowledge, at times in disguise, makes wagers with his wife Frigg over the outcome of exploits, takes part in both the creation of the world by way of slaying the primordial being Ymir and giving the gift of life to the first two humans Ask and Embla.
Odin has a particular association with Yule, mankind's knowledge of both the runes and poetry is attributed to him, giving Odin aspects of the culture hero. In Old Norse texts, female beings associated with the battlefield—the valkyries—are associated with the god and Odin oversees Valhalla, where he receives half of those who die in battle, the einherjar; the other half are chosen by the goddess Freyja for Fólkvangr. Odin consults the disembodied, herb-embalmed head of the wise being Mímir for advice, during the foretold events of Ragnarök, Odin is told to lead the einherjar into battle before being consumed by the monstrous wolf Fenrir. In folklore, Odin appears as a leader of the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession of the dead through the winter sky, he is associated with charms and other forms of magic in Old English and Old Norse texts. Odin is a frequent subject of study in Germanic studies, numerous theories have been put forward regarding his development; some of these focus on Odin's particular relation to other figures.
Other approaches focus on Odin's place in the historical record, a frequent question being whether the figure of Odin derives from Proto-Indo-European religion, or whether he developed in Germanic society. In the modern period, Odin has inspired numerous works of poetry and other forms of media, he is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry, together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples. The Old Norse theonym Óðinn and its cognates, including Old English Wōden, Old Saxon Wōden, Old High German Wuotan, derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz; the masculine noun *wōđanaz developed from the Proto-Germanic adjective *wōđaz, related to Latin vātēs and Old Irish fáith, both meaning'seer, prophet'. Adjectives stemming from *wōđaz include Gothic woþs'possessed', Old Norse óðr,'mad, furious', Old English wōd'mad'; the adjective *wōđaz was further substantivised, leading to Old Norse óðr'mind, soul, sense', Old English ellen-wōd'zeal', Middle Dutch woet'madness', Old High German wuot'thrill, violent agitation'.
Additionally the Old Norse noun æði'rage, fury' and Old High German wuotī'madness' derive from the feminine noun *wōđīn, from *wōđaz. The weak verb *wōđjanan derived from *wōđaz, gave rise to Old Norse æða'to rage', Old English wēdan'to be mad, furious', Old Saxon wōdian'to rage', Old High German wuoten'to be insane, to rage'. Over 170 names are recorded for Odin; these names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with the god. This multitude of names makes Odin the god with the most names known among the Germanic peoples; the modern English weekday name Wednesday derives from Old English wōdnesdæg. Cognate terms are found in other Germanic languages, such as Middle Low German wōdensdach, Old Norse Óðinsdagr (Danish, Nor
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with fire hardened spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint, iron, steel or bronze; the most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a triangle, lozenge, or leaf. The heads of fishing spears feature barbs or serrated edges; the word spear comes from the Old English spere, from the Proto-Germanic speri, from a Proto-Indo-European root *sper- "spear, pole". Spears can be divided into two broad categories: those designed for thrusting in melee combat and those designed for throwing; the spear has been used throughout human history both as a weapon. Along with the axe and club, it is one of the earliest and most important tools developed by early humans; as a weapon, it may be wielded with two. It was used in every conflict up until the modern era, where then it continues on in the form of the bayonet, is the most used weapon in history.
Spear manufacture and use is not confined to humans. It is practiced by the western chimpanzee. Chimpanzees near Kédougou, Senegal have been observed to create spears by breaking straight limbs off trees, stripping them of their bark and side branches, sharpening one end with their teeth, they used the weapons to hunt galagos sleeping in hollows. Archaeological evidence found in present-day Germany documents that wooden spears have been used for hunting since at least 400,000 years ago, a 2012 study suggests that Homo heidelbergensis may have developed the technology about 500,000 years ago. Wood does not preserve well and Craig Stanford, a primatologist and professor of anthropology at the University of Southern California, has suggested that the discovery of spear use by chimpanzees means that early humans used wooden spears as well five million years ago. Neanderthals were constructing stone spear heads from as early as 300,000 BP and by 250,000 years ago, wooden spears were made with fire-hardened points.
From circa 200,000 BC onwards, Middle Paleolithic humans began to make complex stone blades with flaked edges which were used as spear heads. These stone heads could be fixed to the spear shaft by gum or resin or by bindings made of animal sinew, leather strips or vegetable matter. During this period, a clear difference remained between spears designed to be thrown and those designed to be used in hand-to-hand combat. By the Magdalenian period, spear-throwers similar to the atlatl were in use; the spear is the main weapon of the warriors of Homer's Iliad. The use of both a single thrusting spear and two throwing spears are mentioned, it has been suggested. In the 7th century BC, the Greeks evolved the phalanx; the key to this formation was the hoplite, equipped with a large, bronze-faced shield and a 7–9 ft spear with an iron head and bronze butt-spike. The hoplite phalanx dominated warfare among the Greek City States from the 7th into the 4th century BC; the 4th century saw major changes. One was the greater use of light infantry armed with spear and javelins.
The other was the development of the sarissa, a two-handed pike 18 ft in length, by the Macedonians under Phillip of Macedon and Alexander the Great. The pike phalanx, supported by peltasts and cavalry, became the dominant mode of warfare among the Greeks from the late 4th century onward until Greek military systems were supplanted by the Roman legions. In the pre-Marian Roman armies, the first two lines of battle, the hastati and principes fought with a sword called a gladius and pila, heavy javelins that were designed to be thrown at an enemy to pierce and foul a target's shield; the principes were armed with a short spear called a hasta, but these fell out of use being replaced by the gladius. The third line, the triarii, continued to use the hasta. From the late 2nd century BC, all legionaries were equipped with the pilum; the pilum continued to be the standard legionary spear until the end of the 2nd century AD. Auxilia, were equipped with a simple hasta and throwing spears. During the 3rd century AD, although the pilum continued to be used, legionaries were equipped with other forms of throwing and thrusting spear, similar to auxilia of the previous century.
By the 4th century, the pilum had disappeared from common use. In the late period of the Roman Empire, the spear became more used because of its anti-cavalry capacities as the barbarian invasions were conducted by people with a developed culture of cavalry in warfare. Muslim warriors used a spear, called an az-zaġāyah. Berbers pronounced it zaġāya, but the English term, derived from the Old French via Berber, is "assegai", it is a pole weapon used for throwing or hurling a light spear or javelin made of hard wood and pointed with a forged iron tip. The az-zaġāyah played an important role during the Islamic conquest as well as during periods, well into the 20th century. A longer pole az-zaġāyah was being used as a hunting weapon from horseback; the az-zaġāyah was used. It existed in various forms in areas stretching from Southern Africa to the Indian subcontinent, although these place