Saint-Cloud is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.6 kilometres from the centre of Paris. Like other communes of Hauts-de-Seine such as Marnes-la-Coquette, Neuilly-sur-Seine or Vaucresson, Saint-Cloud is one of the wealthiest towns in France, ranked second in average household income among communities with 10- to 50-thousand tax households. In 2006, it had a population of 29,981; the town is named after Clodoald, grandson of Clovis, supposed to have sought refuge in a hamlet on the Seine near Paris named Novigentum, like many other newly founded mercantile settlements outside the traditional towns. After he was canonized, the village where his tomb was located took the name of Sanctus Clodoaldus. A park contains the ruins of the Château de Saint-Cloud, built in 1572 and destroyed by fire in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War; the château was the residence of several French rulers and served as the main country residence of the cadet Orléans line prior to the French Revolution.
The palace was the site of the coup d'état led by Napoleon Bonaparte that overthrew the French Directory in 1799. The town is famous for the Saint-Cloud porcelain produced there from 1693 to 1766; the Headquarters of the International Criminal Police Organization had been located at 22 Rue Armengaud from 1966 until 1989, when it moved to Lyon. The main landmarks are the park of the demolished Château de Saint-Cloud and the Pavillon de Breteuil; the Saint-Cloud Racecourse, a race track for Thoroughbred flat racing, was built by Edmond Blanc in 1901 and is host to a number of important races including the annual Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud. On the Avenue de Longchamp, in Saint-Cloud, there is a bronze statue commissioned by the Airclub of France representing the Greek god Icarus, in honour of Santos Dumont; the monument was inaugurated on October 19, 1913, is located on a square near the old Aerostation of Saint-Cloud, where Santos Dumont performed his experiments with the heavier than air. Dumont was responsible for the construction of the first hangar in the world in Saint-Cloud.
Today there is a replica of it, in the same place, erected in 1952, because the original was destroyed to for its bronze during the Nazi military occupation. Saint-Cloud is served by two stations on the Transilien La Défense and Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail lines: Le Val d'Or and Saint-Cloud; the town is served by a number of stops on the T2 Tramway, which runs along the side of the Seine. Central Saint-Cloud, known as le village, is served by the metro station'Boulogne-Pont de Saint-Cloud', located across the Seine river on the Boulogne-Billancourt side of the Pont de Saint Cloud. Public high schools: Lycée Alexandre-Dumas Lycée Santos-DumontIt is served by the public high school Lycée Jean Pierre Vernant in Sèvres. Private high schools: Institution Saint-Pie-XInternational schools: American School of Paris Internationale Deutsche Schule Paris Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of France from 1715 to 1723 Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans Regent of Lorraine, lived at the Palace at Saint-Cloud Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, a key figure during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Napoléon Ier – lived in the Château de Saint-Cloud Antoine Sénard – member of the National Assembly, mayor of Saint-Cloud from 1871 to 1874 Émile Verhaeren – Flemish poet André Chevrillon – French author Florent Schmitt – French composer Maurice Ravel – French composer Marcel Dassault – French businessman and politician Santos Dumont – Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer Lino Ventura – Italian actor and died in Saint-Cloud Jean-Pierre Fourcade – French Minister, mayor of Saint-Cloud from 1971 to 1992 Gérard Holtz, French sports journalist Jean-Marie Le Pen, French politician, owner of Domaine de Montretout in Saint-Cloud. Edmond Blanc René Alexandre Maurice Bessy Gérard Blain Gilbert Grandval Fernand Gravey Jean-René Huguenin Dorothy Jordan Vlado Perlemuter Andrée Servilange Jean Toulout Maurice Yvain Saint-Cloud is twinned with: Frascati, Italy Bad Godesberg, Germany Kortrijk, Belgium Maidenhead, United Kingdom Saint-Cloud is the main setting of the 1955 French film Les Diaboliques.
Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE "St Cloud, a town of northern France". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Chlothar I called "Clotaire I" and the Old, King of the Franks, was one of the four sons of Clovis I of the Merovingian dynasty. Chlothar's father, Clovis I, divided the kingdom between his four sons. In 511, Clothar I inherited two large territories on the Western coast of Francia, separated by the lands of his brother Childebert I's Kingdom of Paris. Chlothar spent most of his life in a campaign to expand his territories at the expense of his relatives and neighbouring realms in all directions, his brothers avoided outright war by cooperating with his attacks on neighbouring lands in concert or by invading lands when their rulers died. The spoils were shared between the participating brothers. By the end of his life, Chlothar had managed to reunite Francia by surviving his brothers and seizing their territories after they died, but upon his own death, the Kingdom of the Franks was once again divided between his own four surviving sons. A fifth son was killed, along with his family. Chlothar's father, Clovis I, had converted to Nicene Christianity, but Chlothar, like other Merovingians, did not consider that the Christian doctrine of monogamy should be expected of royalty: he had five wives, more from political expediency than for personal motives.
Although at the instigation of his queens he gave money for several new ecclesiastical edifices, he was a less than enthusiastic Christian and succeeded in introducing taxes on ecclesiastical property. Frankish customs of the day allowed for the practice of polygamy among royalty. So it was not uncommon for a king to have several competing heirs upon his death; this was a major deviation from the monogamy of late Roman customs, influenced by the Church. Frankish rulers followed this practice to increase their influence across larger areas of land in the wake of the Roman empire's collapse; the aim was to ensure the preservation of the kingdom by appeasing local leaders. In the Germanic tradition succession fell, not to sons, but to younger brothers and cousins, but under Salic law, Clovis I instituted the custom of sons being the primary heirs in all respects. However, it was not a system of primogeniture, with the eldest son receiving the vast majority of an inheritance, rather the inheritance was split evenly between all the sons.
Therefore, the greater Frankish Kingdom was splintered into smaller sub-kingdoms. Chlothar was the fourth son of Queen Clotilde; the name'Chlothar' means "glory". Chlothar was born around 497 in Soissons. Upon the death of his father on 27 November 511, he received as his share of the kingdom: the town of Soissons, which he made his capital, but he was ambitious and sought to extend his domain. Upon the death of Clovis I in the year 511, the Frankish kingdom was divided between Chlothar and his brothers, Theuderic and Chlodomer; because of the rights of mothers, queens were granted a portion of their son's kingdom. Clovis I, who had two wives, divided his kingdom into two for each of his wives parceled out pieces to his respective sons; the eldest, son of the first wife, had the benefit of receiving one half of the kingdom of Francia, Reims. Chlothar shared the second half of the kingdom with Chlodomer. Chlothar received the northern portion, Childebert the central kingdom of Paris, Chlodomer the southern Kingdom of Orléans.
The domain inherited by Chlothar consisted of two distinct parts: one in Gaulic Belgium, corresponding to the kingdom of the Salian Franks, where he established his capital at Soissons and included the dioceses of Amiens, Saint-Quentin and Tournai. In 516 Gundobad, king of Burgundy and the throne passed to his son Sigismund, who converted to Catholicism. Sigismund adopted an extreme anti-Arian policy, going so far as to execute his Arian son Sigeric, the grandson of the Ostrogoth King Theoderic the Great. Sigismund nearly prompted the Franks to launch an offensive against him, but he avoided a conflict by giving one of his daughters, Suavegotha, in marriage to Chlothar's older half-brother, Theuderic I. In 523, at the instigation of their mother, Chlothar and Chlodomer joined forces in an expedition against the Burgundians; the Burgundian army was defeated, Sigismund was captured and executed. Sigismund's brother Godomar replaced him on the throne, with the support of the aristocracy, the Franks were forced to leave.
