Joseph Wright (linguist)
Joseph Wright FBA was an English philologist who rose from humble origins to become Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford University. Wright was born in Idle, near Bradford in Yorkshire, the second son of Dufton Wright, a woollen cloth weaver and quarryman, his wife Sarah Ann, he started work as a "donkey-boy" in a quarry at the age of six, leading a donkey-drawn cart full of tools to the smithy to be sharpened. He became a bobbin doffer – responsible for removing and replacing full bobbins – in a Yorkshire mill in Sir Titus Salt's model village. Although he learnt his letters and numbers at the Salt's Factory School, he was unable to read a newspaper until he was 15, he said of this time, "Reading and writing, for me, were as remote as any of the sciences". By now a wool-sorter earning £1 a week, Wright became fascinated with languages and began attending night-school to learn French and Latin, as well as maths and shorthand. At the age of 18 he started his own night-school, charging his colleagues twopence a week.
By 1876 he had saved £40 and could afford a term's study at the University of Heidelberg, although he walked from Antwerp to save money. Returning to Yorkshire, Wright continued his studies at the Yorkshire College of Science while working as a schoolmaster. A former pupil of Wright's recalls that, "with a piece of chalk draw illustrative diagrams at the same time with each hand, talk while he was doing it", he returned to Heidelberg and in 1885 completed his PhD. on Qualitative and Quantitative Changes of the Indo-Germanic Vowel System in Greek under Hermann Osthoff founding the field of scientific study: English dialectology. In 1888, after his return from Germany, Wright was offered a post at Oxford University by Professor Max Müller, became a lecturer to the Association for the Higher Education of Women and deputy lecturer in German at the Taylor Institution. From 1891 to 1901 he was Deputy Professor and from 1901 to 1925 Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford, he specialised in the Germanic languages and wrote a range of introductory grammars for Old English, Middle English, Old High German, Middle High German and Gothic which were still being revised and reprinted 50 years after his death.
He wrote a historical grammar of German. He had a strong interest in English dialects and claimed that his 1892 book A Grammar of the Dialect of Windhill was "the first grammar of its kind in England." Undoubtedly, his greatest achievement was the editing of the six-volume English Dialect Dictionary, which he published between 1898 and 1905 at his own expense. This remains a snapshot of English dialect speech at the end of the 19th century. In the course of his work on the Dictionary, he formed a committee to gather Yorkshire material, which gave rise in 1897 to the Yorkshire Dialect Society, which claims to be the world's oldest surviving dialect society. Wright had been offered a position at a Canadian university, who would have paid him an annual salary of £500 – a generous salary at the time. However, Wright opted to stay in Oxford and finish the Dialect Dictionary without any financial backing from a sponsor. In 1925 Wright was the inaugural recipient of the British Academy's Biennial Prize for English Literature, awarded for publications in Early English Language and Literature.
Wright's papers are in the Bodleian Oxford. In 1896 he married Elizabeth Mary Lea, with whom he co-authored his Middle English Grammars, she wrote the book, Rustic Speech and Folklore, in which she makes reference to their various walking and cycle trips into the Yorkshire Dales, as well as various articles and essays. The couple had two children -- Mary -- both of whom died in childhood. Wright and his wife were known for their hospitality to their students and would invite a dozen or more, both men and women, to their home for Yorkshire Sunday teas. On these occasions Wright would perform his party trick of making his Aberdeen Terrier, lick his lips when Wright said the Gothic words for fig-tree – smakka bagms. Although Wright was a progressive to the extent that he believed women were entitled to a university education, he did not believe that women should be made voting members of the university, saying they were, "... less independent in judgement than men and apt to run in a body like sheep".
