White River National Forest
White River National Forest is a National Forest in northwest Colorado. It is named after the White River, it is the most visited National Forest in the United States from users of the twelve ski areas within its boundaries. The forest contains 2,285,970 acres. In descending order of land area it is located in parts of Eagle, Garfield, Rio Blanco, Gunnison, Moffat counties; the White River national forest provides significant habitat for deer, mountain sheep, mountain goat, mountain lion, lynx, raptors, waterfowl and many other species of wildlife. The forest contains 1,900 mi. of forest system roads, 2,500 mi of trails, the Dillon, Green Mountain and Homestake reservoirs. The forest is managed from Forest Service offices in Glenwood Springs. There are local ranger district offices in Aspen, Eagle, Minturn and Silverthorne; the Dillon Ranger district, run out of Silverthorne, was transferred from the Arapahoe National Forest to the White River National Forest in 1998. There are eight designated wilderness areas lying within White River National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Five of them extend into neighboring National Forests. Collegiate Peaks Wilderness Eagles Nest Wilderness Flat Tops Wilderness Holy Cross Wilderness Hunter-Fryingpan Wilderness Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness Ptarmigan Peak Wilderness Raggeds Wilderness The following ski areas are located inside the forest: Arapahoe Basin Aspen Mountain Aspen Highlands Beaver Creek Breckenridge Buttermilk Copper Mountain Ski Cooper Keystone Snowmass Sunlight Vail There are ten peaks with an elevation higher than 14,000 ft, colloquially known as 14ers in the forest: Castle Peak 14,279 ft. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness, Elk Mountains Grays Peak 14,278 ft, Front Range Torreys Peak 14,274 ft, Front Range Quandary Peak, 14,271 ft Tenmile Range Capitol Peak 14,137 ft. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness, Elk Mountains Maroon Peak, the higher of the two Maroon Bells summits, 14,163 ft, Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness, Elk Mountains Snowmass Mountain 14,099 ft, Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness, Elk Mountains Pyramid Peak 14,025 ft, Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness, Elk Mountains Mount of the Holy Cross 14,011 ft. Holy Cross Wilderness, Sawatch RangeThe following two peaks are included in lists of the Colorado fourteeners, but do not pass the 300 ft. topographic prominence metric used by U.
S. Mountaineers: North Maroon Peak, the lower of the two Maroon Bells Summits 14,019 ft. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness, Elk Mountains Conundrum Peak, a neighboring summit of Castle Peak, 14,040 ft. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness, Elk Mountains Harker Park Lake Hanging Lake "White River has 70 Streams and 110 lakes for fish," June 10, 1937. Aspen Daily Times. "Recreation in the Forest." March 1, 1945 Axelton, John. Big Game Hunters Guide to Colorado. Second ed.: Wilderness Adventures Press, 2008. Forest Plan Focus, White River National Forest, August 1997. S.l.: s.n. 1997. Graves, Henry S.. Vacation days in Colorado's national forests. Washington: G. P. O. 1919. N.p. n.d. Web. <www.nps.gov2Fthro2Fhistoryculture2Ftheodore-roosevelt-quotes.htm>. White River National Forest
Rio Grande National Forest
Rio Grande National Forest is a 1.86 million-acre U. S. National Forest located in southwestern Colorado; the forest encompasses the San Luis Valley, the world's largest agricultural alpine valley, as well as one of the world's largest high deserts located around mountains. The Rio Grande river rises in the forest, the Continental Divide runs along most of its western border; the forest lies in parts of nine counties. In descending order of land area within the forest they are Saguache, Conejos, Rio Grande, San Juan, Alamosa and Custer counties. Forest headquarters are located in Colorado. There are local ranger district offices in Del Norte, La Jara, Saguache. There are four designated wilderness areas lying within Rio Grande National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. All of them extend into neighboring National Forests, one of these onto National Park Service land. La Garita Wilderness Sangre de Cristo Wilderness South San Juan Wilderness Weminuche Wilderness List of largest National Forests List of U.
S. National Forests Rio Grande National Forest
John Williams Gunnison
John Williams Gunnison was an American military officer and explorer. Gunnison attended Hopkinton Academy, he graduated from West Point in 1837, second in his class of fifty cadets. His military career began as an artillery officer in Florida, where he spent a year in the campaign against the Seminoles. Due to his poor health he was reassigned to the Corps of Topographical Engineers the next year, he explored unknown areas of Florida, searching for provision routes. However, his health soon forced him out of Florida entirely. From 1841-1849 Gunnison explored the area around the Great Lakes, he surveyed the border between Wisconsin and Michigan, the western coast of Lake Michigan, the coast of Lake Erie. On May 9, 1846, he was promoted to first lieutenant. In the spring of 1849 Gunnison was assigned as second in command of the Howard Stansbury expedition to explore and survey the valley of the Great Salt Lake; that winter was heavy and the expedition was unable to leave the valley. Gunnison took the opportunity to befriend some Mormons and study the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
When he returned to Washington, DC, he wrote a book titled The Mormons or Latter-Day Saints, in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake: A History of Their Rise and Progress, Peculiar Doctrines, Present Condition. Gunnison returned to the Great Lakes from 1851–1853, mapping the Green Bay area, was promoted to captain on March 3, 1853. On May 3, 1853, he received orders to take charge of an expedition to survey a route for a Pacific railroad between the 38th and 39th parallels; the surveying party left St. Louis, Missouri, in June 1853 and arrived by mid-October in Manti, Utah Territory. In Utah Territory, with Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith as assistant commander, Gunnison began the survey of a possible route, surveying areas across the Rocky Mountains via the Huerfano River, through Cochetopa Pass, by way of the present Gunnison and Green rivers to the Sevier River, his journey took him through the Tomichi Valley in Colorado, where the town of Gunnison is named in his honor. After crossing the Tomichi Valley, the survey team encountered the Black Canyon, carved by the Gunnison River, named in his honor.
