Sunnmøre is the southernmost traditional district of the western Norwegian county of Møre og Romsdal. Its main city is Ålesund; the region comprises the municipalities of Giske, Herøy, Sande, Haram, Stranda, Sykkylven, Vanylven, Volda, Ørskog, Ørsta, Ålesund. Though it is one of the three traditional districts in Møre og Romsdal, Sunnmøre is home to more than half the population of the county—with 130,601 of the 247,313 residents; the district is made up of mainland as well as several large islands such as Gurskøy and Hareidlandet, plus many small islands. While Sunnmøre has no formal administration, many national organizations chose to have separate divisions for Sunnmøre. For example, the Football Association of Norway has a separate Regional Association for Sunnmøre, separate from Nordmøre and Romsdal; this is true for the national police. All municipalities in Sunnmøre have adopted Nynorsk as their form of the Norwegian language, with the exception of Ålesund municipality, which has declared itself to be "neutral", though all of the education in Ålesund is conducted using Bokmål.
There are many local newspapers throughout Sunnmøre, as well as one that aims to cover the entire region, published from Ålesund, called Sunnmørsposten. The major urban centres of Sunnmøre are: Ny-Sunnmøre Romsdal Nordmøre
Gursken Church is a parish church in Sande Municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. It is located in the village of Gursken on the island of Gurskøya; the church is part of the Gursken parish in the Søre Sunnmøre deanery in the Diocese of Møre. The white wooden church was built in 1919 by the architect Eduard Carlén; the church seats about 270 people. List of churches in Møre og Romsdal
Yr.no is a Norwegian website for weather forecasting and other meteorological information. The site is a joint responsibility of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute; the word yr has multiple meanings in Norwegian. The meteorological meaning is light drizzle, but it can mean giddy, joyful or wild; the website offers forecasts for more than 9 million places in the world. The Norwegian forecasts are supplemented with textual forecasts, weather radars, satellite images and a wide range of more specialised forecasts; the forecasts are based on data from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and several international meteorological organisations. The meteorological data on yr.no is available as web services, enabling users free access to high-quality weather data for use with applications, services or research. The free weather data service is popular, with around 30 million downloads a day; some mobile phones, like the Vibo T588, use yr.no for their weather service.
The online weather service is the 5th most visited weather service on the internet.yr.no was launched as a beta version on May 29, 2007, launched four months on September 19, 2007. It drew a large audience: 87% of the Norwegian population says they know yr.no and 28% uses it daily. Hans-Tore Bjerkaas is Editor in chief, Anton Eliassen is in charge of the meteorological data and Ingrid Støver Jensen is editor of yr.no. Official website in English About yr.no
Districts of Norway
The country Norway is divided into a number of districts. Many districts have deep historical roots, only coincide with today's administrative units of counties and municipalities; the districts are defined by geographical features valleys, mountain ranges, plains, or coastlines, or combinations of the above. Many such regions were petty kingdoms up to the early Viking age. A high percentage of Norwegians identify themselves more by the district they live in or come from, than the formal administrative unit whose jurisdiction they fall under. A significant reason for this is that the districts, through their strong geographical limits, have delineated the region within which one could travel without too much trouble or expenditure of time and money, thus and regional commonality in folk culture tended to correspond to those same geographical units, despite any division into administrative districts by authorities. In modern times the whole country has become more connected, based on the following: Communication technologies such as telegraph, telephone, radio and TV, in particular Televerket and NRK.
The construction of mountain crossings, tunnels through mountains, undersea tunnels. Establishing a coastal express route of combined passenger and cargo ships, like the Hurtigruten, sailing from Bergen to Kirkenes and back again, stopping by at a host of cities and towns along the western and northern coast; the construction of railroads between distant parts of the country. The opening of dozens of new airports all over the country through the 1960s and 1970s; the release of private cars from government rationing and import restrictions from the 1950s onwards. A concrete display of the Norwegian habit of identifying themselves by district can be seen in the many regional costumes, called bunad connected to distinct districts across the country. City dwellers proudly mark their rural origins by wearing such a costume, from their ancestral landscape, at weddings, visits with members of the royal family, Constitution Day, other ceremonial occasions; the following list is non-exhaustive and overlapping.
The first name is the name in the second Nynorsk. Helgeland Lofoten Ofoten Salten VesterålenSee Finnmark, Hålogaland and Troms. Agder Kristiansandregionen Lister Setesdal Fosen Gauldalen Innherad Namdalen Orkdalen Stjørdalen Dalane Hardanger Haugalandet Jæren Midhordland Nordfjord Nordhordland Nordmøre Romsdal Ryfylke Sogn Sunnfjord Sunnhordland Sunnmøre Voss Follo Glåmdalen Grenland Gudbrandsdalen Hadeland Hallingdal Hedmarken Land Numedal Ringerike Romerike Toten Upper Telemark Valdres Vestfold Østerdalen ØstfoldSee Viken and Vingulmark. Regions of Norway Counties of Norway Metropolitan regions of Norway Subdivisions of Norden Traditional districts of Denmark Districts of Norway in 1950 – From the documentation project at the University of Oslo Regionalization and devolution: Proposed new regions of Norway Map showing regions of Medieval Norway
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a treshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct treshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and were created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind. In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast.
Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts. This current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current there is a reverse current of saltier water from the coast.
In the deeper
Møre og Romsdal
Møre og Romsdal Urban East Norwegian: is a county in the northernmost part of Western Norway. It borders the counties of Trøndelag and Sogn og Fjordane; the county administration is located in the town of Molde. The county is governed by the Møre og Romsdal County Municipality which includes an elected county council and a county mayor; the national government is represented by the county governor. The name Møre og Romsdal was created in 1936; the first element refers to the districts of Nordmøre and Sunnmøre, the last element refers to Romsdal. Until 1919, the county was called "Romsdalens amt", from 1919-1935 "Møre fylke". For hundreds of years, the region was called Romsdalen amt, after the Romsdalen valley in the present-day Rauma Municipality; the Old Norse form of the name was Raumsdalr. The first element is the genitive case of a name Raumr derived from the name of the river Rauma, i.e. "The Dale of Rauma". Raumr may refer to booming or thundering waterfalls like Sletta waterfall; the name may refer to Raum the Old, one of the sons of Nór, the eponymous Saga King of Norway.
Since the majority of the residents of the county lived in the Sunnmøre region, there was some controversy over the name. In 1919, many of the old county names were changed and this county was renamed Møre fylke; the name Møre was chosen to represent the region. That name is dative of Old Norse: Mærr and it is derived from the word marr referring to something wet like bog or the sea itself; the name is interpreted as "coastland" or "bogland". Møre was the name of the coastal area from Stad and north including most of Fosen; the change in name from Romsdalen to Møre was controversial and it did not sit well with the residents of the Romsdal region. In 1936, the name was changed again to a compromise name: Møre og Romsdal; the ambiguous designation møring—"person from Møre"—is used about people from Nordmøre, excluding the people from Romsdal. The coat of arms was granted on 15 March 1978, it shows three gold-colored Viking ships on a blue background. Shipping and shipbuilding were very important to the region, so boats were chosen as the symbol on the arms.
The masts on the Viking ships form crosses, which symbolize the strong Christian and religious beliefs as well as the strong religious organisations in the county. There are three boats to represent the three districts of the county: Sunnmøre, Romsdal and Nordmøre. Traditionally, the county has been divided into three districts. From north to south, these are Nordmøre, Sunnmøre. Although the districts do not have separate governments and despite modern road and air connections throughout the county, the three districts still have their own identities in many ways. Speaking, connections have been stronger between Nordmøre and Sør-Trøndelag to the north and Oppland to the east, Sunnmøre and Sogn og Fjordane to the south, than internally. Differences in dialects between the three districts bear clear evidence of this. Due to geographical features, the county has many populated islands and is intersected by several deep fjords. Due to its difficult terrain, Møre og Romsdal has been dependent on boat traffic, its main car ferry company, MRF, has existed since 1921.
Møre og Romsdal has six settlements with town status. The largest three were towns long before 1993 when municipalities were given the legal authority to grant town status rather than just the King; this change in law led to an increase in the number of towns. The county contains many other urban settlements without town status, every municipality except for Halsa and Smøla contain at least one; as of 1 January 2018, there were 192,331 people living in densely populated areas in the county while only 73,946 people lived in sparsely populated areas. The population density is highest near the coast, with all of the county's towns located on saltwater; the largest town in the county is Ålesund, with a population of 52,626 in the agglomeration which it forms together with parts of Sula. Møre og Romsdal has a total of 35 municipalities since 1 January 2019. There have been many other municipalities since 1838 when municipalities were introduced in Norway, but those have merged with other municipalities over time.
Møre og Romsdal is served by nine airports, of which only the four airports located near the four largest centres have regular domestic flights. The largest airport in the county is Ålesund Airport, which offers the only scheduled international routes from any airport in Møre og Romsdal. Ålesund Airport had 732,614 passengers in 2006. Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget had 364,350 passengers in 2007, while Molde Airport, Årø had 401,292, down from 444,677 in 2006. Ørsta-Volda Airport, Hovden had 49,842 passengers in 2006. None of the airports in Møre og Romsdal offer regular flights to each other. In 2007, Møre og Romsdal had 6,339 kilometres of public roads, an increase of 5 kilometres since the previous year, as well as 4,258 kilometres of private roads, 7 kilometres more