Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Muktananda, born Krishna Rai, was the founder of Siddha Yoga. He was the successor of Bhagavan Nityananda, he wrote a number of books on the subjects of Kundalini Shakti and Kashmir Shaivism, including a spiritual autobiography entitled The Play of Consciousness. In honorific style, he is referred to as Swami Muktananda. Muktananda was born in 1908 near Mangalore in India, to a well-off family, his birth name was Krishna Rai. At age 15 he encountered a wandering avadhoot who profoundly changed his life. After this encounter, Krishna began his search for the experience of God, he studied under Siddharudha Swami at Hubli, where he learned Sanskrit, all branches of yoga, took the initiation of sannyasa in the Sarasvati order of the Dashanami Sampradaya, taking the name of Swami Muktananda. After Siddharudha's death, Muktananda left to study with a disciple of Siddharudha called Muppinarya Swami at his Sri Airani Holematt in Ranebennur Haveri District after studying there Swami Muktananda began wandering India on foot, studying with many different saints and gurus.
In 1947 Muktananda went to Ganeshpuri to receive the darshan of Bhagavan Nityananda, the saint who had inspired Muktananda's search for God. He received shaktipat initiation from him at 15 August of that year. Muktananda said that his spiritual journey didn't begin until he received shaktipat from the holy man Bhagavan Nityananda. According to his description, it was a sublime experience. Muktananda spent the next nine years meditating in a little hut in Yeola, he wrote in his autobiography. In 1956, Bhagawan Nityananda acknowledged the culmination of Muktananda's spiritual journey, gave him a small piece of land at Ganeshpuri, near Bombay, instructing Muktananda to create an ashram there; the same year he started teaching his "Siddha Yoga" path. Between 1970 and 1981, Muktananda went on three world tours, establishing Siddha Yoga ashrams and meditation centers in many countries. In 1975, he founded the Siddha Yoga Ashram in Oakland, in the California Bay area, in 1979 he established Shree Nityananda Ashram in the Catskills Mountains, northwest of New York City.
Muktananda established Gurudev Siddha Peeth as a public trust in India to administer the work there, founded the SYDA Foundation in the United States to administer the global work of Siddha Yoga meditation. He wrote many books. In May 1982, Muktananda appointed two successors as joint leaders of the Siddha Yoga path, Swami Chidvilasananda and her younger brother, Swami Nityananda who resigned and formed his own group. Muktananda died in October 1982 and is buried at Ganeshpuri, where the Gurudev Siddha Peeth ashram houses his samādhi shrine. In 1983, after Muktananda's death, William Rodarmor printed several accusations of physical and sexual abuse, in CoEvolution Quarterly, from anonymous female devotees that Muktananda had sex with them, he charged that Muktananda had engaged in other behaviour at odds with wider societal norms. These allegations were confirmed by other CoEvolution Quarterly journalists, while Lis Harris repeated and extended Rodarmor's allegations in an article in The New Yorker.
Lola Williamson notes that Muktananda "publicly stressed the value of celibacy for making progress on the spiritual path, but he certainly violated his own rules."Sarah Caldwell argued that Muktananda was both an enlightened spiritual teacher and a practitioner of Shakta Tantrism, but "engaged in actions that were not ethical, legal or liberatory with many disciples." Central to his teachings were to "See God in each other," and "Honor your Self. Worship your Self. Meditate on your Self. God dwells within you as you." Muktananda gave a shorter version of this teaching: "God dwells within you as you."According to Lola Williamson, Muktananda was known as a "shaktipat guru because kundalini awakening occurred so in his presence". Through Shaktipat Intensives participants were said to receive shaktipat initiation, the awakening of Kundalini Shakti, said to reside within a person, to deepen their practice of Siddha Yoga meditation. Shaktipat initiation had been reserved for the few who had done many years of spiritual service and practices.
