The penning was the dominant currency of the Norwegian coin system in the period 995-1387. Minted in Norway by the kings of Norway from Olaf Tryggvason and up to Olaf Haakonsson, who remained as a unit of account in the kingdom until 1513, it was introduced the year 995 in the image of the Anglo-Saxon coinage, was the first and oldest currency of Norway. The coin system was adapted in both Sweden and Denmark; the name lives on in the North Germanic languages in the contracted form of the plural, penger/pengar, which means money. In the old Norwegian weight system it entered into units as øre and mark. Penning amended standard on several occasions through the Middle Ages. Both coin image, size and the silver content could vary considerably; the penning was minted in imitation of the pennies and deniers issued elsewhere in Europe. However, although based on these coins, the accounting system was distinct, with different systems operating in different regions. All used the öre, worth 1/8 of a mark or 3 örtugs.
Value Relations between mark, øre, örtug og penning: 1 mark = 8 øre = 24 ertogs = 240 pennings 1 øre = 3 ertogs = 30 pennings 1 ertog = 10 pennings 1 penning Swedish penning, its former Swedish interpretation penny, its British equivalent denier, its former French equivalent pfennig, its former German equivalent
Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson was a Norse explorer from Iceland. He was the first known European to have set foot on continental North America, before Christopher Columbus. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, tentatively identified with the Norse L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada. Archaeological evidence suggests that Vinland may have been the areas around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and that the L'Anse aux Meadows site was a ship repair station. Leif was the son of Erik the Red, the founder of the first Norse settlement in Greenland and of Thjodhild, both of Norwegian origin, his place of birth is not known, but he is assumed to have been born in Iceland, colonized by Norsemen from Norway. He grew up in the family estate Brattahlíð in the Eastern Settlement in Greenland. Leif had two known sons: Thorgils, born to noblewoman Thorgunna in the Hebrides. Leif was the son of Erik the Red and his wife Thjodhild, the grandson of Thorvaldr Ásvaldsson, distant relative of Naddodd, who discovered Iceland.
He was a Viking in the early days. His year of birth is most given as c. 970 or c. 980. Though Leif's birthplace is not accounted for in the sagas, it is he was born in Iceland, where his parents met—probably somewhere on the edge of Breiðafjörður, at the farm Haukadal where Thjóðhild's family is said to have been based. Leif had two brothers, whose names were Thorsteinn and Thorvaldr, a sister, Freydís. Thorvald Asvaldsson was banished from Norway for manslaughter and went into exile in Iceland accompanied by young Erik; when Erik was himself banished from Iceland, he travelled further west to an area he named Greenland, where he established the first permanent settlement in 986. Tyrker, one of Erik's thralls, had been specially trusted to keep in charge of Erik's children, as Leif referred to him as his "foster father". Leif and his crew travelled from Greenland to Norway in 999 AD. Blown off course to the Hebrides and staying for much of the summer, he arrived in Norway and became a hirdman of King Olaf Tryggvason.
He converted to Christianity and was given the mission of introducing the religion to Greenland. The Saga of Erik the Red and the Saga of the Greenlanders, both thought to have been written around 1200, contain different accounts of the voyages to Vinland; the only two known historical mentions of Vinland are found in the work of Adam of Bremen c. 1075 and in the Book of Icelanders compiled c. 1122 by Ari the Wise. According to the Saga of Erik the Red, Leif saw Vinland for the first time after being blown off course on his way to introduce Christianity to Greenland. According to a literal interpretation of Einar Haugen's translation of the two sagas in the book Voyages to Vinland, Leif was not the first European to discover America: he had heard the story of merchant Bjarni Herjólfsson who claimed to have sighted land to the west of Greenland after having been blown off course. Bjarni never made landfall there, however; when travelling from Norway to Greenland, Leif was blown off course, to a land that he did not expect to see, where he found "self-sown wheat fields and grapevines".
