Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo
The Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo is an annual series of military tattoos performed by British Armed Forces and international military bands, artistic performance teams on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle in the capital of Scotland. The event is held each August as part of the Edinburgh Festival; the term "tattoo" derives from a 17th-century Dutch phrase doe den tap toe a signal to tavern owners each night, played by a regiment's Corps of Drums, to turn off the taps of their ale kegs so that the soldiers would retire to their billeted lodgings at a reasonable hour. With the establishment of modern barracks and full military bands in the 18th century, the term "tattoo" was used to describe the last duty call of the day, as well as a ceremonial form of evening entertainment performed by military musicians; the first public military tattoo in Edinburgh was entitled "Something About a Soldier" and took place in 1949 at the Ross Bandstand in the Princes Street Gardens. The first official Edinburgh Military Tattoo, with eight items in the programme, was held in 1950.
It drew some 6,000 spectators seated in simple bench and scaffold structures around the north and east sides of the Edinburgh Castle esplanade. In 2018, the capacity of the stands was able to accommodate a nightly audience of 8,800, allowing 220,000 to watch the multiple live performances. Since the 1970s on average, just over 217,000 people see the Tattoo live on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle each year, it has sold out in advance for the last decade. 30 % of the audience are from 35 % from the rest of the United Kingdom. The remaining 35% of the audience consists of 70,000 visitors from overseas; the temporary grandstands on the castle esplanade, used in 2018, had a capacity of 8,800. New £16 million spectator stands and corporate hospitality boxes came into use in 2011; the new temporary stands reduced the time taken to erect and dismantle them from the original two months to one month, allowing the esplanade to host events at other times of the year. The Tattoo performance takes place every weekday evening and twice on Saturdays throughout August and has never been cancelled due to inclement weather.
Since 2012, each performance has included a fireworks display. From 2005 to 2015, a son et lumière element projected on to the facade of the Castle. In 2016, the projection technology on the castle was upgraded to utilize modern projection mapping technology. In 2018, laser technology was used for the first time. Since 2004, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo has held free abridged performances at the Ross Bandstand in Princes Street Gardens, entitled "Taste of the Tattoo", as of 2008 in George Square in Glasgow; the Edinburgh Military Tattoo has toured overseas, visiting New Zealand in 2000 as part of the Tattoo's 50th anniversary celebrations. It visited Australia in 2005 and returned to the Sydney Football Stadium in February 2010 as part of the Tattoo's 60th anniversary celebrations. In February 2016 the Tattoo sold 240,000 tickets when it was staged in Wellington, New Zealand and Melbourne Australia. There were plans to take the show to China in 2020, with performances in Shanghai and Guangzhou.
As of 2014 the Princess Royal was the patron of the event, with the main corporate sponsor being the Royal Bank of Scotland. In 2010 the event became the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo after HM Queen Elizabeth awarded the Royal title in celebration of its six decades of existence. In 2018 the Tattoo was planned to be televised to 40 countries allowing an estimated 100–300 million people see the event on television worldwide. In Britain the BBC broadcasts the event annually, with commentary in 2009 and 2010 provided by BBC Radio Scotland presenter Iain Anderson. Bill Paterson has provided commentary since 2011. In Australia the Australian Broadcasting Corporation traditionally telecasts the Tattoo on the evening of New Year's Eve, although in a break with tradition, the 2006 Tattoo was broadcast a day earlier on 30 December, the 2007 Tattoo was broadcast earlier on Christmas Eve, the 2009 Tattoo was broadcast two days after New Year's Eve on 2 January 2010; these changes were made. The Tattoo is run for charitable causes and in 2017 it was estimated that over the years has given £10 million to the arts and civilian charities and organisations, such as the Army Benevolent Fund.
