A stalactite is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines. Any material, soluble, can be deposited as a colloid, or is in suspension, or is capable of being melted, may form a stalactite. Stalactites may be composed of lava, mud, pitch, sand and amberat. A stalactite is not a speleothem, though speleothems are the most common form of stalactite because of the abundance of limestone caves; the corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as a stalagmite. The most common stalactites are speleothems, they form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the chief form of calcium carbonate rock, dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide, forming a calcium bicarbonate solution in underground caverns; the chemical formula for this reaction is: CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 → Ca2This solution travels through the rock until it reaches an edge and if this is on the roof of a cave it will drip down.
When the solution comes into contact with air the chemical reaction that created it is reversed and particles of calcium carbonate are deposited. The reversed reaction is: Ca2 → CaCO3 + H2O + CO2An average growth rate is 0.13 mm a year. The quickest growing stalactites are those formed by a constant supply of slow dripping water rich in calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide, which can grow at 3 mm per year; the drip rate must be slow enough to allow the CO2 to degas from the solution into the cave atmosphere, resulting in deposition of CaCO3 on the stalactite. Too fast a drip rate and the solution, still carrying most of the CaCO3, falls to the cave floor where degassing occurs and CaCO3 is deposited as a stalagmite. All limestone stalactites begin with a single mineral-laden drop of water; when the drop falls, it deposits the thinnest ring of calcite. Each subsequent drop that forms and falls deposits another calcite ring; these rings form a narrow, hollow tube known as a "soda straw" stalactite.
Soda straws can grow quite long, but are fragile. If they become plugged by debris, water begins flowing over the outside, depositing more calcite and creating the more familiar cone-shaped stalactite; the same water drops that fall from the tip of a stalactite deposit more calcite on the floor below resulting in a rounded or cone-shaped stalagmite. Unlike stalactites, stalagmites never start out as hollow "soda straws". Given enough time, these formations can meet and fuse to create pillars of calcium carbonate known as a "column". Stalactite formation begins over a large area, with multiple paths for the mineral rich water to flow; as minerals are dissolved in one channel more than other competing channels, the dominant channel begins to draw more and more of the available water, which speeds its growth resulting in all other channels being choked off. This is one reason; the larger the formation, the greater the interformation distance. Another type of stalactite is formed in lava tubes; the mechanism of formation is the deposition of material on the ceilings of caves, however with lava stalactites formation happens quickly in only a matter of hours, days, or weeks, whereas limestone stalactites may take up to thousands of years.
A key difference with lava stalactites is that once the lava has ceased flowing, so too will the stalactites cease to grow. This means; the generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately and evolved from the word icicle. Like limestone stalactites, they can leave lava drips on the floor that turn into lava stalagmites and may fuse with the corresponding stalactite to form a column. Shark tooth stalactites, it may begin as a small driblet of lava from a semi-solid ceiling, but grows by accreting layers as successive flows of lava rise and fall in the lava tube and recoating the stalactite with more material. They can vary from a few millimeters to over a meter in length. Splash stalactites As lava flows through a tube, material will be splashed up on the ceiling and ooze back down, hardening into a stalactite; this type of formation results in a irregularly shaped stalactite, looking somewhat like stretched taffy. They may be of a different color than the original lava that formed the cave.