In 524 Chlothar and his brothers, including Theuderic, began a new campaign, advancing to the Isère Valley. But on 25 June 524, they suffered a serious defeat at the Battle of Vézeronce, Chlodomer was killed; the Franks left Burgundy, Godomar resumed his rule until 534. Chlothar married widow of Chlodomer, his brother; this union gave Chlothar access to Chlodomer's treasury and ensured Guntheuc's position as sole heiress to King Godégisile's lands. Chlothar's wife Ingund requested that he find a husband worthy of Aregund. Finding no one suitable, Chlothar took Aregund as one of his own wives; the year was c. 533-538. She remained his wife until the death of her sister, Ingund, in 546, after which she fell out of favor with Chlothar. In 531 Hermanafrid, king of the Thuringians, promised to give Chlothar's half-brother, part of the Kingdom of Thuringia if he would help to depose Baderic, Hermanafrid's rival and brother. Theuderic accepted. However, having been injured after a victory, he appealed to Chlot
Saint Clodoald, better known as Cloud, was the son of King Chlodomer of Orléans and his wife Guntheuc. Clodoald was raised in Paris by Saint Clotilde, he was one of three brothers, all of whom were targeted for assassination by their uncle, Clotaire I. Clodoald's brothers and Gunther, were killed by Clotaire when they were ten and nine but Clodoald survived by escaping to Provence. Clodoald renounced all claims to the throne and lived as a studious hermit and disciple of Séverin of Paris. Visited by many for counsel and healing, Clodoald in effect gained nothing by keeping himself remote from society, he therefore returned to Paris. At the people's request, he was ordained a priest by Bishop Eusebius of Paris in 551 and served the church for some time. Clodoald established an abbey at a hamlet on the Seine near Versailles; the hamlet named Novigentum, was renamed Saint-Cloud in Clodoald's honour. The abbey is now a collegiate church of canons regular called Église Saint-Clodoald wherein his relics are kept.
St. Cloud, St. Cloud, are in turn named after the French town. Clodoald's feast day is September 7. List of Catholic saints Saint Clotilde, grandmother of St. Cloud
Soissons is a commune in the northern French department of Aisne, in the region of Hauts-de-France. Located on the Aisne River, about 100 kilometres northeast of Paris, it is one of the most ancient towns of France, is the ancient capital of the Suessiones. Soissons is the see of an ancient Roman Catholic diocese, whose establishment dates from about 300, it was the location of a number of church synods called "Council of Soissons". Soissons enters written history under its Celtic name, meaning "new hillfort". At Roman contact, it was a town of the Suessiones, mentioned by Julius Caesar. Caesar, after leaving the Axona, entered the territory of the Suessiones, making one day's long march, reached Noviodunum, surrounded by a high wall and a broad ditch; the place surrendered to Caesar. From 457 to 486, under Aegidius and his son Syagrius, Noviodunum was the capital of the Kingdom of Soissons, until it fell to the Frankish king Clovis I in 486 after the Battle of Soissons. Part of the Frankish territory of Neustria, the Soissons region, the Abbey of Saint-Médard, built in the 8th century, played an important political part during the rule of the Merovingian kings.
After the death of Clovis I in 511, Soissons was made the capital of one of the four kingdoms into which his states were divided. The kingdom of Soissons disappeared in 613 when the Frankish lands were amalgamated under Chlothar II; the 744 Council of Soissons met at the instigation of Pepin the Short and Saint Boniface, the Pope's missionary to pagan Germany, secured the condemnation of the Frankish bishop Adalbert and the Irish missionary Clement. During the Hundred Years' War, French forces committed a notorious massacre of English archers stationed at the town's garrison, in which many of the French townsfolk were themselves raped and killed; the massacre of French citizens by French soldiers shocked Europe. Between June 1728 and July 1729 it hosted the Congress of Soissons an attempt to resolve a long-standing series of disputes between the Kingdom of Great Britain and Spain which had spilled over into the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727–1729; the Congress was successful and led to the signing of a peace treaty between them.
During World War I, the city came under heavy bombardment. There was mutiny after the disastrous Chemin des Dames offensive at the Second Battle of the Aisne. A statue erected with images of French soldiers killed in action in 1917 is behind the St Peter's Church, next to the Soissons Courthouse. On 16 June 1972, 108 passengers were killed when two passenger trains hit the debris of a collapsed tunnel; the town was on the main path of totality for the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999. Today, Soissons is a commercial and manufacturing centre with the 12th century Soissons Cathedral and the ruins of St. Jean des Vignes Abbey as two of its most important historical buildings; the nearby Espace Pierres Folles contains a museum, geological trail, botanical garden. The Cathédrale Saint-Gervais-et-Saint-Protais de Soissons is constructed in the style of Gothic architecture; the building of the south transept was begun about 1177, the lowest courses of the choir in 1182. The choir with its original three-storey elevation and tall clerestory was completed in 1211.