However, the greater benefit has been that, by independent count, it generates £88 million in revenue for Edinburgh's economy annually. The official magazine of the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, Salute, is distributed free to sponsors, friends of the Tattoo, visiting performers; each performance begins with a fanfare composed for that year's show. The Massed Pipes and Drums perform, marching through the gatehouse of the castle and performing a traditional pipe band set; the show's featured acts perform individually. Each service is represented by bands from the British Armed Forces, along with drill and display teams as well. On special occasions, the Tattoo will feature bands from more than one service at the same time. In both 2002 and 2012, bands from all three services were featured to mark Elizabeth II's Golden and Diamond Jubilees. In 2003, Westlife headlined the event. From 1950 until 1994, the show featured acts from military organizations. However, the show began to diversify and feature civilian acts beginning in 1995.
While this was met with resistance from some fans, the inclusion of civilian acts has become more and more present in the show over time. One of the most popular acts featured at the Tattoo is the Top Secret Dru
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland bagpipes are the best known in the Anglophone world; the term bagpipe is correct in the singular or plural, though pipers refer to the bagpipes as "the pipes", "a set of pipes" or "a stand of pipes". A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, at least one drone. Many bagpipes have more than one drone in various combinations, held in place in stocks—sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag; the most common method of supplying air to the bag is through blowing into a blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with their tongue while inhaling, but most blowpipes have a non-return valve that eliminates this need. In recent times, there are many instruments that assist in creating a clean air flow to the pipes and assist the collection of condensation. An innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th century, is the use of a bellows to supply air.
In these pipes, sometimes called "cauld wind pipes", air is not heated or moistened by the player's breathing, so bellows-driven bagpipes can use more refined or delicate reeds. Such pipes include the Irish uilleann pipes; the bag is an airtight reservoir that holds air and regulates its flow via arm pressure, allowing the player to maintain continuous sound. The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows. Materials used for bags vary but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs and cows. More bags made of synthetic materials including Gore-Tex have become much more common. A drawback of the synthetic bag is the potential for fungal spores to colonise the bag because of a reduction in necessary cleaning, with the associated danger of lung infection. An advantage of a synthetic bag is that it has a zip which allows the user to fit a more effective moisture trap to the inside of the bag. Bags cut from larger materials are saddle-stitched with an extra strip folded over the seam and stitched or glued to reduce leaks.
Holes are cut to accommodate the stocks. In the case of bags made from intact animal skins, the stocks are tied into the points where the limbs and the head joined the body of the whole animal, a construction technique common in Central Europe; the chanter is the melody pipe, played with two hands. All bagpipes have at least one chanter. A chanter can be bored internally so that the inside walls are parallel for its full length, or it can be bored in a conical shape; the chanter is open-ended, so there is no easy way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding. Thus most bagpipes share a legato sound where there are no rests in the music; because of this inability to stop playing, technical movements are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of articulation and accents. Because of their importance, these embellishments are highly technical systems specific to each bagpipe, take many years of study to master. A few bagpipes have closed ends or stop the end on the player's leg, so that when the player "closes" the chanter becomes silent.
A practice chanter is a chanter without bag or drones, allowing a player to practice the instrument and with no variables other than playing the chanter. The term chanter is derived from the Latin cantare, or "to sing", much like the modern French word chanteur; the note from the chanter is produced by a reed installed at its top. The reed may be a double reed. Double reeds are used with both conical- and parallel-bored chanters while single reeds are limited to parallel-bored chanters. In general, double-reed chanters are found in pipes of Western Europe while single-reed chanters appear in most other regions. Most bagpipes have at least one drone: a pipe, not fingered but rather produces a constant harmonizing note throughout play. Exceptions are those pipes which have a double-chanter instead. A drone is most a cylindrically-bored tube with a single reed, although drones with double reeds exist; the drone is designed in two or more parts with a sliding joint so that the pitch of the drone can be adjusted.