Although his energies were for the most part directed towards his work, Wright enjoyed gardening and followed Yorkshire cricket and football teams. He died of pneumonia on 27 February 1930, his last word was "Dictionary". In 1932 his widow, published a biography of Wright, The Life of Joseph Wright. Wright was an important early influence on J. R. R. Tolkien, was one of his tutors at Oxford: studying the Grammar of the Gothic Language with Wright seems to have been a turning-point in Tolkien's life. Writing to his son Michael in 1963, J. R. R. Tolkien reflected on his time studying with Wright thus: "Years before I had rejected as disgusting cynicism by an old vulgarian the words of warning given me by old Joseph Wright. ‘What do you take Oxford for, lad?’ ‘A university, a place of learning.’ ‘Nay, lad, it‘s a factory! And what’s it making? I‘ll tell you. It‘s making fees. Get that in your head, you‘ll begin to understand what goes on.‘ Alas! by 1935 I now knew that it was true. At any rate as a key to dons‘ behaviour."In the course of editing the Dictionary, Wright corresponded with Thomas Hardy.
Wright was admired by Virginia Woolf, who writes of him in her diary that, "The triumph of learning is that it leaves something done solidly f
Strontian is the main village in Sunart, an area in western Lochaber, Scotland, on the A861 road. Prior to 1975 it was part of Argyllshire, it lies on the north shore of Loch Sunart, close to the head of the loch. In the hills to the north of Strontian lead was mined in the 18th century and in these mines the mineral strontianite was discovered, from which the element strontium was first isolated; the village name in Gaelic, Sròn an t-Sìthein, translates as the nose of the fairy hill, meaning a knoll or low round hill inhabited by the mythological sídhe. The nearby hamlets of Anaheilt and Upper and Lower Scotstown are now considered part of Strontian, with Polloch several miles away on the terminus of the road to Loch Shiel. Strontian is the location of Ardnamurchan High School, the local fire station, police station and other facilities; the history of mining in the Strontian area dates to 1722, when Sir Alexander Murray discovered galena in the hills the region. A mine was opened in partnership with Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk and General Wade.
Various materials have been mined here including lead, strontianite, which contains the element named after the village, Strontium. While there have been inhabitants of the area for centuries in the woods north of the current village, the community as it exists now was established in 1724 to provide homes for the local mining workers, it was observed in the 19th century that there is granite on one side of the Strontian mines and gneiss on the other. The glen north of the village is situated within the Moine Supergroup; the Glenfinnan Group lies with Caledonian intrusions on the east side. Lead mined at Strontian was used in bullets manufactured for the Napoleonic Wars. In the early part of the 19th century, part of the workforce was made up of captured forces from Napoleon's imperial army. In 1790, Adair Crawford, a doctor, recognised that the Strontian ores exhibited different properties to those seen with other "heavy spars" sources, he concluded "... it is probable indeed, that the scotch mineral is a new species of earth which has not hitherto been sufficiently examined".
The new mineral was named strontites in 1793 by Thomas Charles Hope, a professor of chemistry at the University of Glasgow. He confirmed the earlier work of Crawford and recounted: "... Considering it a peculiar earth I thought it necessary to give it an name. I have called it Strontites, from the place; the element was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 by the electrolysis of a mixture containing strontium chloride and mercuric oxide, announced by him in a lecture to the Royal Society on 30 June 1808. In keeping with the naming of the other alkaline earths, he changed the name to strontium. While several elements have been discovered there, strontium is the only element named after a place in the United Kingdom; the first large-scale application of strontium was in the production of sugar from sugar beet. Although a crystallisation process using strontium hydroxide was patented by Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1849 the large-scale introduction came with the improvement of the process in the early 1870s.
The German sugar industry used the process well into the 20th century. Prior to World War I the beet sugar industry used 100,000 to 150,000 tons of strontium hydroxide for this process per year. In 1851, a miner named. A lengthy inquest followed for the office of the Procurator Fiscal of Tobermory. A number of witnesses to the accident testified that the workings were unsafe and that precautions for the workmen were insufficient. A case was brought against James Floyd, superintendent of the mines, for the culpable homicide of Duncan Cameron. A number of complaints had been made to Sir James Riddell, local landowner and proprietor of the mines. One piece of evidence presented to the inquest notes: This insufficiency arises from the want of proper props in the workings & in the removal by Mr Barrat of the Middlings or partitions left by the former Company for supporting the workings - a feeling of this nature given expression to by all the workmen has existed for the last three years and a number of men left the work altogether in consequence, as they said, of the insecurity of the Mines – I knew this myself but I had either to submit to work there or starve – Necessity with me had no law – The other mines in which I had wrought are worked in a different, principle & more attention paid to the security of the lives of the workmen.
