Ujjain is a city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the administrative centre of Ujjain district and Ujjain division, it is a known Hindu pilgrimage centre with the Kumbh Mela held here every 12 years. An ancient city situated on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, Ujjain was the most prominent city on the Malwa plateau of central India for much of its history, it emerged as the political centre of central India around 600 BCE. It was the capital of one of the sixteen mahajanapadas, it remained an important political and cultural centre of central India until the early 19th century, when the British administrators decided to develop Indore as an alternative to it. Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites and followers of Shakta. Ujjain has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
Excavations at Kayatha have revealed chalcolithic agricultural settlements dating to around 2000 BCE. Chalcolithic sites have been discovered at other areas around Ujjain, including Nagda, but excavations at Ujjain itself have not revealed any chalcolithic settlements. Archaeologist H. D. Sankalia theorized that the chalcolithic settlements at Ujjain were destroyed by the Iron Age settlers. According to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, whose capital was Ujjain, "was one of the earliest outposts in central India" and showed signs of early incipient urbanisation around 700 BCE. Around 600 BCE, Ujjain emerged as the political and cultural centre of Malwa plateau; the ancient walled city of Ujjain was located around the Garh Kalika hill on the bank of river Kshipra, in the present-day suburban areas of the Ujjain city. This city covered an irregular pentagonal area of 0.875 km2. It was surrounded by a 12 m high mud rampart; the archaeological investigations have indicated the presence of a 45 m wide and 6.6 m deep moat around the city.
According to F. R. Allchin and George Erdosy, these city defences were constructed between 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Dieter Schlingloff believes that these were built before 600 BCE; this period is characterised by structures made of stone and burnt-brick and weapons made of iron, black and red burnished ware. According to the Puranic texts, a branch of the legendary Haihaya dynasty ruled over Ujjain. In the 4th century BCE, the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta annexed Avanti to his empire; the edicts of his grandson Ashoka mention four provinces of the Mauryan empire, of which Ujjain was the capital of the Western province. During the reign of his father Bindusara, Ashoka served as the viceroy of Ujjain, which highlights the importance of the town; as the viceroy of Ujjain, Ashoka married the daughter of a merchant from Vedisagiri. According to the Sinhalese Buddhist tradition, their children Mahendra and Sanghamitra, who preached Buddhism in modern Sri Lanka, were born in Ujjain. From the Mauryan period, Northern Black Polished Ware, copper coins, terracotta ring wells and ivory seals with Brahmi text have been excavated at Ujjain.
Ujjain emerged as an important commercial centre because it lay on the trade route connecting north India to the Deccan, starting from Mathura. It emerged as an important center for intellectual learning among Jain, early Buddhist and Hindu traditions. After the Mauryans, Ujjain was controlled by a number of empires and dynasties, including local dynasties, the Shungas, the Western Satraps, the Satavahanas, the Guptas. Ujjain remained as an important city of the Guptas during the 5th centuries. Kalidasa, the great Indian classical poet of the 5th century who lived in the times of the Gupta king Vikramaditya wrote his epic work Meghadūta in which he describes the richness of Ujjain and its people. In the 6th century CE the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited India, he describes the ruler of Avanti as a king, generous to the poor and presented them with gifts. Bharthari is said to have written his great epics, Virat Katha, Neeti Sataka, the love story of Pradyot Princess Vasavadatta and Udayan in Ujjayini, as the city was called during his times.
The writings of Bhasa are set in Ujjain, he lived in the city. Kalidasa refers to Ujjain multiple times, it appears that he spent at least a part of his life in Ujjain. Mrichchhakatika by Shudraka is set in Ujjain. Ujjain appears in several stories as the capital of the legendary emperor Vikramaditya. Somadeva's Kathasaritsagara mentions that the city was created by Vishwakarma, describes it as invincible and full of wonderful sights; the Paramaras shifted the region's capital from Ujjain to Dhar. In 1235 CE, Iltutmish of Delhi Sultanate plundered the city, destroyed its temples. With the decline of the Paramara kingdom, Ujjain came under the Islamic rule, like other parts of north-central India; the city continued to be an important city of central India. As late as during the times of the Mughal vassal Jai Singh II, who constructed a Jantar Mantar in the city, Ujjain was the largest city and capital of the Malwa Subah. During the 18th century, the city became the capital of Scindia state of the Maratha confederacy, when Ranoji Scindia established his capital at Ujjain in 1731.