He went back to Greenland. If this is to be trusted, Bjarni Herjólfsson was the first European to see America beyond Greenland, the two unnamed shipwrecked men were the first people known to Europeans to have made landfall there. Leif approached Bjarni, purchased his ship, gathered a crew of thirty-five men, mounted an expedition towards the land Bjarni had described, his father Erik was set to join him but dropped out after he fell from his horse on his way to set sail, an incident he interpreted as a bad omen. Leif followed Bjarni's route in reverse and landed first in a rocky and desolate place he named Helluland. After venturing further by sea, he landed the second time in a forested place. After two more days at sea, he landed in a verdant area with a mild climate and plentiful supplies of salmon; as winter approached, he decided to encamp there and broke his party into two groups – one to remain at camp and the other to explore the country. During one of these explorations, Tyrker discovered that the land was full of grapes.
Leif therefore named the land Vinland. There, he and his crew built a small settlement, called Leifsbudir by visitors from Greenland. After having wintered over in Vinland, Leif returned to Greenland in the spring with a cargo of grapes and timber. On the return voyage, he rescued an Icelandic castaway and his crew, earning him the nickname "Leif the Lucky". Research done in the early 1960s by Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and his wife, archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad, identified a Norse site located at the northern tip of Newfoundland, it has been suggested. The Ingstads demonstrated that Norsemen had reached America about 500 years before Christopher Columbus. Archaeological evidence suggests that Vinland may have been the areas around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and that the L'Anse aux Meadows site was a ship repair station and waypoint for voyages there; that does not contradict the identification of L'Anse aux Meadows with Leifsbúðir since the two sagas appear to describe Vinland as a wider region which included several settlements.
The Saga of Erik the Red mentions two other settlements in Vinl
Landnámabók shortened to Landnáma, is a medieval Icelandic written work which describes in considerable detail the settlement of Iceland by the Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries CE. Landnámabók is divided over 100 chapters; the first part tells of. The parts count settlers quarter by quarter beginning with west and ending with south, it traces family history into the 12th century. More than 3,000 people and 1,400 settlements are described, it tells where each settler settled, it provides a brief genealogy. Sometimes short anecdote-like stories are included. Landnámabók lists 435 men as the initial settlers, the majority of them settling in the northern and southwestern parts of the island, it remains an invaluable source on both the genealogy of the Icelandic people. Some have suggested a single author, while others have believed it to be put together when people met at things; the first copy has not survived. The initial settlement of Iceland took place during the Viking Age between 870 and 930, but Landnámabók mentions descendants later than the actual settlement period, at least into the 11th century.
There are five surviving medieval versions of Landnámabók. Sturlubók by Sturla Þórðarson Hauksbók by Haukr Erlendsson, based on Sturlubók and a lost version by Styrmir Kárason Melabók Skarðsárbók Þórðarbók Online publication of Landnámabók
Norumbega, or Nurembega, is a legendary settlement in northeastern North America which appeared on many early maps from the 1500s until American colonization. The houses were said to have pillars of gold and the inhabitants carried quarts of pearls on their heads. Jean Allefonsce in 1542 reported that he had coasted south from Newfoundland and had discovered a great river, it appeared on subsequent European maps of North America, lying south of Acadia in what is now New England. The town of Bangor, embraced the legend in the nineteenth century, naming their municipal hall "Norumbega Hall". In 1886 inventor Joseph Barker Stearns built a mansion named "Norumbega Castle", which still stands on US Route 1 in Camden, overlooking Penobscot Bay. In the late 19th century, Eben Norton Horsford linked the name and legend of Norumbega to supposed Norse settlements on the Charles River, built the Norumbega Tower at the confluence of Stony Brook and the Charles in Weston, where he believed Fort Norumbega was located.