Tubular lava stalactites When the roof of a lava tube is cooling, a skin will form that traps semi-molten material inside. Trapped gases force lava to extrude out through small openings that result in hollow, tubular stalactites analogous to the soda straws formed as depositional speleothems in solution caves, The longest known is 2 meters in length; these are common in Hawaiian lava tubes and are associated with a drip stalagmite that forms below as material is carried through the tubular stalactite and piles up on the floor beneath. Sometimes the tubular form collapses near the distal end, most when the pressure of escaping gases decreased and still-molten portions of the stalactites deflated and cooled; these tubular stalactites will acquire a twisted, vermiform appearance as bits of lava crystallize and force the flow in different directions. These tubular lava helictites may be influenced by air
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
In architecture, a vault is a self-supporting arched form of stone or brick, serving to cover a space with a ceiling or roof. The simplest kind of vault is the barrel vault, semicircular in shape; the barrel vault is the length being greater than its diameter. As in building an arch, a temporary support is needed while rings of voussoirs are constructed and the rings placed in position; until the topmost voussoir, the keystone, is positioned, the vault is not self-supporting. Where timber is obtained, this temporary support is provided by centering consisting of a framed truss with a semicircular or segmental head, which supports the voussoirs until the ring of the whole arch is completed. With a barrel vault, the centering can be shifted on to support the next rings; the parts of a vault exert lateral thrust. When vaults are built underground, the ground gives all the resistance required. However, when the vault is built above ground, various replacements are employed to supply the needed resistance.
An example is the thicker walls used in the case of barrel or continuous vaults. Buttresses are used to supply resistance. Amongst the earliest known examples of any form of vaulting is to be found in the neolithic village of Khirokitia on Cyprus. Dating from ca. 6000 BCE, the circular buildings supported beehive shaped corbel domed vaults of unfired mud-bricks and represent the first evidence for settlements with an upper floor. Similar Beehive tombs, called tholoi, exist in Northern Iraq, their construction differs from that at Khirokitia in that most appear buried and make provision for a dromos entry. The inclusion of domes, represents a wider sense of the word vault; the distinction between the two is that a vault is an arch, extruded into the third dimension, whereas a dome is an arch revolved around its vertical axis. Pitched-brick vaults are named for their construction, the bricks are installed vertically and are leaning at an angle: This allows their construction to be completed without the use of centering.
Examples have been found in archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia dating to the 2nd and 3rd millennium BC which were set in gypsum mortar. A barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault and resembles a barrel or tunnel cut lengthwise in half; the effect is that of a structure composed of continuous pointed sections. The earliest known examples of barrel vaults were built by the Sumerians under the ziggurat at Nippur in Babylonia, built of fired bricks cemented with clay mortar; the earliest barrel vaults in ancient Egypt are thought to be those in the granaries built by the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II, the ruins of which are behind the Ramesseum, at Thebes. The span was 12 feet and the lower part of the arch was built in horizontal courses, up to about one-third of the height, the rings above were inclined back at a slight angle, so that the bricks of each ring, laid flatwise, adhered till the ring was completed, no centering of any kind being required. A similar system of construction was employed for the vault over the great hall at Ctesiphon, where the material employed was fired bricks or tiles of great dimensions, cemented with mortar.
Assyrian palaces used pitched-brick vaults, made with sun-dried mudbricks, for gates, subterranean graves and drains. During the reign of king Sennacherib they were used to construct aqueducts, such as those at Jerwan. In the provincial city Dūr-Katlimmu they were used to created vaulted platforms; the tradition of their erection, would seem to have been handed down to their successors in Mesopotamia, viz. to the Sassanians, who in their palaces in Sarvestan and Firouzabad built domes of similar form to those shown in the Nimrud sculptures, the chief difference being that, constructed in rubble stone and cemented with mortar, they still exist, though abandoned on the Islamic invasion in the 7th century. In all the instances above quoted in Sumer and Egypt the bricks, whether burnt or sun-dried, were of the description to which the term "tile" would now be given; the earliest Egyptian examples of regular voussoirs in stone belong to the XXVIth Dynasty in the additions made to the temple of Medinet Habu, here it is probable that centering of some kind was provided, as the vaults are built in rings, so that the same centering could be shifted on after the completion of each ring.