But his successors moved to Gwalior, where they ruled the Gwalior State in the latter half of the 18th century. The struggle of supremacy between the Holkars of Indore and Scindias led to rivalry between the merchants of the two cities. On 18 July 1801, the Holkars defeated the Scindias at the Battle o
Rashtrakuta was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and their language; the Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753. At the same time the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively. An Arabic text, Silsilat al-Tawarikh, called the Rashtrakutas one of the four principal empires of the world.
This period, between the eighth and the 10th centuries, saw a tripartite struggle for the resources of the rich Gangetic plains, each of these three empires annexing the seat of power at Kannauj for short periods of time. At their peak the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta ruled a vast empire stretching from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Cape Comorin in the south, a fruitful time of political expansion, architectural achievements and famous literary contributions; the early kings of this dynasty were influenced by Hinduism and the kings by Jainism. During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works in Kannada and Sanskrit. Amoghavarsha I, the most famous king of this dynasty wrote Kavirajamarga, a landmark literary work in the Kannada language. Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the finest example of, seen in the Kailasanath Temple at Ellora in modern Maharashtra. Other important contributions are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. These issues pertain to the origin of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas during the time of Emperor Ashoka in the 2nd century BCE, the connection between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan between the 6th and 7th centuries; the relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most famous dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, who ruled between the 8th and 10th centuries has been debated. The sources for Rashtrakuta history include medieval inscriptions, ancient literature in the Pali language, contemporaneous literature in Sanskrit and Kannada and the notes of the Arab travellers. Theories about the dynastic lineage, the native region and the ancestral home have been proposed, based on information gleaned from inscriptions, royal emblems, the ancient clan names such as "Rashtrika", the names of princes and princesses of the dynasty, clues from relics such as coins.
Scholars debate over which ethnic/linguistic groups can claim the early Rashtrakutas. Possibilities include the north western ethnic groups of India, the Kannadiga, the Maratha, or the tribes from the Punjab region. Scholars however concur that the rulers of the imperial dynasty in the 8th to 10th century made the Kannada language as important as Sanskrit. Rashtrakuta inscriptions use both Kannada and Sanskrit, the rulers encouraged literature in both languages; the earliest existing Kannada literary writings are credited to their court poets and royalty. Though these Rashtrakutas were Kannadigas, they were conversant in a northern Deccan language as well; the heart of the Rashtrakuta empire included nearly all of Karnataka and parts of Andhra Pradesh, an area which the Rashtrakutas ruled for over two centuries. The Samangadh copper plate grant confirms that the feudatory King Dantidurga, who ruled from Achalapura in Berar, defeated the great Karnatic army of Kirtivarman II of Badami in 753 and took control of the northern regions of the Chalukya empire.
He helped his father-in-law, Pallava King Nandivarman regain Kanchi from the Chalukyas and defeated the Gurjaras of Malwa, the rulers of Kalinga and Srisailam. Dantidurga's successor Krishna I brought major portions of present-day Karnataka and Konkan under his control. During the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha who took control in 780, the kingdom expanded into an empire that encompassed all of the territory between the Kaveri River and Central India, he led successful expeditions to Kannauj, the seat of northern Indian power where he defeated the Gurjara Pratiharas and the Palas of Bengal, gaining him fame and vast booty but not more territory. He brought the Eastern Chalukyas and Gangas of Talakad under his control. According to Altekar and Sen, the Rashtrakutas became a pan-India power during his rule; the ascent of Dhruva Dharavarsha's third son, Govinda III, to the throne heralded an era of success like never before. There is uncertainty about the location of the early capital of the Rashtrakutas at this time.