The team was forced to turn south to get around the canyon. The weather was beginning to turn "cold and raw" with snow flurries, Captain Gunnison sought to speed up mapping before returning to winter quarters. At Sevier Lake, the team was divided into two detachments. On the morning of October 26, 1853, Gunnison and the eleven men in his party were attacked by a band of Pahvants. In the resulting massacre and seven of his men were killed. Several survivors of the attack alerted the other detachment of the survey team, who rode to aid Gunnison and his party. An additional survivor of the attack and the bodies of the victims were retrieved that day; the remains of the eight dead were found in a mutilated state. Killed with Gunnison were Richard H. Kern, F. Creuzfeldt, Wiliam Potter, Private Caulfield, Private Liptoote, Private Mehreens, John Bellows; the site of the massacre was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Most contemporary accounts of the massacre maintain that the Mormons warned Gunnison that his party might be in danger from local bands of Pahvant Utes.
It seems that Gunnison had entered Utah in the midst of the Walker War, a sometimes bloody conflict between the Mormons and the Ute Chief Walkara. Indeed, Lt. Beckwith wrote that the expedition found the local Mormons "all gathered into a village for mutal protection against the Utah Indians." But after the killings, rumors circulated that the Pahvants involved in the massacre were acting under the direction of Brigham Young and an alleged secret militia known as the Danites. Some claim that leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints were concerned that the railway would increase the influx of non-Mormon settlers and non-Mormon economic concerns into the territory. However, the Utah Legislature had petitioned Congress for both a transcontinental railroad and telegraph lines to pass through the region. Indeed, when the railroad came to Utah, LDS leaders organized cadres of Mormon workers to build the railway, welcoming the income for the economically depressed community. Martha Gunnison, widow of Captain Gunnison, was one of those who maintained that the attack was planned and orchestrated by militant Mormons under the direction of Brigham Young.
Gunnison's letters to his wife throughout the expedition left her with the impression that "the Mormons were the directors of my husband's murder." She wrote to Associate Justice W. W. Drummond, the 1855 federal appointee to the Supreme Court of the Territory of Utah, she received confirmation of this belief in his response to her letter. Drummond drew this conclusion from informant and witness testimonies in several trials after the murders, he cited numerous reports by whites and natives of white attackers dressed up as Indians during the massacre. In 1854 Lieutenant Colonel Edward Steptoe was sent by the War Department to investigate the attack and determine the truth of rumors that Mormons had colluded with the Indians in the ambush; as a result of his investigation eight Ute Indians were tried for the attack. Three were convicted of manslaughter, he did not uncover evidence of Mormon involvement. Lt. Beckwith concluded that the Mormons had nothing to do with the attack and that the Pahvants acted alone.
He wrote in his official report that the "statement which has from time to time appeared in various newspapers...charging the Mormons o
La Garita Wilderness
The La Garita Wilderness is a U. S. Wilderness Area located in the La Garita Mountains of southern Colorado; the 129,626-acre wilderness established in 1964 in Gunnison and Rio Grande National Forests includes segments of the Colorado Trail and the Continental Divide Trail. At 14,014 feet, San Luis Peak is the highest point in the wilderness area. One entrance to the wilderness area is via Forest Road 787 from Saguache Park and Cochetopa Park off State Highway 114 west of Saguache, Colorado. There is a parking lot for visitors to the wilderness area at the south end of FS 787. Cochetopa Park may be entered from the east over Cochetopa Pass via Saguache County Road NN14
Government of Colorado
The Government of Colorado is the governmental structure as established by the Constitution of the State of Colorado. It is composed of three branches: the executive branch headed by the Governor, the legislative branch consisting of the General Assembly, the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court and lower courts; the constitution allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum and ratification. The statewide elected officers are: The Lieutenant Governor is elected on a ticket with the Governor. All statewide elected. There are elected members of the Colorado State Board of Education, the Regents of the University of Colorado are elected from districts coterminous with Colorado's congressional districts or at large; as a result, the Governor does not have direct management authority over either the Department of Education or any of the state's institutions of higher education. The executive branch is otherwise composed of the principal departments: Department of Agriculture Department of Corrections Department of Education Department of Health Care Policy and Financing Department of Higher Education Department of Human Services Department of Labor and Employment Department of Law Department of Local Affairs Department of Military and Veterans Affairs Department of Natural Resources Department of Personnel and Administration Department of Public Health and Environment Department of Public Safety Department of Regulatory Agencies Department of Revenue Department of State Department of Transportation Department of the Treasury Regulations are published in the Colorado Register and codified in the Code of Colorado Regulations.