It was noted elsewhere that because the miners were paid for piece-work, no one was able or employed to undertake safety procedures in the mines. In 1854, miners attempted to bring a case against the mining company, with many of those who presented evidence at the 1851 inquest involved in the action; the legal action failed and was ruled out of order by the sheriff substitute, with 4 pounds 15 shillings in court costs. Ariundle Oakwood is a National Nature Reserve and surviving fragment of the native oak woods that once spread along the Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway; the village church was built in the 1820s by Thomas Telford, one of 32 "Parliamentary Churches" he designed for the Highlands and Islands. The government set up a commission in 1823 under John Rickman to build churches in some of the most thinly populated parishes; the project was funded by a grant of £50,000 and meant to include a manse with each church – each church and manse to cost not more than £1,500. Telford decided.
Poldark Mine is a museum and tin mine that can be explored near the town of Helston in Cornwall, UK. It lies within the Wendron Mining District of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site, its features include a guided tour through ancient tin mine workings, a museum of mining equipment and gardens. It opened in 1972 as Wendron Forge and was known as Ha'penny Park. After an ancient tin mine was discovered on the site it was renamed after Winston Graham's Poldark novels and the BBC television series, first broadcast in 1975; the mine was researched by A. K. Hamilton Jenkin, an authority on Cornish mining history, who attributed it to Wheal Roots, active in the 18th century; the original owner, Peter Young, sold Poldark Mine in 1988 following which it passed through two owners and declined in popularity. It went into administration for the second time in 2014, in that year was bought by David Edwards, involved with the Ffestiniog Railway and the Llechwedd Slate Caverns in Wales.
He said he hoped to keep Poldark Mine as an open-air heritage centre. The museum and mine now known as Poldark Mine started life in summer 1966 when Peter Young, a Royal Marine, purchased the local smithy, Wendron Forge, in an auction in the hamlet of Trenear, while on weekend leave. Young acquired about three acres of adjoining land which were separated by a large furniture store, a dairy and part of the Wendron Consols mine, he spent the next few years purchasing and repairing agricultural and industrial machinery, though his intention was to run a business selling etchings that he designed and produced on site. The site was opened to the public in June 1971 as Wendron Forge after the level of the flood-prone ground was raised, facilities were constructed and about six working machines and engines were installed to interest visitors. In 1972 a 30-inch beam engine was acquired from the now vanished village of Greensplat where it had been pumping 500 gallons of slurry a minute from a depth of 240 feet at a china clay pit near St Austell.
The engine was the last to work in commercial service in Cornwall when it was stopped in 1959. The engine dates from 1850, it took eight months in 1972 for a team of volunteers under the direction of engineer Peter Treloar to erect it at Poldark Mine. By spring 1973 the engine was operating on compressed air. In the 1980s the attraction became known as "Ha'penny Park". Peter and Jose Young retired to Spain and sold Poldark Mine to John McCloud who ran it until it was placed in receivership in 1999. In 2000 the property was purchased by a company set up by Richard Williams who claimed to "put all of his efforts into developing this into one of the most atmospheric tourist underground mine experiences in Europe". At this time one of the attractions was Evening'Ghost Tours'. Following Williams' death in 2012, the attraction again declined in popularity until it went into administration in 2014. Early that year the property was put up for sale, with a guide price of £350,000, it was purchased by David Edwards, involved with the Ffestiniog Railway and the Llechwedd Slate Caverns in Wales, work to repair and restore the mine commenced immediately: it reopened in May 2014.