There are several published accounts. Paul Zweig wrote one such account of receiving shaktipat from Muktananda. In Gurus of Modern Yoga, Andrea Jain, in her chapter on Muktananda, quotes an anonymous source, who describes his moment of shaktipat, when he was 19 years old, conferred by Muktananda with a wand of peacock feathers in 1975: I jumped when the peacock feathers but with a soft weightiness, hit me on my head, gently brushed my face as powerfully pressed one of his fingers into my forehead at a spot located just between my eyebrows I'm somewhat reluctant to write about what happened next because I know that whatever I say will diminish it, will make it sound as if it were just another "powerful experience." This was not an experience. This was THE event of my spiritual life; this was full awakening. This wasn't "knowing" anything, because you only know something, separate from you; this was being: the Ultimate - a fountain of Light, a dancing, ever-new source. Utter freedom, utter joy Completely fulfilled whole, no limits to my power and love and light."
Light on the Path, Siddha Yoga Publicatio
Dashanami Sanyasi is a Hindu monastic tradition of "single-staff renunciation" associated with the Advaita Vedanta tradition. The disciples of Adi Shankaracharya are called "Dash Nam Sanyasi" as the Title is further divided into ten groups viz. Giri, Bharati, Aranya, Aashram, Saraswati and Parwat. Dashnam Sanyasins are associated with the four Maths in four corners of India, established by Adi Shankaracharya. All the disciples were Sanyasins who embraced sanyas either after marriage or without getting married. Single-staff renunciates are distinct in their practices from Shaiva trishuldhari or "trident-wielding renunciates" and Vaishnava traditions of Tridandi sannyāsis. In the 8th century a section of the were organized by Adi Shankara into four maṭhas. However, the association of the Dasanāmis with the Shankara maṭhas remained nominal. Any Hindu, irrespective of class, age or gender can seek sannyāsa as an Ēkadaṇḍi renunciate in the Dasanāmi tradition. Ēkadandis were known during what is sometimes referred to as "Golden Age of Hinduism" See Gupta rule and Gupta and Pallava periodThe "Golden Age of Hinduism" flourished during the Gupta Empire until the fall of the Harsha.
During this period, power was centralized, along with a growth of long distance trade, standardization of legal procedures, a general spread of literacy. Mahayana Buddhism flourished, but orthodox Shrauta Hinduism was rejuvenated by the patronage of the Gupta dynasty; the position of the Brahmans was reinforced and the first Hindu temples emerged during the late Gupta age. The Mahābhārata, which reached its final form by the early Gupta period mentions "ēkadaṇḍi" and "tridaṇḍi"; the Ēkadaṇḍis existed in the Tamil country during the south-Indian Pandyan dynasty and the South-Indian Pallava dynasty. Being wandering monastics, they were not settled in the brahmadeyas or settlement areas for Brahmins. There existed tax free bhiksha-bogams for feeding the Ēkadaṇḍi ascetics in the ancient Tamil country.Ēkadaṇḍis and Tridandis were active in Eastern India, appear to have existed there during the North-Indian Gupta Empire. According to R. Tirumalai, "There appears to have been no sectarian segregation of the Shaiva and Srivaishnava".
At the beginning of what is referred to as "Late classical Hinduism", which lasted from 650 till 1100 CE, Shankara established the Dasanami Sampradaya. See Late-Classical Age and Hinduism Middle AgesAfter the end of the Gupta Empire and the collapse of the Harsha Empire, power became decentralized in India. Several larger kingdoms emerged, with "countless vassal states": in the east the Pala Empire, in the west and north the Gurjara-Pratihara, in the southwest the Rashtrakuta dynasty, in the Dekkhan the Chalukya dynasty, in the south the Pallava dynasty and the Chola dynasty; the kingdoms were ruled via a feudal system. Smaller kingdoms were dependent on the protection of the larger kingdoms. "The great king was remote, was exalted and deified", as reflected in the Tantric Mandala, which could depict the king as the centre of the mandala. The disintegration of central power lead to regionalization of religiosity, religious rivalry. Local cults and languages were enhanced, the influence of "Brahmanic ritualistic Hinduism" was diminished.