This was earlier than Chartres. Work continued into the nave until the late 13th century; the former abbey of Notre Dame, former royal abbey, founded in the Merovingian era, famous for its rich treasure of relics, including the "shoe of the Virgin." The abbey was prestigious abbesses like Gisèle, sister of Charlemagne, or Catherine de Bourbon, aunt of Henry IV. The Saint-Médard Abbey was a Benedictine monastery of Soissons whose foundation went back to the sixth century. Today, only the crypt remains. Since 1833 the city hall has been housed in a chateau built by architect Jean-François Advyné between 1772 and 1775 at the request of the Intendant Pelletier Mortefontaine on the site of a previous one belonging to the counts of Soissons. Arsenal: contemporary art exhibitions. UK Monument The Gateway Anglais Bridge is a concrete casson built cantilevered from an abutment against-weight with an isostatic central beam of 20.50 m in length. The floor has a width of 3.50 m between railings. The original bridge was destroyed in 1914.
It was rebuilt by British soldiers, logically took the name of the English bridge. Again destroyed during World War II, the bridge was rebuilt in 1950 as a footbridge; the covered market, built in 1908 by architect Albert-Désiré Guilbert. The actress Aurore Clément was born in Soissons in 1945; the saints Crispin and Crispinian were martyred c. 286 at Soissons for preaching Christianity to the local Gauls. The 6th century Burgundian king Guntram was born in Soissons around 532. Battle of Soissons Communes of the Aisne department Franks List of Frankish kings Merovingians Suessiones Vase of Soissons Wolf of Soissons Sessions This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. INSEE Official website Catholic Encyclopedia: Soissons A live view of the port of Soissons Discovering Soissons Soissons Powerlifting club Local Bus Routes
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres southwest of Paris. It is the capital of the Loiret department and of the Centre-Val de Loire region. Orléans is located on the Loire River. In 2015, the city had 114,644 inhabitants, the population of the urban area was 433,337. Île d'Orléans, Orléans and New Orleans, Louisiana are named after the city. Orléans is located in the northern bend of the Loire. Orléans belongs to the vallée de la Loire sector between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes-sur-Loire, in 2000 inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the capital of Orléanais, 120 kilometres southwest of Paris, is bordered to the north by the Beauce region, more the Orléans Forest and Orléans-la-Source neighbourhood, the Sologne region to the south. Five bridges in the city cross the Loire River: Pont de l'Europe, Pont du Maréchal Joffre, Pont George-V, Pont René-Thinat and Pont de Vierzon. To the north of the Loire is to be found a small hill which rises to 125 m at la Croix Fleury, at the limits of Fleury-les-Aubrais.
Conversely, the south has a gentle depression to about 95 m above sea level between the Loire and the Loiret, designated a "zone inondable". At the end of the 1960s, the Orléans-la-Source neighbourhood was created, 12 kilometres to the south of the original commune and separated from it by the Val d'Orléans and the Loiret River; this quarter's altitude varies from about 100 to 110 m. In Orléans, the Loire is separated by a submerged dike known as the dhuis into the Grande Loire to the north, no longer navigable, the Petite Loire to the south; this dike is just one part of a vast system of construction that allowed the Loire to remain navigable to this point. The Loire was an important navigation and trading route. With the increase in size of ocean-going ships, large ships can now navigate the estuary only up to about Nantes. Boats on the river were traditionally flat-bottomed boats, with large but foldable masts so the sails could gather wind from above the river banks, but the masts could be lowered in order to allow the boats to pass under bridges.
These vessels are known as gabarre, so on, may be viewed by tourists near pont Royal. The river's irregular flow limits traffic on it, in particular at its ascent, though this can be overcome by boats being given a tow. An Inexplosible-type paddle steamer owned by the mairie was put in place in August 2007, facing Place de la Loire and containing a bar; every two years, the Festival de Loire recalls the role played by the river in the commune's history. On the river's north bank, near the town centre, is the Canal d'Orléans, which connects to the Canal du Loing and the Canal de Briare at Buges near Montargis; the canal is no longer used along its whole length. Its route within Orléans runs parallel to the river, separated from it by a wall or muret, with a promenade along the top, its last pound was transformed into an outdoor swimming pool in the 1960s filled in. It was reopened in 2007 for the "fêtes de Loire." There are plans to install a pleasure-boat port there. Orléans experiences an oceanic climate, similar to much of central France.