Depending on the type of pipes, the drones may lie over the shoulder, across the arm opposite the bag, or may run parallel to the chanter. Some drones have a tuning screw, which alters the length of the drone by opening a hole, allowing the drone to be tuned to two or more distinct pitches; the tuning screw may shut off the drone altogether. In most types of pipes, where there is one drone it is pitched two octaves below the tonic of the chanter. Additional drones add the octave below and a drone consonant with the fifth
A drummer is a percussionist who creates music using drums. Most contemporary western bands that play rock, jazz, or R&B music include a drummer for purposes including timekeeping and embellishing the musical timbre; the drummer's equipment includes a drum kit which includes various drums, cymbals and an assortment of accessory hardware such as pedals, standing support mechanisms, drum sticks. In other genres in the traditional music of many countries, drummers use individual drums of various sizes and designs rather than drum kits; some use only their hands to strike the drums. In larger ensembles, the drummer may be part of a rhythm section with other percussionists playing, for example, marimba or xylophone; these musicians provide the timing and rhythmic foundation which allow the players of melodic instruments, including voices, to coordinate their musical performance. Some famous drummers include: John Bonham, Ginger Baker, Keith Moon, Neil Peart, Buddy Rich, Gene Krupa, Tim "Herb" Alexander, Rashied Ali, Carl Allen, Steve White, Craig Blundell, Travis Barker, Tony Royster Jr. Rick Allen.
As well as the primary rhythmic function, in some musical styles, such as world, jazz and electronica, the drummer is called upon to provide solo and lead performances, at times when the main feature of the music is the rhythmic development. There are many tools that a drummer can use for either soloing; these include cymbals, toms, auxiliary percussion and many others. There are single and triple bass pedals for the bass drum. Before motorized transport became widespread, drummers played a key role in military conflicts. Military drummers provided drum cadences that set a steady marching pace and elevated troop morale on the battlefield. In some armies drums assisted in combat by keeping cadence for firing and loading drills with muzzle loading guns. Military drummers were employed on the parade field, when troops passed in review, in various ceremonies including ominous drum rolls accompanying disciplinary punishments. Children served as drummer boys well into the nineteenth century, though less than is popularly assumed.
In modern times, drummers are not employed in battle. Buglers and drummers mass under a sergeant-drummer and during marches alternately perform with the regiment or battalion ensembles. Military-based musical percussion traditions were not limited to the western world; when Emir Osman I was appointed commander of the Turkish army on the Byzantine border in the late 13th century, he was symbolically installed via a handover of musical instruments by the Seldjuk sultan. In the Ottoman Empire, the size of a military band reflected the rank of its commander in chief: the largest band was reserved for the Sultan, it included various percussion instruments adopted in European military music. The pitched bass drum is still known in some languages as the Turkish Drum. Military drumming is the origin of Traditional grip as opposed to Matched grip of drumsticks; the drumline is a type of marching ensemble descended from military drummers, can be arranged as a performance of a drum, a group of drummers, or as a part of a larger marching band.
Their uniforms will have a military style and a fancy hat. In recent times, it is more common to see drummers in parades wearing costumes with an African, Latin, Native American, or tribal look and sound. Various indigenous cultures use the drum to create a sense of unity with others during recreational events; the drum helps in prayers and meditations. List of drummers Drum beat Drum machine Drum tracks Kathleen. "Drum". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. P. 598
Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci
The Gurkha Contingent is a line department of the Singapore Police Force consisting of Gurkhas from Nepal. Members of the GC are trained to be skilled and are selected for their display of strong discipline and dedication in their tasks; the principal role of the contingent is to be a special guard force, it is used as a counter-terrorist force. The GC was formed on 9 April 1949 in the wake of Indian independence from the British Empire, when Gurkha regiments of the British Indian Army were divided between the Indian Army and the British Army as per the terms of the Britain–India–Nepal Tripartite Agreement; those transferred to the British Army were posted to other remaining British Colonies. In Malaya and Singapore, their presence was required in the Malayan Emergency, their roles were to replace the Sikh unit in Singapore which reverted to the Indian Army on Indian independence. Just a year after their formation, their presence became an asset when racial riots between the Malay and European communities broke out over the disputed custody of Maria Hertogh.