During his rule there was a three way conflict between the Rashtrakutas, the Palas and the Pratiharas for control over the Gangetic plains. Describing his victor
Mandore, is a town located 9 km north of Jodhpur city, in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Mandore is an ancient town, was the seat of the Inda Parihar dynasty, who ruled the region in the 6th century CE. After the disintegration of the Parihar empire, one branch of Inda continued to rule at Mandore; the last emperor of Parihar dynasty of Mandore was Daata Shri Nahar Rao Singh Ji Parihar he ruled the region until 1395. In 1395 CE, a princess of this branch married Rao Chunda of Rathore clan. Rao Chunda received the Junagarh fort in Mandore in dowry from Inda Parihar rulers, moved his capital to Mandore; the town remained the Rathore capital until 1459 CE, when Rao Jodha shifted his capital to the newly founded city of Jodhpur. Rao Rinmal Rathore secured the throne of Mandore in 1427. In addition to ruling Mandore, Rao Rinmal became the administrator of Mewar to assist Maharana Mokal. After the assassination of Maharana Mokal in 1433, Rinmal continued as administrator of Mewar at the side of Rana Kumbha.
In 1438, Rana Kumbha decided to end the power sharing arrangement and had Rao Rinmal assassinated in Chittor and captured Mandore. Rao Jodha, son of Rao Rinmal, escaped towards Marwar. 700 horsemen accompanied Rao Jodha as he escaped from Chittor. Fighting near Chittor and a valiant attempt to bar the pursuers at Someshwar Pass resulted in heavy losses amongst Jodha's warriors; when Jodha reached Mandore he had only seven people accompanying him. Jodha collected whatever forces he abandoned Mandore and pressed on towards Jangalu. Jodha managed to reach safety at Kahuni. For 15 years Jodha tried in vain to recapture Mandore. Jodha's opportunity to strike came in 1453 with Rana Kumbha facing simultaneous attacks by the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat. Jodha made a surprise attack on Mandore. Jodha's forces captured Mandore with relative ease. Jodha and Kumbha settled their differences in order to face their common enemies, the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat. "Mantri Karam Chand Vanshavali Prabandh", written by Jaysom Uppadhyay, states that Bachhraj known as Vatsraj was not only a religious person but a brave and gallant warrior in Patan.
He is a descendant of a Deora Chauhan of Delwara. During mid-15th century, on being invited, Bachharaj submitted his services to the Chief of Mandore Rao Jodha, where he was appointed Dewan as he was an able administrator and a strategist. Rao Jodha for the first time, allowed Bachchraj and other Oswals to take part in commanding armies. A holy man sensibly advised Rao Jodha to move the capital to hilltop safety; the construction of the fort thus begun by Rao Jodha in 1459, under the supervision of Dewan Bachhraj and thus Jodhpur was founded. The fort was completed by Maharaja Jaswant Singh; the new fort was named Mehrangarh Fort and situated on a 125 m high hill, is among the most impressive and formidable forts in Rajasthan. Mandore was the capital of the erstwhile princely state of Marwar, before moving to Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur; the historic town boasts several monuments. The now ruined Mandore fort, with its thick walls and substantial size, was built in several stages and was once a fine piece of architecture.
A huge, now ruined temple is a highlight of the fort. The outer wall of the temple depicts finely carved botanical designs, birds and planets. The'Mandore gardens', with its charming collection of temples and memorials, its high rock terraces, is another major attraction; the gardens house the Chhatris of many rulers of Jodhpur state. Prominent among them is the chhatri of Maharaja Ajit Singh, built in 1793. Ravan temple is another attraction at Mandore, it is believed to be the native place of Ravan's wife Mandodari. Ravan is treated as son in law among some local Brahmins; the Mandore Gardens house a government museum, a'Hall of Heroes' and a Hindu temple to 33 crore gods. Various artefacts and statues found in the area are housed at the museum. The'Hall of Heroes' commemorates popular folk heroes of the region, it contains 16 figures carved out of a single rock. Next door is a larger hall called "The temple of 33 crore gods" which houses images of various Hindu deities; the Rao Festival Hariyali Amavasya Naag Panchami Veerpuri Mela BhogiShell Parikrama Rajput clans Jodhpur State Rathor Dynasty Mandore Garden
Arabic numerals are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. It is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today; the Hindu-Arabic numeral system was developed by Indian mathematicians around AD 500 using quite different forms of the numerals. From India, the system was adopted by Arabic mathematicians in Baghdad and passed on to the Arabs farther west; the current form of the numerals developed in North Africa. It was in the North African city of Bejaia that the Italian scholar Fibonacci first encountered the numerals; the use of Arabic numerals spread around the world through European trade and colonialism. The term Arabic numerals is ambiguous, it may be intended to mean the numerals used by Arabs, in which case it refers to the Eastern Arabic numerals. Although the phrase "Arabic numeral" is capitalized, it is sometimes written in lower case: for instance in its entry in the Oxford English Dictionary, which helps to distinguish it from "Arabic numerals" as the Eastern Arabic numerals.