See Cenabum, Aureliana Civitas. Cenabum was a Gallic stronghold, one of the principal towns of the tribe of the Carnutes where the Druids held their annual assembly; the Carnutes were massacred and the city was destroyed by Julius Caesar in 52 BC a new city was built on its ruins by settlers from the gens Aurelia who named the city, civitas Aurelianorum, after themselves. The name evolved into Orléans. In 442 Flavius Aetius, the Roman commander in Gaul, requested Goar, head of the Iranian tribe of Alans in the region to come to Orleans and control the rebellious natives and the Visigoths. Accompanying the Vandals, the Alans crossed the Loire in 408. One of their groups, under Goar, joined the Roman forces of Flavius Aetius to fight Attila when he invaded Gaul in 451, taking part in the Battle of Châlons under their king Sangiban. Goar established his capital in Orléans, his successors took possession of the estates in the region between Orléans and Paris. Installed in Orléans and along the Loire, they resented by the local inhabitants.
Many inhabitants around the present city have names bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. Many places in the region bear names of Alan origin. In the Merovingian era, the city was capital of the Kingdom of Orléans following Clovis I's division of the kingdom under the Capetians it became the capital of a county duchy held in appanage by the house of Valois-Orléans; the Valois-Orléans family acceded to the throne of France via Louis XII Francis I. In 1108, one of the few consecrations of a French monarch to occur outside of Reims occurred at Orléans, when Louis VI of France was consecrated in Orléans cathedral by Daimbert, archbishop of Sens; the city was always a strategic point on the Loire, for it was sited at the river's most northerly point, thus its closest point to Paris. There were few bridges over the dangerous river Loire, b
Saint Clotilde known as Clothilde, Clotild, Rotilde etc. A princess of the kingdom of Burgundy descended from the Gothic king Aþana-reiks, became in 492 the second wife of the Frankish king Clovis I (r. 481–509. The Merovingian dynasty to which her husband belonged ruled Frankish kingdoms for over 200 years. Venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church as well as by the Eastern Orthodox Church, she played a role in her husband's famous conversion to Catholicism and, in her years, became known for her almsgiving and penitential works of mercy, she is credited with spreading Catholicism within western Europe. Clotilde was born at the Burgundian court of the daughter of King Chilperic II of Burgundy. Upon the death of Chilperic's father King Gondioc in 473, Chilperic and his brothers Gundobad and Godegisel divided their inheritance. From the sixth century on, the marriage of Clovis and Clotilda was made the theme of epic narratives, in which the original facts were materially altered and the various versions found their way into the works of different Frankish chroniclers.
According to Gregory of Tours, Chilperic II was slain by his brother Gundobad in 493, his wife drowned with a stone hung around her neck, while of his two daughters, Chrona took the veil and Clotilde was exiled – it is, assumed that this tale is apocryphal. Butler's account follows Gregory. After the death of Chilperic, her mother seems to have made her home with Godegisil at Geneva, where her other daughter, founded the church of Saint-Victor. Soon after the death of Chilperic, Clovis obtained the hand of Clotilda, they were married in the same year. The marriage produced the following children: Ingomer. Chlodomer, King of the Franks at Orléans from 511. Childebert I, King of the Franks at Paris from 511. Chlothar I, King of the Franks at Soissons from 511, King of all Franks from 558. Clotilde, married Amalaric, King of the Visigoths. Clotilde was brought up in the Catholic faith and did not rest until her husband had abjured paganism and embraced the Catholic Christianity. According to Gregory of Tours' Historia Francorum, when Clotilde had their first child baptised, he died soon after.