The earliest example of shaped voussoirs, of about the same date, is found in the cloaca at Graviscae in Etruria, with a span of about 14 feet, the voussoirs of which are from 5 to 6 feet long. The cloaca maxima in Rome, built by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus to drain the marshy ground between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills, was according to Commendatore Boni vaulted over in the 1st century B. C. the vault being over 800 feet long, 10 feet in span, with three concentric rings of voussoirs. The enormous Eyvan-e Khosro at Ctesiphon was built over 1,500 years ago during the Persian Sasanian period as a throne room; the arch is about
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
A show cave—also called tourist cave, public cave, in the United States, commercial cave—is a cave, made accessible to the public for guided visits. A show cave is a cave, made accessible to the public for guided visits, where a cave is defined as a natural occurring void beneath the surface of the earth, per the International Show Caves Association. A show cave may be managed by a government or commercial organization and made accessible to the general public for an entrance fee. Unlike wild caves, they may possess constructed trails, guided tours and regular opening hours; the term is used inconsistently between nations: many countries tend to call all caves which are open to the public show caves. However, there are many caves which are not developed with trails and tours, which are visited by many people; this kind of cave is called a semi-wild cave. Access may involve anything between an easy dangerous climbing. Most cave accidents happen in this kind of cave, as visitors underestimate the difficulties and dangers.
The oldest known show cave in the world is Reed Flute Cave in China with inscriptions from 792 in the time of the T'ang Dynasty. Other old show caves are Postojna Cave in Slovenia, with the presumed first record of a cave tour in 1213. Other early show caves are Jasovská jaskyňa in Slovakia with inscriptions from 1452, the Sontheimer Höhle in Germany, visited by Herzog Ulrich von Württemberg on 20 May 1516 and Vilenica Cave in Slovenia where entrance fees were taken from 1633 on. In 1649, the first "authorized" cave guide started guiding Baumannshöhle in the Harz in Germany though this cave was intensively visited much earlier; the development of electric lighting enabled the illumination of show caves. Early experiments with electric light in caves were carried out by Lieutenant Edward Cracknel in 1880 at Chifley Cave, Jenolan Caves, Australia. In 1881, Sloupsko-Šošůvské Jeskyně, Czech Republic, became the first cave in the world with electric arc light; this light did not use light bulbs, but electric arc lamps with carbon electrodes, which burned down and had to be replaced after some time.
The first cave in the world with electric light bulbs as we know them today was the Kraushöhle in Austria in 1883. But the light was abandoned after only seven years and the cave is today visited with carbide lamps. In 1884, two more caves were equipped with electric light, Postojna Cave and Olgahöhle, Germany; because of the unwanted development of lampenflora around incandescent electric lights in show caves, many of these attractions, such as Ingleborough Cave in England, have switched to cooler-temperature LED lighting. Alisadr Cave, Hamedan, Iran Bears' Cave, Chişcău village, Bihor County, Romania Bing Cave in Bavaria, Germany Blanchard Springs Caverns in Arkansas, United States Buchan Caves, Australia Cango Caves, South Africa Cascade Caverns, Texas, United States Cave Without a Name, near Boerne, United States Caverns of Sonora, Texas, United States Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, United States Craighead Caverns in Tennessee, United States Cross Cave, Slovenia Cuevas del Drach on Majorca island, Spain Dan yr Ogof in Powys, Wales Doolin Cave in Doolin, Ireland Eisriesenwelt, Austria Fantastic Caverns near Springfield, Missouri Frasassi Caves, Italy Gardner Cave, Washington State, United States Grotta Gigante, Italy Grottes de Han, Belgium Grutas de Cacahuamilpa, Mexico Harrison's Cave, Barbados Horne Lake Caves near Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada Howe Caverns in New York, United States Ingleborough Cave, England Inner Space