Alternative names are Western Arabic numerals, Western numerals, Hindu–Arabic numerals, Unicode calls them digits. The decimal Hindu–Arabic numeral system with zero was developed in India by around AD 700; the development was gradual, spanning several centuries, but the decisive step was provided by Brahmagupta's formulation of zero as a number in AD 628. The system was revolutionary by including zero in positional notation, thereby limiting the number of individual digits to ten, it is considered an important milestone in the development of mathematics. One may distinguish between this positional system, identical throughout the family, the precise glyphs used to write the numerals, which varied regionally; the first universally accepted inscription containing the use of the 0 glyph in India is first recorded in the 9th century, in an inscription at Gwalior in Central India dated to 870. Numerous Indian documents on copper plates exist, with the same symbol for zero in them, dated back as far as the 6th century AD, but their dates are uncertain.
Inscriptions in Indonesia and Cambodia dating to AD 683 have been found. The numeral system came to be known to the court of Baghdad, where mathematicians such as the Persian Al-Khwarizmi, whose book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals was written about 825 in Arabic, the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, who wrote four volumes, On the Use of the Indian Numerals about 830, propagated it in the Arab world, their work was principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle East and the West. In the 10th century, Middle-Eastern mathematicians extended the decimal numeral system to include fractions, as recorded in a treatise by Syrian mathematician Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi in 952–953; the decimal point notation was introduced by Sind ibn Ali, who wrote the earliest treatise on Arabic numerals. A distinctive West Arabic variant of the symbols begins to emerge around the 10th century in the Maghreb and Al-Andalus, which are the direct ancestor of the modern "Arabic numerals" used throughout the world.
Woepecke has proposed that the Western Arabic numerals were in use in Spain before the arrival of the Moors, purportedly received via Alexandria, but this theory is not accepted by scholars. Some popular myths have argued that the original forms of these symbols indicated their numeric value through the number of angles they contained, but no evidence exists of any such origin. In 825 Al-Khwārizmī wrote a treatise in Arabic, On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, which survives only as the 12th-century Latin translation, Algoritmi de numero Indorum. Algoritmi, the translator's rendition of the author's name, gave rise to the word algorithm; the first mentions of the numerals in the West are found in the Codex Vigilanus of 976. From the 980s, Gerbert of Aurillac used his position to spread knowledge of the numerals in Europe. Gerbert studied in Barcelona in his youth, he was known to have requested mathematical treatises concerning the astrolabe from Lupitus of Barcelona after he had returned to France.
Leonardo Fibonacci, a mathematician born in the Republic of Pisa who had studied in Béjaïa, promoted the Indian numeral system in Europe with his 1202 book Liber Abaci: When my father, appointed by his country as public notary in the customs at Bugia acting for the Pisan merchants going there, was in charge, he summoned me to him while I was still a child, having an eye to usefulness and future convenience, desired me to stay there and receive instruction in the school of accounting. There, when I had been introduced to the art of the Indians' nine symbols through remarkable teaching, knowledge of the art soon pleased me above all else and I came to understand it; the numerals are arranged with their lowest value digit to the right, with higher value positions added to the left. This arrangement is the same in Arabic as well as the Indo-European languages; the reason the digits are more known as "Arabic numerals" in Europe and the Americas is that they were introduced to Europe in the 10th century by Arabic-speakers of North Africa, who were using the digits from Libya to Morocco.