The site lies in the valley of the River Cober on the Carnmenellis granite outcrop. The river valley was once rich in tin ore because of the extensive erosion over geological time of a great depth of overlying sedimentary rocks which contained many ore-bearing lodes. Pebbles and grains of the heavy ore collected in the river gravels and sands leading to the rich tin-bearing grounds that were found near the surface of most of the river valleys flowing from the granite. Evidence that this abundance of ore was first recovered and processed in ancient times is shown by the Trenear Mortar Stone, near to the entrance of Poldark Mine, it is an outcrop of granite which has at least 17 hollows in its upper face in which tin ore would have been crushed by hand, using stones. Although impossible to date it is believed to have been in use during the prehistoric period, it is the only known example of such a mortar in south-west England and was designated as a scheduled monument in 2009. The first mechanised tin stamping mill in Duchy land, in the whole of Cornwall, is recorded at Trenere Wolas in a document confirming that it was held by John Trenere, a freeman, in 1493.
By 1650 the industrial buildings recorded at Trenere Wolas had expanded to a crazing-mill, two stamping-mills and a blowing house. The mine workings discovered in the 1970s were attributed by A. K. Hamilton Jenkin to an old tin mine known as Wheal Roots, worked between about 1720 and 1780. By 1856 it had become part of the Wendron Consols mine and is shown on the surface plan of that mine as'old men's workings' meaning that it was at that date considered a old mine; the mine was worked using horses and water wheels to power all the machinery and to pump water from it. In the museum there are the remains of an early'rag and chain' pump used before the days of steam to raise water from mines and, found when the mine was rediscovered in the 1970s; the pump consisted of a series of wooden pipes made from tree trunks and through which a large endless chain was pulled. The chain had rags tied to it at intervals which when pulled up through the pipes lifted the water out of the mine. In the mine at Horse Whim Shaft the granite on the side of the shaft has been worn smooth by the rubbing of the kibble against it, this shaft is over 200 feet deep and its
St Agnes, Cornwall
St Agnes is a civil parish and a large village on the north coast of Cornwall, England, UK. The village is about five miles north of Redruth and ten miles southwest of Newquay. An electoral ward exists stretching as far south as Blackwater; the population at the 2011 census was 7,565. The village of St Agnes, a popular coastal tourist spot, lies on a main road between Redruth and Perranporth, it was a prehistoric and modern centre for mining of copper and arsenic until the 1920s. Local industry has included farming and fishing, more tourism; the St Agnes district has a heritage of industrial archaeology and much of the landscape is of considerable geological interest. There are stone-age remains in the parish; the manor of Tywarnhaile was one of the 17 Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall. St Agnes, on Cornwall's north coast along the Atlantic Ocean, is in the Pydar hundred and rural deanery. St Agnes is situated along the St Agnes Heritage Coast; the St Agnes Heritage Coast has been a nationally designated protected area since 1986.
The marine site protects 40 species of amphibians. Interesting features along the coast include Trevaunance Cove, Trevellas Porth, Chapel Porth, Hanover Cove, Porthtowan; some of these have beaches, there are two beaches at Perranporth. The 627-hectare Godrevy Head to St Agnes site, is situated along the north Cornwall coast of the Celtic Sea in the Atlantic Ocean, it starts at Godrevy Head in the west and continues for 20 kilometres to the north east, through Portreath and ends just past St Agnes Head, north of the village of St Agnes. St Agnes Beacon overlooks the Atlantic Ocean and is considered "the most prominent feature" of the Heritage coastline, with coastal and inland views that may be enjoyed during hillside walks; the National Trust landmark's name comes from the Cornish name "Bryanick". "Beacon" is a word of Anglo-Saxon origin referring to the use of a hill summit for a warning signal fire. During the Napoleonic Wars a guard was stationed on the hill to look out for French ships and light a warning fire on seeing any.