Cavern, Texas, United States Jeita Grotto, Lebanon Jenolan Caves in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia Kartchner Caverns State Park near Benson, United States La Verna cave in France Lewis and Clark Caverns in Montana, United States Linville Caverns in Marion, North Carolina, United States Luray Caverns in Virginia, United States Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, United States Marble Arch Caves in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland Mark Twain Cave, near Hannibal, United States Meramec Caverns, near Stanton, United States Natural Bridge Caverns in Comal County, United States Ohio Caverns in Ohio, United States Phong Nha Cave, Quang Binh, Vietnam Poole's Cavern, England Postojna Cave, Slovenia Reed Flute Cave, Guangxi, China Scărișoara Cave, Gârda de Sus, Alba County, Romania Seven-Star Cave, Guangxi, China Škocjan Caves, Slovenia Smoo Cave, Scotland Vilenica Cave, Slovenia Vjetrenica Cave and Herzegovina Waitomo Caves, New Zealand Wonder Cave, San Marcos, United States Wookey Hole Caves, England List of show caves in Germany Show Caves at Curlie Greek Show Caves directory ShowCaves.gr United States show caves directory by state goodearthgraphics.com US National Caves Association cavern.com World show caves directory showcaves.com
Flowstones are composed of sheetlike deposits of calcite or other carbonate minerals, formed where water flows down the walls or along the floors of a cave. They are found in "solution caves", in limestone, where they are the most common speleothem. However, they may form in any type of cave. Flowstones are formed via the degassing of vadose percolation waters. Flowstone may form on manmade structures as a result of calcium hydroxide being leached from concrete, lime or mortar; these secondary deposits created outside the cave environment, which mimic the shapes and forms of speleothems, are classified as "calthemites" and are associated with concrete degradation. Flowing films of water that move along floors or down positive-sloping walls build up layers of calcium carbonate, gypsum, or other cave minerals; these minerals are dissolved in the water and are deposited when the water loses its dissolved carbon dioxide through the mechanism of agitation, meaning it can no longer hold the minerals in solution.
The flowstone forms when thin layers of these deposits build on each other, sometimes developing more rounded shapes as the deposit gets thicker. There are two common forms of flowstones and travertine. Tufa is formed via the precipitation of calcium carbonate, is spongy or porous in nature. Travertine is a calcium carbonate deposit formed in creeks or rivers; the deposits may grade into thin sheets called "draperies" or "curtains" where they descend from overhanging portions of the wall. Some draperies are translucent, some have brown and beige layers that look much like bacon. Though flowstones are among the largest of speleothems, they can still be damaged by a single touch; the oil from human fingers causes the flowing water to avoid the area, which dries out. Flowstones are good identifiers of periods of past droughts, since they need some form of water to develop. Flowstone derived from concrete, lime or mortar, can form on manmade structures, much more than in the natural cave environment due to the different chemistry involved.
On concrete structures, these secondary deposits are the result of concrete degradation, when calcium ions have been leached from the concrete in solution and redeposited on the structure's surface to form flowstone and stalagmites. Carbon dioxide is absorbed into the hyperalkaline leachate solution; this facilitates the chemical reactions which deposits calcium carbonate on vertical or sloping surfaces, in the form of flowstone. Concrete derived secondary deposits are classified as "calthemites"; these calcium carbonate deposits mimic the shapes of speleothems, created in caves. E.g. stalagmites, flowstone etc. It is most that calthemite flowstone is precipitated from leachate solution as calcite, "in preference to the other, less stable polymorphs and vaterite." Other trace elements such as iron from rusting reinforcing or copper oxide from pipework may be transported by the leachate and deposited at the same time as the CaCO3. This may cause the calthemites to take on colours of the leached oxides.