The GC troopers were again activated when major rioting erupted all over the country between the ethnic Malays and Chinese on Prophet Mohammed's birthday from 21 July 1964 till September that same year. At that time, their presence as a neutral force was important because local police officers were perceived to be biased towards their own ethnic groups when handling race-related issues, further fueling discontent and violence. Officers who attempt to carry out their duties impartially and in full accordance with the law faced social backlash from their own ethnic communities, a difficult situation which can lead to physical harm to individual officers. In his autobiography, former Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew recounted the use of the Gurkha Contingent as an impartial force at the time when Singapore had just gained independence, he wrote: When I returned to Oxley Road, Gurkha policemen were posted as sentries. To have either Chinese policemen shooting Malays or Malay policemen shooting Chinese would have caused widespread repercussions.
The Gurkhas, on the other hand, were neutral, besides having a reputation for total discipline and loyalty. Since its formation in 1949 with 142 men, the contingent has grown to over 2,000 in size in 2003. Young men are recruited in Nepal at the British Gurkha camp in Pokhara. About 320 are selected annually in December out of a pool of over 20,000 applications with about 80 joining the GC while the rest will go to the British Army; some of the basic physical admission criteria in the recruitment camp include: Aged 17 1/2 to 21 Minimum height of 160 centimetres Minimum weight of 50 kilograms Chest circumference of 79 centimetres with minimum 5 centimetres expansion No applicants needing eyesight aids will be accepted. Good oral hygiene, with up to two fillings, false teeth or a single gap. Applicants are expected to possess a minimum education level of SLC 3rd Division, equivalent to the GCE Ordinary Level. Upon registration, they have to go through a battery of physical and mental assessments prior to selection, including oral and written tests in the English language, a mathematics test, a board interview and medical examination.
The annual selection process, which takes 17 days but is spread over four months due to conditions in Nepal, will assign recruits to either the GC or the British Army. Upon successful selection, GC trainees are flown to Singapore, housed at the permanent base of the GC at Mount Vernon Camp where they will receive ten months of training before being deployed for duties; the training phase for GC officers is unknown, although they have been known to use the jungles in Pulau Tekong for training. Arrangements with the Royal Brunei Police Force have allowed Gurkha officers to conduct jungle training in Brunei for several years. Training from external agencies has been received including from the SAF Medical Training Institute for medical courses. There are a total of nine Gurkha Guard companies commanded by British officer; as a British colonial import, the first contingent commander was a British officer, until today, it remains the only military or police unit to be headed by a British officer in Singapore seconded from the British Army.
The current commander is Assistant Commissioner Ross Forman. The contingent has its own Gurkha Band Contingent, the Gurkha Contingent Pipes and Drums Platoon, part of the Singapore Police Force Band; the Gurkha Contingent Pipes and drums platoon is commanded by P&D OIC Inspector Prem Kumar Rai. In addition, the Gurkha Contingent has three tactical forces, in which they are called the Special Action Group, the Special Guard and Counter-Terrorist Unit and the new Special Tactical Unit; the Gurkha Special Action Group was first seen taking part in Exercise Northstar VII as they planned and infiltrated Marriott Hotel in Orchard Road and subdued two "terrorists" and rescuing the "hostages." The new Special Tactical Unit took part in Exercise Northstar 10 as they responded to the suicide bombing that "killed" the passengers nearby and the Gurkha, along with some members of People's Defence Force and the airport police officer, disabled the "gunmen" and rescued a "hostage" in Changi Airport Terminal 3.
The rank structure of the GC has remained unchanged over the years, thus retaining several ranks which have since been abolished in the rest of the police force. It is the only unit to retain the rank of Chief Inspector, to recruit new officers as Constables as opposed to regular officers in the rest of the SPF who start from a minimum rank of Serge
Singapore Police Force
The Singapore Police Force is the main government agency tasked with maintaining law and order in the island city-state. Known as the Republic of Singapore Police, it has grown from an 11-man organisation to a 38,587 strong force. Singapore has been ranked in the top five positions in the Global Competitiveness Report in terms of its reliability of police services; the organisational structure of the SPF is split between the staff and line functions modeled after the military. There are 17 staff departments, 3 specialist staff departments and 17 specialist and line units, including 7 land divisions; the headquarters is located in a block at New Phoenix Park in Novena, adjacent to a twin block occupied by the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Singapore Police Force is as old as modern Singapore; the Force was formed in 1820, with a skeleton force of 11 men under the command of Francis James Bernard, son-in-law of William Farquhar. With no background nor knowledge on policing, Bernard had to work from scratch, as well as turning to Farquhar for help.