St Agnes Beacon and the surrounding cliff tops are one of the last remnants of a huge tract of heathland which once spread across Cornwall. This rare and important habitat is internationally recognised for its wealth of wildlife and from late summer onwards comes alive with colour, forming a brilliant yellow and purple patchwork of gorse and heather. To the northwest foot of the St Agnes Beacon is Cameron Quarry and St Agnes Beacon Pits, Sites of Special Scientific Interest noted for their geological interest. Trevaunance Cove is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Geological Conservation Review site of national importance for ″... the two principal ore-bearing mineral veins associated with the Hercynian St. Agnes-Cligga granite″; the original name of St Agnes was a Cornish name which may mean pointed hill. Craig Weatherhill suggests it was a compound of brea and Anek and gives the first recorded form as "Breanek". Neither Bryanick nor St Agnes, were established at the time of the Domesday Survey, 1086.
The St Agnes Chapel was named after the Roman martyr Saint Agnes who refused to marry a son of Sempronius, a governor of Rome and member of the Sempronia family. She was killed in 304 AD. According to Arthur G. Langdon, writing in the 1890s, the inhabitants of St Agnes pronounced its name as if it were "St Anne's" to distinguish it from St Agnes in the Isles of Scilly. There are a number of ancient archaeological sites in the St Agnes parish; the earliest found to date are mesolithic fragments which are dated from 10,000 to 4,000 BC. They were found near West Polberro. During the Bronze Age barrows were created in many places in the area, because its rich supply of bronze-making raw materials: copper and tin. During the Iron Age there were more forts and evidence of mining. A noteworthy Iron Age site is 3.5 km southeast of Perranporth. It had three concentric defensive walls surrounding the topmost ring. St Piran's enclosed round was 200 metres wide and may have been a "playing place". During the Middle Ages it was converted to a "Plain-an-gwarry".
It is still used sometimes as a theatre. There are other prehistoric geographic features; the Bolster Bank, or Bolster & Chapel Bulwark, at Porth, is an univallate earthen boundary about 3.3 kilometres long. It was used for defensive purposes, protecting the heath and valuable tin resources. Located on the "land side" of St Agnes Beacon, evidence of the bulwark can be seen sporadically from Bolster Farm to Goonvrea Farm, down to Wheal Freedom and to Chapel Coombes. Although much of the boundary has been levelled, it is presently at its highest by Bolster Farm and Goonvrea where it is about 3.3 metres high. It could have been constructed as early as some time in the Dark Ages; some Iron Age buildings and features were used during the Roman period from 43 to 410 AD. The first chapel or church in St Agnes was believed to have been build as an early Celtic church sometime between 410 and 1066 AD; the Church of St Agnes was built on the same location around 1482. A medieval chapel with an enclosure stood at Chapel Porth, about 570 metres north west of Wheal Freedom.
There was shelter on the site. The chapel was destroyed in 1780, the holy well remained until 1820. There still remains some ruins of the medieval enclosure a
The Botallack Mine is a former mine in Botallack in the west of Cornwall, England, UK. Since 2006 it has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site – Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape; the mine is within the Aire Point to Carrick Du Site of Special Scientific Interest and the South West Coast Path passes along the cliff. The village of Botallack is on the B3306 road, in a former tin and copper mining area between the town of St Just in Penwith and the village of Pendeen, it is unclear. Early records date from the 1500s; some archaeological evidence points to mining here in the Roman era or as far back as the Bronze Age. Botallack was a submarine mine, with tunnels extending in places for half a mile. Over its recorded lifetime, the mine produced around 14,500 tonnes of tin, 20,000 tonnes of copper and 1,500 tonnes of arsenic. An estimated 1.5 million tonnes of waste would have been dug up with the minerals. In the 1860s a new diagonal shaft was dug. In 1865, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited and descended down the shaft, creating a mini-boom in tourism that caused the mine operators to charge visitors a guinea per person.