Cave onyx is any of various kinds of flowstone considered desirable for ornamental architectural purposes. "Cave onyx" was a common term in certain areas of the United States—particularly the Tennessee-Alabama-Georgia area and the Ozarks—during the 19th and early 20th centuries, being applied to calcite speleothems that were banded in a way suggestive of true onyx. There are a number of US caves called "Onyx Cave" because of the presence in them of such deposits; the Virtual Cave: Flowstone
Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service
Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service is the government body responsible for protected areas of Tasmania on public land, such as national parks, historic sites and regional reserves. It has had responsibility for managing wildlife, including game; the National Parks and Wildlife Service was set up on 1 November 1971 after controversy surrounding the proposal to flood Lake Pedder and the unsuccessful attempts to prevent the project going ahead. A Select Committee formed from the interested parties recommended the establishment of a professional park service to properly manage the natural environment in Tasmania; the service had a staff of 59. The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 had made provisions for the conservation of fauna and flora and the establishment and management of national parks. Mount William, Maria Island and Narawntapu National Parks were set up and Macquarie Island designated as a nature reserve; the creation of an Archaeology Section within the service followed the 1975 Aboriginal Relics Act.
In the following year Precipitous Bluff was incorporated into the Southwest National Park. Controversy in 1979 over the proposed Lower Gordon hydro-electric power scheme, which would have meant flooding the Franklin River led to the creation of the Franklin-Lower Gordon Wild Rivers National Park in 1981. In 1987 the service was merged with the Department of Lands to form the Department of Lands and Wildlife and relocated to new premises. In 1989 the Department of Lands and Wildlife became the Department of Environment and Planning and Department of Parks and Heritage, managing Crown land as well as the reserves, with duties to conserve wildlife and historic heritage sites; the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens and the Port Arthur Historic Site Management Authority became part of the Department. In the same year the Douglas-Apsley National Park, important for its dry sclerophyll forests, was established in the east of the state; the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area was expanded to include the Central Plateau Conservation Area.
With other additions the World Heritage Area increased to 13,800 square kilometres. In 1990, Tasmania's first marine reserves were established at Maria Island, Governor Island and Ninepins Point. On 3 February 1993, the Department once again merged, this time with the Department of Environment and Land Management, with The Parks and Wildlife Service functioning as a separate division within the department. In 1993 the introduction of park fees allowed the service to fund projects aimed at visitors including visitor centres and official trails; some land managed by the service was transferred to Aboriginal Land Council of Tasmania and an Aboriginal Heritage Unit was created to provide training for Aboriginal community members, to allow them to advise on Aboriginal heritage management. In 1996 the Mole Creek Karst National Park was created and South Bruny National Park followed in October 1997. Under the Regional Forestry Agreement an extra 3,960 square kilometres of public land were added to Tasmania's reserves, expanding the amount of public land in reserves by 17%.
The RFA expanded Mount William National Park, Freycinet National Park and created Tasman and Savage River National Parks. Offsetting these gains were 700 square kilometres of reserves which were made available for forestry development. A further departmental merger occurred after the 1998 elections with an amalgamation into the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries and the Government Analytical and Forensic Laboratories creating the Department of Primary Industries and Environment; the Parks and Wildlife Service was split into two separate divisions: the Resource Management and Conservation Division had responsibility for the natural and cultural resources and the Parks and Wildlife Service covered Tasmania's parks and World Heritage Areas. The Parks and Wildlife Service was separated from the Department of Primary Industries and Environment following the 2002 State elections, becoming part of the Department of Tourism, Parks and the Arts, while the Resource Management and Conservation Division remained part of the DPIWE.
In 2002 three islands, Deal and Dover were declared as part of the Kent Group National Park and marine protected areas were created there and at Port Davey-Bathurst Harbour. In April 2006 the Department incorporated the Environment Division from Department of Primary Industries and Environment; this led to a renaming of the Department to the Department of Tourism and the Environment. In 2007 the Tasmanian Coast Conservation Fund was established. Tour company operator Robert Pennicott founder of Bruny Island Cruises and Tasman Island Cruises came together with environmental group WILDCARE to establish the fund. While operating separately to the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service, the fund is used to provide funding to the Parks and Wildlife Service to assist environmental protection and conservation projects in Tasmania's National Parks. Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council "A History of the Parks and Wildlife Service". Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service. 2006. Retrieved 1 December 2006