Rural and devotional movements arose, along with Shaivism, Vaisnavism and Tantra, though "sectarian groupings were only at the beginning of their development". Religious movements had to compete for recognition by the local lords. Buddhism lost its position, began to disappear in India. Shankara, himself considered to be an incarnation of Shiva, established the Dashanami Sampradaya, organizing a section of the Ēkadaṇḍi monastics under an umbrella grouping of ten names. Several other Hindu monastic and Ēkadaṇḍi traditions remained outside the organization of the Dasanāmis. Adi Shankara organized the Hindu monastics of these ten sects or names under four maṭhas or monasteries, with headquarters at Dvārakā in the west, Jagannatha Puri in the east, Sringeri in the south and Badrikashrama in the north; each maṭha was headed by one of his four main disciples. Monastics of these ten orders differ in part in their beliefs and practices, a section of them is not considered to be restricted to specific changes made by Shankara.
While the Dasanāmis associated with the Shankara maṭhas follow the procedures enumerated by Adi Śankara, some of these orders remained or independent in their belief and practices. The association of the Dasanāmis with the Smartha tradition or Advaita Vedānta is not all-embracing. One example is the Kriyā Yoga tradition that considers itself eclectic, with ancient unchangeable beliefs, outside the ambit of differences in the understanding of Vedanta. Other examples are the Tantric Avadhūta Sampradāyas and Ekadaṇḍi sannyāsa traditions outside the control of the Shankara maṭhas The Dasanāmis or Ēkadaṇḍis founded, continue to found or affiliate themselves with, maṭhas and temples outside the control of the Shankara maṭhas; the Advaita Sampradaya is not a Shaiva sect, despite the historical links with Shaivism: Advaitins are non-sectarian, they advocate worship of Siva and Visnu with that of the other deities of Hinduism, like Sakti and others. Cont
Eat, Pray, Love
Eat, Love: One Woman's Search for Everything Across Italy and Indonesia is a 2006 memoir by American author Elizabeth Gilbert. The memoir chronicles the author's trip around the world after her divorce and what she discovered during her travels; the book remained on The New York Times Best Seller list for 187 weeks. The movie rights for the memoir were purchased by Columbia Pictures; the film version, which stars Julia Roberts and Javier Bardem, was released in theaters on August 13, 2010. Gilbert followed up this book with Committed: A Skeptic Makes Peace with Marriage, released through Viking in January 2010, it covered her life after Eat, Love, plus an exploration of the concept of marriage. At 34 years old, Elizabeth Gilbert was educated, had a home, a husband, a successful career as a writer, she was, unhappy in her marriage and initiated a divorce. She embarked on a rebound relationship that did not work out, leaving her devastated and alone. After finalizing her difficult divorce, she spent the next year traveling the world.
She spent four months in Italy and enjoying life. She spent three months in India, she ended the year in Bali, looking for "balance" of the two and fell in love with a Brazilian businessman. Columbia Pictures purchased film rights for the memoir and has produced a film version under the same title, it was released on August 13, 2010. American actress Julia Roberts starred in the film; the film stars Javier Bardem, James Franco, Richard Jenkins and Billy Crudup. Brad Pitt and Dede Gardner of Plan B, Pitt's production company, produced the film. Jennifer Egan of The New York Times described Gilbert's prose as "fueled by a mix of intelligence and colloquial exuberance, close to irresistible", but said that the book "drags" in the middle, she was more interested in "the awkward, unresolved stuff she must have chosen to leave out", noting that Gilbert omits the "confusion and unfinished business of real life", that "we know how the story ends pretty much from the beginning."Oprah Winfrey enjoyed the book, devoted two episodes of The Oprah Winfrey Show to it.