In honor of Horsford's generous donations to Wellesley College, a building named Norumbega Hall was dedicated in 1886 and celebrated in a poem by John Greenleaf Whittier. The word "Norumbega" was spelled Oranbega in Giovanni da Verrazzano's 1529 map of America, the word is believed to derive from one of the Algonquian languages spoken in New England, it may mean "quiet place between the rapids" or "quiet stretch of water". Today, the myth is reflected in such place names as Norumbega Mountain in Acadia National Park. DeCosta, B. F. 1890. Ancient Norumbega, or the voyages of Simon Ferdinando and John Walker to the Penobscot River, 1579-1580. Joel Munsell's Sons, Albany, NY R. H. Ramsay, 1972. No Longer on the Map, Viking Books Baker, Emerson W. Churchill, Edwin A. D'Abate, Richard S. Jones, Kristine L. Konrad, Victor A. and Prins, Harald E. L. editors, 1994. American beginnings: Exploration and cartography in the land of Norumbega Reider T, Sherwin The Viking and The Red Man
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum is a historical treatise written between 1073 and 1076 by Adam of Bremen, who made additions to the text until his death. It is one of the most important sources of the medieval history of Northern Europe, the oldest textual source reporting the discovery of coastal North America, it covers the entire period known as the Viking Age, from the foundation of the bishopric under Willehad in 788 until the rule of prince-bishop Adalbert in Adam's own time. The text focuses on the history of its bishops; as the bishops had jurisdiction over the missions to Scandinavia, it gives a report of the Norse paganism of the period. The existence of the work was forgotten in the medieval period, until it was re-discovered in the late 16th century in the library of Sorø Abbey, Denmark; the treatise consist of the following parts: an introduction, addressed to bishop Liemar Book 1: History of the bishopric of Bremen and Hamburg-Bremen Book 2: History of the archbishopric Hamburg-Bremen Book 3: Biography of archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg Book 4: Descriptio insularum aquilonis: Geographical description of Northern Europe M. Adami epilogus ad Liemarum episcopum: A dedication to bishop Liemar in hexametersThe text is one of the most important sources of Northern German and Scandinavian history and geography in the Viking Age and the beginning High Middle Ages.
It covers the relations between Saxons and Danes. The third book is focused on the biography of archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg. Adam based his works in part on Einhard and other earlier historians, consulting the library of the church of Bremen; the text as presented to bishop Liemar was completed in 1075/1076. After the death of Bishop Leuderich, the see was given to Ansgar, it lost its independence, from that time on was permanently united with the Archdiocese of Hamburg; the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen was designated the "Mission of the North" and had jurisdiction over all missions in Scandinavia, the entire scope of Viking expansion in the north, throughout the Viking Age, until the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen had a falling-out with the pope, separate archbishopric for the North was established in Lund in 1105. Adam is an important source of Viking Age Norse paganism, including the practice of human sacrifice: The description of the temple at Uppsala is one of the most famous excerpts of the Gesta: "In this temple decked out in gold, the people worship the statues of three gods in such wise that the mightiest of them, occupies a throne in the middle of the chamber.
Thor, they say, presides over the air, which governs the thunder and lightning, the winds and rains, fair weather crops. The other, Wotan – that is, Fury – carries on war and imparts to man strength against his enemies; the third is Frikko, who bestows pleasure on mortals. His likeness, they fashion with an immense phallus."The fourth book describes the geography of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. It mentions numerous episcopal seats and churches, including Meldorf, Verden, Ratzeburg, Oldenburg in Holstein and Jumne. Beyond this, it gives a description of the coast of Scandinavia and of the "northern isles" including Iceland and notably Vinland, being the oldest extant written record of the Norse discovery of North America. Adam of Bremen had been at the court of Danish king Sven Estridson and was informed about the Viking discoveries in the North Atlantic there. Adam is believed to have come from Meissen in Saxony, he was born before 1050 and died on 12 October of an unknown year. From his chronicles it is apparent.
The honorary name of Magister Adam shows that he had passed through all the stages of a higher education. It is probable. In 1066 or 1067 he was invited by archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg to join the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen. Adam was accepted among the capitulars of Bremen, by 1069 he appeared as director of the cathedral's school. Soon thereafter he began to write the history of Hamburg-Bremen and of the northern lands in his Gesta, his position and the missionary activity of the church of Hamburg-Bremen allowed him to gather information on the history and the geography of Northern Germany. A stay at the court of Svend Estridson gave him the opportunity to find information about the history and geography of Denmark and the other Scandinavian countries. According to Schmeidler, Adam created three versions of the text, in the convention of Schmeidler labelled representing his preliminary text, the work as given to bishop Liemar, which he kept for his own use and supplemented with various additions.