Arabs, on the other hand, call the base-10 system "Hindu numerals", referring to their origin in India. This is not to be confused with what the Arabs call the "Hindi numerals", namely the Eastern Arabi
Jalor known as granite cityJalore, is a city in Rajasthan state of western India. It is the administrative headquarters of Jalore District. Jalore is known as granite city. Jalore lies to south of Sukri river, a tributary of Luni river and is about 140 km south of Jodhpur and 489 Km from the state capital Jaipur. Jalore hasn't grown that much in terms of infrastructure, but City Center Shopping Mall is the example. City center has many corporate offices like Axis Bank, Punjab National Bank, UCO Bank, Birla Sun Life Insurance Ltd, Shreeram Transport Finance Company among others; the major towns and cities of the Jalor district are Juni Bali, Sayla, Siana, Sanchore, Hadecha, Daspan, Ummedabad, Bagra, Bhinmal and Bagoda. In ancient times Jalore was known as Jabalipura - named after a saint; the town was known as Suvarngiri or Songir, the Golden Mount, on which the fort stands. Jalore was the hometown of mother of Maharana Pratap, she was the daughter of Akhey Raj Songara. Rathore rulers of Jodhpur used the Jalore fort to safe-keep their treasure.
Dungara Ram Choudhary, of IIT-JEE 2002 AIR 1 fame, hails from this hamlet. According to some historical sources, in 8th-9th centuries, one branch of the Gurjara-Pratihara was ruling at Jablipur, it was a flourishing town in the 8th century. Jalore was ruled by the Paramaras in the 10th century. Kirtipala, the youngest son of Alhana, the Chahamana ruler of Nadol, was the founder of the Jalore line of Chauhans, he took the clan name Songara, after the place. His son Samarasimha succeeded him in 1182. Udayasimha was the next ruler, he was a able ruler ruling over a large area. He recaptured Mandor from the Turks. In 1228, the Delhi Sultan Iltutmish circled Udayasimha offered stiff resistance, he was succeeded by Samantasimha. Samantasimha was succeeded by his son Kanhadadeva. During the reign of Kanhadadeva, Jalor was attacked and captured in 1311 by the Delhi's Turkic Sultan Alauddin Khalji. Kanhadadeva and his son Viramadeva died defending Jalore; the Turkic rulers of Palanpur State of Gujarat ruled Jalor in the 16th century and it became part of the Mughal Empire.
It was restored to Marwar in 1704, remained part of the kingdom until shortly after Indian Independence in 1947. Ambliara princely state. Ambliara has a small princely state in Mahi Kantha Agency Present days near Bayad taluka of Aravalli District Gujarat. There are 13 Takiya. Jalore is known as the "Cradle of the Marwari horse" - an indigenous horse breed famed for its beauty and loyalty to the horsemen who fought interminable wars on horseback. Jalore Fort TopekhanaOne of the most important structures within the town is the Topekhana or "the cannon foundry"; the building is not in the best of conditions now, but its architecture indicates that this structure must have been awesome in the old days. It was built by "Ujjain King" Vikramaditya as a "Sanskrut Pathshala" for education for his public, but at the time of Muslim Emperor Alauddin Khalji converted into a Muslim monument. The structure is imposing, with an intricate facade; the colonnade and the ceiling are tastefully carved. Jain Temples Jain temples built in the 8th century, dedicated to the first Tirthankara of Jainism, the 16th Tirthankara, the 23rd Tirthankara and the 24th Tirthankara, Derasars of Rishabha, Acharya Rajendrasuri and NeminathHindu TempleSire Mandir at Jalore Sundha Mata Kailashdham at Bishangarh with huge statue of lord Shiva.