Maureen Callahan of the New York Post criticized the book, calling it "narcissistic New Age reading", "the worst in Western fetishization of Eastern thought and culture, assured in its answers to existential dilemmas that have confounded intellects greater than hers." In addition, she was critical of Oprah's focus on the book, as well as Oprah's fans who enjoy the book, asking why her fans are "indulging in this silliness", why they aren't "clamoring for more weight when it comes to Oprah's female authors". Katie Roiphe of Slate agreed with Egan about the strength of Gilbert's writing. However, she described the journey as too fake: "too willed, too self-conscious", she stated that given the apparent artificiality of the journey, her "affection for Eat, Love is... furtive", but that "it is a transcendently great beach book." The Washington Post's Grace Lichtenstein stated that "The only thing wrong with this readable, funny memoir of a magazine writer's yearlong travels across the world in search of pleasure and balance is that it seems so much like a Jennifer Aniston movie."Lev Grossman of Time, praised the spiritual aspect of the book, stating that "To read about her struggles with a 182-verse Sanskrit chant, or her attempt to meditate while being feasted on by mosquitoes, is to come about as close as you can to enlightenment-by-proxy."
He did, agree with Roiphe that her writing seems to be "trying too hard to be liked. Lori Leibovich of Salon agreed with several other reviewers about the strength of Gilbert's story telling, she agreed with Egan as well that Gilbert seems to have an unlimited amount of luck, saying "her good fortune seems limitless", asking "Is it possible for one person to be this lucky?"Entertainment Weekly's Jessica Shaw said that "Despite a few cringe-worthy turns... Gilbert's journey is well worth taking." Don Lattin of the San Francisco Chronicle agreed with Egan that the story was weakest while she was in India, questioned the complete veracity of the book. Barbara Fisher of The Boston Globe praised Gilbert's writing, stating that "she describes with intense visual, palpable detail, she is the epic poet of ecstasy."In early 2010, the feminist magazine Bitch published a critical review and social commentary called "Eat, Spend". Authors Joshunda Sanders and Diana Barnes-Brown wrote that "Eat, Love is not the first book of its kind, but it is a perfect example of the genre of priv-lit: literature or media whose expressed goal is one of spiritual, existential, or philosophical enlightenment contingent upon women's hard work and patience, but whose actual barriers to entry are financial."
The genre, they argued, positions women as inherently and flawed, offers "no real solutions for the astronomically high tariffs—both financial and social—that exclude all but the most fortunate among us from participating." Andrew Gottlieb, an American comedy writer and producer, wrote a parody of Gilbert's Book, titled Drink, Fuck: One Man's Search for Anything Across Ireland and Thailand. Gottlieb, in a 2010 interview with The New Yorker, said, "I was mystified by the success of Eat, Love, I felt that the book, its Oprah-sanctioned ubiquity, needed to be made fun of." Official website
The guru–shishya tradition, or parampara, denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Vedic culture and religions such as Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. Each parampara belongs to a specific sampradaya, may have own akharas and gurukulas, it is the tradition of spiritual relationship and mentoring where teachings are transmitted from a guru "teacher" to a śiṣya "disciple" or chela. Such knowledge, whether it be Vedic, architectural, musical or spiritual, is imparted through the developing relationship between the guru and the disciple, it is considered that this relationship, based on the genuineness of the guru, the respect, not based on age or how old one looks, commitment and obedience of the student, is the best way for subtle or advanced knowledge to be conveyed. The student masters the knowledge that the guru embodies. Guru–shishya means "succession from guru to disciple". Paramparā means an uninterrupted row or series, succession, mediation, tradition. In the traditional residential form of education, the shishya remains with his or her guru as a family member and gets the education as a true learner.
In the early oral traditions of the Upanishads, the guru–shishya relationship had evolved into a fundamental component of Hinduism. The term "Upanishad" derives from the Sanskrit words "upa", "ni" and "şad" — so it means "sitting down near" a spiritual teacher to receive instruction; the relationship between Krishna and Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita portion of the Mahabharata, between Rama and Hanuman in the Ramayana, are examples. In the Upanishads and disciples appear in a variety of settings. Sometimes the sages are women, the instructions may be sought by kings. In the Vedas, the knowledge of Brahman is communicated from guru to shishya by oral lore. Within the broad spectrum of the Hindu religion, the guru–shishya relationship can be found in numerous variant forms including tantra; some common elements in this relationship include: The establishment of a teacher/student relationship. A formal recognition of this relationship in a structured initiation ceremony where the guru accepts the initiate as a shishya and accepts responsibility for the spiritual well-being and progress of the new shishya.