Clovis upbraided her. Although Chlodomer did indeed fall ill, he soon after recovered. More healthy children followed. Clotilde's victory came in 496, when Clovis converted to Catholicism, baptised by Bishop Remigius of Reims on Christmas Day of that year. According to tradition, on the eve of the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alamanni, Clovis prayed to God, swearing to be baptised if he emerged victorious on the battlefield; when he did indeed triumph, Clovis took the faith. With him Clotilde built at Paris the Church of the Holy Apostles, afterwards known as the Abbey of St Genevieve. After Clovis' death in 511, she retired to the Abbey of St. Martin at Tours. In 523 Clotilde's sons went to war against her cousin King Sigismund of Burgundy, the son of Gundobad, which led to Sigismund's deposition and imprisonment. Sigismund was assassinated the following year and his body thrown down a well in symbolic retaliation for the deaths of Clotilde's parents. Gregory of Tours claimed – and many others have followed – that Clotilde incited her sons to war as a means to revenge the supposed murder of her parents by Gundobad while others, such as Godefroid Kurth, find this unconvincing and apocryphal.
Subsequently, her eldest son Chlodomer was killed during the following Burgundian campaign under Sigismund's successor King Godomar at the Battle of Vézeronce. Her daughter named Clotilde died about this time. Clotilde tried in vain to protect the rights of her three grandsons, the children of Chlodomer, against the claims of her surviving sons Childebert and Chlothar. Chlothar had two of them killed, while only Clodoald managed to escape and chose an ecclesiastical career, she was unsuccessful in her efforts to prevent the civil discords between her children. After these failures, Clotilde appeared to dedicate herself to a saintly life, she occupied herself with the building of churches and monasteries, preferring to distance herself from the power struggles of the court. Churches associated with her are located at Laon, Rouen. Clotilde died in 545 at the tomb of St. Martin of natural causes. Clotilde's cult made her the patron of queens, widows and those in exile. In Normandy she was venerated as the patroness of the lame, those who came to a violent death and women who suffered from ill-tempered husbands.
In art she is depicted presiding over the baptism of Clovis, or as a suppliant at the shrine of Saint Martin. Several fine images of her remain in the 16th century stained glass window at Andelys, her relics survived the French Revolution, are housed in the Église Saint-Leu-Saint-Gilles in Paris. Clotilde is the patron saint of Normandy. In 511, the Queen founded a convent for young girls of the nobility there, destroyed by the Normans in 911. In its place was erected Our Lady’s Collegiate Church, which contains a statue of Saint Clotilde. In Les Andelys is Saint Clotilde's Fountain; the spring is popularly believed to heal skin diseases. Clovis I List of Catholic saints List of Frankish queens This article incorporates text from a publi
Chlodomer spelled Clodomir or Clodomer was the second of the four sons of Clovis I, King of the Franks. On the death of his father, in 511, he divided the kingdom of the Franks with his three brothers: Theuderic I, Childebert I, Clotaire I. Although Theuderic, the eldest, had a better claim, Chlodomer divided half of the kingdom with his two other brothers; this was the kingdom of Orléans, taken from the former kingdom of Syagrius. This kingdom included, most notably, the bishoprics of Tours and Orléans. Chlodomer married Guntheuc, with whom he had three sons: Theodebald and Clodoald. In 523–24 at the instigation of his mother Clotilde, eager to avenge her nephew, assassinated by Sigismund of Burgundy, Chlodomer joined with his brothers in an expedition against the Burgundians. After capturing Sigismund, Chlodomer returned to Orléans. However, Sigismund's brother Gondomar returned triumphantly to Burgundy at the head of the troops sent by his ally, the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great. There, he massacred the garrison.
Although victorious, Chlodomer had Sigismund and his sons Gisald and Gondebaud assassinated on 1 May 524. He led a second expedition against the Burgundians, he was killed on this expedition, in the spring or summer of the same year, at the Battle of Vézeronce. His three sons were entrusted to his mother until his widow married Clotaire I. Clotaire, had Chlodomer's children killed, although Clodoald managed to escape. Better known as Saint Cloud, he became abbot of Nogent, having given up his hair, the symbol of the Frankish royalty, rather than giving up his life. Bachrach, Bernard S.. Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-0621-8. Geary, Patrick J.. Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-504458-4. James, Edward; the Franks. London: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-14872-8. Oman, Charles; the Dark Ages, 476–918. London: Rivingtons. Wallace-Hadrill, J. M.. The Long-Haired Kings, Other Studies in Frankish History.
London: Methuen. Wood, Ian N.. The Merovingian Kingdoms, 450–751. London: Longman, ISBN 0-582-21878-0