None of the three archetypes has been preserved. The most relevant surviving manuscripts are classified into three groups, labelled A, B and C; the best manuscript is of group A, dated to the first half of the 13th century. Parts of book 2, book 4 and some scholia are preserved in a ms. dated ca. 1100. Manuscripts in the B and C groups are derived from version X, they contain independent additions of scholia. The best ms. in group B was the so-called Codex z, written 1161/2, however lost in the Copenhagen Fire of
A mirage is a occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. The word comes to English via the French mirage, from the Latin mirari, meaning "to look at, to wonder at"; this is the same root as for "mirror" and "to admire". Mirages can be categorized as "inferior", "superior" and "Fata Morgana", one kind of superior mirage consisting of a series of unusually elaborate, vertically stacked images, which form one changing mirage. In contrast to a hallucination, a mirage is a real optical phenomenon that can be captured on camera, since light rays are refracted to form the false image at the observer's location. What the image appears to represent, however, is determined by the interpretive faculties of the human mind. For example, inferior images on land are easily mistaken for the reflections from a small body of watersurface. For exhausted travelers in the desert, an inferior mirage may appear to be a lake of water in the distance.
An inferior mirage is called "inferior". The real object in an inferior mirage is any distant object in that same direction; the mirage causes the observer to see a bright and bluish patch on the ground in the distance, called oasis mirage. Light rays coming from a particular distant object all travel through nearly the same air layers and all are bent over about the same amount. Therefore, rays coming from the top of the object will arrive lower than those from the bottom; the image is upside down, enhancing the illusion that the sky image seen in the distance is a water or oil puddle acting as a mirror. Inferior images are not stable. Hot air rises, cooler air descends, so the layers will mix, giving rise to turbulence; the image will be distorted accordingly. It may be vibrating. If there are several temperature layers, several mirages may mix causing double images. In any case, mirages are not larger than about half a degree high and from objects only a few kilometers away. Heat haze called heat shimmer, refers to the inferior mirage experienced when viewing objects through a layer of heated air.
When appearing on roads due to the hot asphalt, it is referred to as a highway mirage. Convection causes the temperature of the air to vary, the variation between the hot air at the surface of the road and the denser cool air above it creates a gradient in the refractive index of the air; this produces a blurred shimmering effect, which affects the ability to resolve objects, the effect being increased when the image is magnified through a telescope or telephoto lens. Light from the sky at a shallow angle to the road is refracted by the index gradient, making it appear as if the sky is reflected by the road's surface; the mind interprets this as a pool of water on the road, since water reflects the sky. The illusion fades. On tarmac roads it may look as if water, or oil, has been spilled; these kinds of inferior mirages are called "desert mirages" or "highway mirages". Both sand and tarmac can become hot when exposed to the sun being more than 10 °C hotter than the air one meter above, enough to create conditions suitable for the formation of the mirage.
Heat haze is not related to the atmospheric phenomenon of haze. A superior mirage occurs; this unusual arrangement is called a temperature inversion, since warm air above cold air is the opposite of the normal temperature gradient of the atmosphere. Passing through the temperature inversion, the light rays are bent down, so the image appears above the true object, hence the name superior. Superior mirages are in general less common than inferior mirages, when they do occur, they tend to be more stable, as cold air has no tendency to move up and warm air has no tendency to move down. Superior mirages are quite common in polar regions over large sheets of ice that have a uniform low temperature. Superior mirages occur at more moderate latitudes, although in those cases they are weaker and tend to be less smooth and stable. For example, a distant shoreline may appear to tower and look higher than it is; because of the turbulence, there appear to be dancing towers. This type of mirage is called the Fata Morgana or hafgerdingar in the Icelandic language.
A superior mirage can be right-side up or upside down, depending on the distance of the true object and the temperature gradient. The image appears as a distorted mixture of up and down parts. Superior mirages can have a striking effect due to the Earth's curvature. Were the Earth flat, light rays that bend down would soon hit the ground and only nearby objects would be affected. Since Earth is round, if their downward bending curve is about the same as the curvature of the Earth, light rays can travel large distances from beyond the horizon; this was observed and documented for the first time in 1596, when a ship under the command of Willem Barentsz in search of the Northeast passage became stuck in the ice at Novaya Zemlya. The crew was forced to endure the polar winter there, they saw their midwinter night come to an end with the rise of a distorted Sun about two weeks earlier than expected. It was not until the 20th century that science could explain the reason: the real Sun had still been below the horizon, but its light rays followed the curvat