In addition, he held multiple roles as magistrate, chief jailer, harbour master, marine storekeeper, as well as personal assistants to Farquhar. Farquhar informed Raffles that he had provisionally introduced licences for opium and alcohol sales that would raise $650 per month, with $300 of this sum being used to run a small police department; as the department took form, Bernard became in charge of a Malay writer, one jailor, one jemadar and eight peada by May 1820. Raffles approved these arrangements by August 1820, cemented the formal establishment of a police force in Singapore. Manpower constraints meant that the men had to perform a wide range of roles, required the help of headmen among the various ethnic communities to maintain orderliness on the streets, all the more possible as the communities lived in segregated areas around the city; this partnership with the community was in line with Sir Stamford Raffles' vision of a thriving colony self-regulated by local social structures, with the British masters administrating it via indirect rule.
The large influx of migrants from China, began to test this system when the hands-off approach by the British allowed secret societies in Singapore to thrive. Although formed with legal intentions of community bonding and the provision of assistance to fellow migrants, these societies became influential and engaged in illegal activity including monetary extortion from the masses, the operation of gambling dens, the smuggling of illegal goods on top of more legal commercial operations to meet their financial needs. Competition heated up between large rival factions, such as that between the larger Ghee Hin Kongsi, the Ghee Hock Kongsi and the Hai San Kongsi. Murders, mass riots, kidnappings and other serious crimes became commonplace in the next four decades since the colony's founding. Faced with violent acts of crime which may involve thousands, such as the Chinese Funeral Procession Riots of 1846 involving 9,000 members from the Ghee Hin and Ghee Hock secret societies, the police force was woefully incapable of bringing the situation under control, had to call in the army for assistance.
The escalating number of serious crimes prompted the need for stronger legislation to deter would-be criminals. Singapore's first executions were thus held in the wake of the first criminal session in June 1828, when a Chinese and Indian were found guilty and convicted for murder. Headed by Europeans and predominantly staffed by Malay and Indian officers, the force had little Chinese representation as the military and policing professionals were traditionally shunned by the Chinese community, which therefore impaired policing efforts among the large Chinese populace. In 1843, the force comprised a sitting magistrate doubling up as a superintendent, three European constables and an assistant native constable, 14 officers and 110 policemen. With a total strength of no more than 150 men, the police was compelled to avoid direct intervention in these mass acts of violence, else risking total annihilation. A repeat of this scenario occurred in 1851, when lingering displeasure against Roman Catholic ethnic Chinese erupted into major rioting leaving over 500 Chinese dead.
The army was called in again, although it involved having to induct Indian convicts into military service overnight. In 1854, twelve consecutive days of violence sparked by a dispute between the Hokkiens and Teochews disrupted trade; this particular incident led to the formation of the military's Singapore Rifle Corps on 8 July 1854, the earliest predecessor of the Singapore Armed Forces' People's Defence Force today. However, criminal violence was not in the domain of the ethnic Chinese. Rivalries between Malay princes and communities often result in acts of violence, which prompted the passing of Singapore's first arms law in March 1823 restricting the right to bear arms to 24 of the Malay Sultan's followers. Nearly two centuries these anti-arms laws continue to be enforced, resulting in a society free from firearms-related criminal offences. Murder rate in Singapore is low. Land divisions are given designations according to the NATO phonetic alphabet. Defunct land divisions include: Toa Payoh Police Division, merged with Tanglin Police Division Geylang Police Division, merged with Bedok Police Division The Singapore Police Force receives the highest budget allocation annually as compared to the various departments of the Ministry of Home Affa