Dhabbawali Mata Temple at KhasraviMosqueMalik Shah's mosque As of 2011 India census, Jalor had a population of 54,081. Males constitute 52.61% of the population and females 47.38%. Jalor has an average literacy rate of 64.02%, lower than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 73.41%, female literacy is 53.59%. In Jalor, 13.66% of the population is under 6 years of age
Dharma is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions like Hinduism, Jainism and others. There is no single-word translation for dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible, includes duties, laws, virtues and "right way of living". In Buddhism, dharma means "cosmic law and order", is applied to the teachings of Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is the term for "phenomena". Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the path of proper religious practice; the word dharma was in use in the historical Vedic religion, its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The ancient Tamil moral text of Tirukkural is based on aṟam, the Tamil term for dharma; the antonym of dharma is adharma. The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma or the Prakrit Dhaṃma are a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, keep", takes the meaning of "what is established or firm", hence "law".
It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm". Figuratively, it means "sustainer" and "supporter", it is semantically similar to the Greek Themis. In Classical Sanskrit, the noun becomes thematic: dharma-; the word dharma derives from Proto-Indo-European root *dʰer-, which in Sanskrit is reflected as class-1 root dhṛ. Etymologically it is related to Avestan dar-, Latin firmus, Lithuanian derė́ti, Lithuanian dermė and darna and Old Church Slavonic drъžati. Classical Sanskrit word dharmas would formally match with Latin o-stem firmus from Proto-Indo-European dʰer-mo-s "holding", were it not for its historical development from earlier Rigvedic n-stem. In Classical Sanskrit, in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Atharvaveda, the stem is thematic: dhárma-. In Prakrit and Pāli, it is rendered dhamma.
In some contemporary Indian languages and dialects it alternatively occurs as dharm. Ancient translationsWhen the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka wanted in the 3rd century BCE to translate the word "Dharma" into Greek and Aramaic, he used the Greek word Eusebeia in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription and the Kandahar Greek Edicts, the Aramaic word Qsyt in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription. Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian religion, it has multiple meanings in Hinduism and Jainism. It is difficult to provide a single concise definition for dharma, as the word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. There is no equivalent single-word synonym for dharma in western languages. There have been numerous, conflicting attempts to translate ancient Sanskrit literature with the word dharma into German and French; the concept, claims Paul Horsch, has caused exceptional difficulties for modern commentators and translators. For example, while Grassmann's translation of Rig-veda identifies seven different meanings of dharma, Karl Friedrich Geldner in his translation of the Rig-veda employs 20 different translations for dharma, including meanings such as "law", "order", "duty", "custom", "quality", "model", among others.
However, the word dharma has become a accepted loanword in English, is included in all modern unabridged English dictionaries. The root of the word dharma is "dhri", which means "to support, hold, or bear", it is the thing that regulates the course of change by not participating in change, but that principle which remains constant. Monier-Williams, the cited resource for definitions and explanation of Sanskrit words and concepts of Hinduism, offers numerous definitions of the word dharma, such as that, established or firm, steadfast decree, law, custom, right, virtue, ethics, religious merit, good works, character, property. Yet, each of these definitions is incomplete, while the combination of these translations does not convey the total sense of the word. In common parlance, dharma means "right way of living" and "path of rightness"; the meaning of the word dharma depends on the context, its meaning has evolved as ideas of Hinduism have developed through history. In the earliest texts and ancient myths of Hinduism, dharma meant cosmic law, the rules that created the universe from chaos, as well as rituals.
In certain contexts, dharma designates human behaviours considered necessary for order of things in the universe, principles that prevent chaos and action necessary to all life in nature, family as well as at the individual level. Dharma encompasses ideas such as duty, character, religion and all behaviour considered appropriate, correct or morally upright; the antonym of dharma is adharma, meaning that, "not dharma"
Muhammad bin Qasim
‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad bin Qāsim ath-Thaqafī was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh till Multan along the Indus River and controlled for a short period of 4 years for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was raised in the city of Ta'if. Qasim's conquest of Sindh up to southern-most parts of Multan enabled further Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. A member of the Thaqif tribe of the Ta'if region, Muhammad bin Qasim's father was Qasim bin Yusuf, who died when Muhammad bin Qasim was young, leaving his mother in charge of his education and care. Umayyad governor Al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf Al-Thaqafi, Muhammad bin Qasim's paternal uncle, was instrumental in teaching Muhammad bin Qasim about warfare and governance. Muhammad bin Qasim married Al-Hajjaj's daughter, shortly before going to Sindh. Due to his close relationship with Al-Hajjaj, Bin Qasim was executed after the accession of Caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. According to Berzin, Umayyad interest in the region occurred because of attacks from Sindh Raja Dahir on ships of Muslims and their imprisonment of Muslim men and women.