The legislative body of Colorado is the Colorado General Assembly made up of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Colorado Senate. Members of the House are elected for two year terms from equal population districts. Half of the members of the state senate are elected each two years to four year terms from single-member, equal population districts; the House of Representatives has 65 members and the Senate has 35 for a total of 100 legislators in Colorado. The session laws are published in the Session Laws of Colorado; the laws of a general and permanent nature are codified in the Colorado Revised Statutes. In addition to providing for voting, the people of Colorado have reserved initiative of laws and referendum of laws enacted by the legislature to themselves, have provided for recall of office holders; the judiciary of Colorado is defined by Article VI of the Colorado Constitution as well as the law of Colorado. The administration of the state judicial system is the responsibility of the Chief Justice of the Colorado Supreme Court as its executive head, is assisted by several other commissions.
Colorado courts include the: Colorado Supreme Court, Colorado Court of Appeals, Colorado district courts, Colorado county courts, Colorado water courts, municipal courts. All of the courts above, other than municipal courts and Denver's county court, are part of the state court system. In Denver and municipal courts are integrated and are not part of the state court system for administrative purposes, the Denver Probate Court and the Denver Juvenile Court have jurisdiction over probate and juvenile matters, respectively. Outside Denver, these matters are within the jurisdiction of the district courts. Most crimes in Colorado are prosecuted by a district attorney. One district attorney is elected for each of the state's 22 judicial districts in a partisan election; the state attorney general has power to prosecute certain crimes, in rare circumstances a special prosecutor may be appointed to prosecute a crime on a case by case basis. Municipal ordinance violations are prosecuted by city attorneys.
Colorado is divided into 64 counties. Counties are important units of government in Colorado since the state has no secondary civil subdivisions, such as townships. Two of these counties, the City and County of Denver and the City and County of Broomfield, have consolidated city and county governments. A municipality may extend into multiple counties. Colorado law makes a few distinctions between a town. Colorado municipalities operate under one of five types of municipal governing authority: 2 consolidated city-counties and Broomfield 61 cities and 35 towns that are home rule municipalities 12 statutory cities 160 statutory towns 1 territorial charter municipality Elections in Colorado Politics of Colorado Law of Colorado Colorado.gov Colorado Information Marketplace
Denver the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains; the Denver downtown district is east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River 12 mi east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory, it is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is one mile above sea level; the 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station. Denver is ranked as a Beta world city by World Cities Research Network. With an estimated population of 704,621 in 2017, Denver is the 19th-most populous U. S. city, with a 17.41% increase since the 2010 United States Census, it has been one of the fastest-growing major cities in the United States.
The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 2,888,227 and is the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 3,515,374 and is the 15th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong urban region stretching across two states with an estimated 2017 population of 4,895,589. Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. In the summer of 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, a group of gold prospectors from Lawrence, Kansas established Montana City as a mining town on the banks of the South Platte River in what was western Kansas Territory; this was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver.
The site faded however, by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria and St. Charles City. On November 22, 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, both land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory, placed cottonwood logs to stake a claim on the bluff overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria, on the site of the existing townsite of St. Charles. Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the town's name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him, Governor Denver had resigned from office; the location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver. Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants.
Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria. In May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in order to secure the region's first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for "passengers, mail and gold", the Express reached Denver on a trail that trimmed westward travel time from twelve days to six. In 1863, Western Union furthered Denver's dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus; the Colorado Territory was created on February 28, 1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861, Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861. Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the acting territorial capital, in 1881 was chosen as the permanent state capital in a statewide ballot.
With its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver. On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted to the Union. Although by the close of the 1860s, Denver residents could look with pride at their success establishing a vibrant supply and service center, the decision to route the nation's first transcontinental railroad through Cheyenne, rather than Denver, threatened the prosperity of the young town. A daunting 100 miles away, citizens mobilized to build a railroad to connect Denver to the transcontinental railroad. Spearheaded by visionary leaders including Territorial Governor John Evans, David Moffat, Walter Cheesman, fundraising began. Within three days, $300,000 had been raised, citizens were optimistic. Fundraising stalled before enough was raised, forcing these visionary leaders to take control of the debt-ridden railroad. Despite challenges, on June 24, 1870, citizens cheered as the Denver Pacific completed the link to the transcontinental railroad, ushering in a new age of prosperity for Denver.
Linked to the rest of the nation by rail, Denver prospered as a service and supply center. The young city grew during these years, attracting millionaires with their mansions, as well as the poverty and crime of a growing city. Denver citizens were proud when the rich chose Denver and were thrilled when Horace Tabor, the Leadville mining millionaire, built an impressive business block at 16th and Larimer as well as the el