The managers, decided in January 1883, to stop the Botallack and Crowns engines because the number of men employed below ground were not sufficient to meet the costs of keeping the engines going. The mine closed in 1895 as a result of falling copper prices; the mining developments around Botallack form part of the St Just mining district's successful inclusion in the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage site, inscribed in July 2006. The 1970s BBC television series Poldark was filmed in Botallack, using Manor Farm as Nampara. More filming for the new Poldark series took place here; the engine houses in the Crowns section of Botallack Mine are set low down the cliffs north of Botallack. There are the remains of another pair on the cliff slopes above; the workings of Botallack Mine extend inland as far as the St Just to St Ives road, at times included Wheal Cock further to the north-east. The mine buildings on Botallack Cliffs are protected by the National Trust. There are two arsenic works opposite the Botallack Mine count house.
At the top of the cliffs there are the remains of one of the mine's arsenic-refining works. The mineral Botallackite has its type locality here. Media related to Botallack Mine at Wikimedia Commons
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape
The Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape is a World Heritage site which includes select mining landscapes in Cornwall and West Devon in the south west of England. The site was added to the World Heritage List during the 30th Session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Vilnius, July 2006. Following plans in 2011 to restart mining at South Crofty, to build a supermarket at Hayle Harbour, the World Heritage Committee drafted a decision in 2014 to put the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger, but this was rejected at the 38th Committee Session at Doha, Qatar, in favour of a follow-up Reactive Monitoring Mission. Up to the mid-16th century, Devon produced 25-40% of the amount of tin that Cornwall did but the total amount of tin production from both Cornwall and Devon during this period was small. After the 1540s, Cornwall's production took off and Devon's production was only about between a ninth to a tenth of that of Cornwall. From the mid-16th century onwards, the Devon Stannaries were worth little in income to the King and were sidelined as such following the Supremacy of Parliament Act 1512.
The landscapes of Cornwall and West Devon were radically reshaped during the 18th and 19th centuries by deep-lode mining for copper and tin. The underground mines, engine houses, new towns, ports and ancillary industries together reflect prolific innovation which, in the early 19th century, enabled the region to produce two-thirds of the world's supply of copper. During the late 19th century, arsenic production came into ascendancy with mines in the east of Cornwall and West Devon supplying half the world’s demand; the early 19th century saw a revolution in steam engine technology, to radically transform hard-rock mining fortunes. The high-pressure expansively operated pumping engines developed by the engineers Richard Trevithick and Arthur Woolf enabled mining at much greater depths than had been possible hitherto. Cornish-design beam engines and other mining machinery was to be exported from major engineering foundries in Hayle, Perranarworthal and elsewhere to mining fields around the world throughout the century.
Commencing in the early 19th century, significant numbers of mine workers migrated to live and work in mining communities based on Cornish traditions, this flow reaching its zenith at the end of the 19th century. Today numerous migrant-descended Cornish communities flourish around the world and distinctive Cornish-design engine houses can be seen in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the British Virgin Islands, in the mining fields of other parts of England, Scotland, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man. A much reduced mining industry continued in Cornwall after the copper crash of the 1860s with production focused on tin. Metalliferous mining ceased in Cornwall in 1998 with the closure of South Crofty Mine, the last tin mine to operate in Europe; the World Heritage site comprises discrete but thematically linked areas spanning Cornwall and West Devon. The areas are: A1 - St Just Mining District A2 - Port of Hayle A3i - Tregonning and Gwinear Mining District A3ii - Trewavas A4 - Wendron Mining District A5i - Camborne and Redruth Mining District A5ii - Wheal Peevor A5iii - Portreath Harbour A6i - Gwennap Mining District A6ii - Perran Foundry A6iii - Kennall Vale A7 - St Agnes Mining District A8i - Luxulyan Valley A8ii - Charlestown A9 - Caradon Mining District A10i - Tamar Valley A10ii - Tavistock Stannary Courts and Parliaments Mining in Cornwall and Devon Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament Wheel Wreck UNESCO listing BBC – World Heritage site bid gets go-ahead World Heritage website Cornish Mining - World Heritage Status