They had earlier unsuccessfully sought to gain control of the route, via the Khyber Pass, from the Kabul Shahi of Gandhara. But by taking Sindh, Gandhara's southern neighbour, they were able to open a second front against Gandhara. According to Wink, Umayyad interest in the region was galvanized by the operation of the Meds and others. Meds had pirated upon Sassanid shipping in the past, from the mouth of the Tigris to the Sri Lankan coast, in their bawarij and now were able to prey on Arab shipping from their bases at Kutch and Kathiawar. At the time, Sindh was the wild frontier region of al-Hind, inhabited by semi-nomadic tribes whose activities disturbed much of the Western Indian Ocean. Muslim sources insist that it was these persistent activities along important Indian trade routes by Debal pirates and others which forced the Arabs to subjugate the area, in order to control the seaports and maritime routes of which Sindh was the nucleus, as well as, the overland passage. During Hajjaj's governorship, the Meds of Debal in one of their raids had kidnapped Muslim women travelling from Sri Lanka to Arabia, thus providing a casus belli to the rising power of the Umayyad Caliphate that enabled them to gain a foothold in the Makran and Sindh regions.
Cited as a reason for this campaign was the policy of providing refuge to Sassanids fleeing the Arab advance and to Arab rebels from the Umayyad consolidation of their rule. These Arabs were imprisoned on by the Governor Deebal Partaab Raye. A letter written by an Arab girl named Nahed who escaped from the prison of Partab Raye asked Hajjaj Bin Yusuf for help; when Hajjaj asked Dahir for the release of prisoners and compensation, the latter refused on the ground that he had no control over those. Al-Hajjaj sent Muhammad Bin Qasim for action against the Sindh in 711; the mawali. An actual push into the region had been out of favor as an Arab policy since the time of the Rashidun Caliph Umar bin Khattab, who upon receipt of reports of it being an inhospitable and poor land, had stopped further expeditionary ventures into the region. Hajjaj had put more care and planning into this campaign than the second campaign under Badil bin Tuhfa. Hajjaj superintended this campaign from Kufa by maintaining close contact with Muhammad bin Qasim in the form of regular reports for which purpose special messengers were deputed between Basra and Sindh.
The army which departed from Shiraz in 710 CE under Muhammad bin Qasim was 6,000 Syrian cavalry and detachments of mawali from Iraq. At the borders of Sindh he was joined by an advance guard and six thousand camel riders and reinforcements from the governor of Makran transferred directly to Debal by sea along with five catapults; the army that captured Sindh would be swelled by the Gurjars and Meds as well as other irregulars that heard of successes in Sindh. When Muhammad bin Qasim passed through Makran while raising forces, he had to re-subdue the restive Umayyad towns of Fannazbur and Arman Belah The first town assaulted was Debal and upon the orders of Al-Hajjaj, he exacted a bloody retribution on Debal by giving no quarter to its residents or priests and destroying its great temple. From Debal the Arab army marched north taking towns such as Nerun and Sadusan peacefully. Using their components; the conquest of these towns was accomplished easily. In preparation to meet them, Muhammad bin Qasim moved back to Nerun to resupply and receive reinforcements sent by Hajjaj.
Camped on the east bank of the Indus, Qasim sent emissaries and bargained with the river Jats and boatmen. Upon securing the aid of Mokah Basayah, "the King of the island of Bet", Muhammad bin Qasim crossed over the river where he was joined by the forces of the Thakore of Bhatta and the western Jats. At Ar-rur he was met by the eastern Jats in battle. Dahir died in the battle, his forces were defeated and a triumphant Muhammad bin Qasim took control of Sindh. In the wake of the battle enemy soldiers were put to death — but not artisans, merchants or farmers — and Dahir and his chiefs, the "daughters of princes" an