Sometimes this initiation process will include the conveying of specific esoteric wisdom and/or meditation techniques. Gurudakshina, where the shishya gives a gift to the guru as a token of gratitude the only monetary or otherwise fee that the student gives; such tokens can be as simple as a piece of fruit or as serious as a thumb, as in the case of Ekalavya and his guru Dronacharya. In some traditions there is never more than one active master at the same time in the same guruparamaparya. In paramapara, not only is the immediate guru revered, the three preceding gurus are worshipped or revered; these are known variously as the kala-guru or as the "four gurus" and are designated as follows: Guru – the immediate guru Parama-guru – the guru of the Parampara or specific tradition Parātpara-guru – the guru, the source of knowledge for many traditions Parameṣṭhi-guru – the highest guru, who has the power to bestow mokṣa Traditionally the word used for a succession of teachers and disciples in ancient Indian culture is parampara.
In the parampara system, knowledge is believed to be passed down through successive generations. The Sanskrit word figuratively means "an uninterrupted series or succession". Sometimes defined as "the passing down of Vedic knowledge", it is believed to be always entrusted to the ācāryas. An established parampara is called sampradāya, or school of thought. For example, in Vaishnavism a number of sampradayas are developed following a single teacher, or an acharya. While some argue for freedom of interpretation others maintain that "Although an ācārya speaks according to the time and circumstance in which he appears, he upholds the original conclusion, or siddhānta, of the Vedic literature."Akhara is a place of practice with facilities for boarding and training, both in the context of Indian martial artists or a Sampradaya monastery for religious renunciates. For example, in the context of the Dashanami Sampradaya sect, the word denotes both martial arts and religious monastic aspects of the trident wielding martial regiment of renunciate sadhus.
There is a variation in the level of authority. The highest is that found in bhakti yoga, the lowest is in the pranayama forms of yoga such as the Sankara Saranam movement. Between these two there are many variations in form of authority. Advaita Vedānta requires anyone seeking to study Advaita Vedānta to do so from a guru; the guru must have the following qualities: Śrotriya — must be learned in the Vedic scriptures and sampradaya Brahmanişţha — figuratively meaning "established in Brahman". The seeker must serve the guru and submit his questions with all humility so that doubt may be removed.. According to Advaita, the seeker will be able to attain liberation from the cycle of births and deaths; the guru–shishya tradition plays an important part in the Shruti tradition of Vaidika dharma. The Hindus believe that the V
Traditionally, an ashram-Hindi is a spiritual hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions. The term ashram comes from the Sanskrit root śram-. According to S. S. Chandra, the term means "a step in the journey of life". In contrast, according to George Weckman, the term ashram connotes a place where one strives towards a goal in a disciplined manner; such a goal could be ascetic, yogic or any other. An ashram would traditionally, but not in contemporary times, be located far from human habitation, in forests or mountainous regions, amidst refreshing natural surroundings conducive to spiritual instruction and meditation; the residents of an ashram performed spiritual and physical exercises, such as the various forms of yoga. Other sacrifices and penances, such as yajnas were performed. Many ashrams served as gurukulas, residential schools for children under the guru-shishya tradition. Sometimes, the goal of a pilgrimage to the ashram was not tranquility, but instruction in some art warfare. In the Ramayana, the princes of ancient Ayodhya and Lakshmana, go to Vishvamitra's ashram to protect his yajnas from being defiled by emissary-demons of Ravana.
After they prove their mettle, the princes receive martial instruction from the sage in the use of divine weapons. In the Mahabharata, Krishna, in his youth, goes to the ashram of Sandipani to gain knowledge of both intellectual and spiritual matters. Boarding schools in the tribal areas of Maharashtra and elsewhere in India, are called ashram shala or ashram schools. One such school is the Lok Biradari Prakalp Ashram Shala. A number of ashrams have been established outside India; these ashrams are connected to Indian lineages, focus on imparting Yoga-related teachings, are headed by spiritual teachers
Sannyasa is the life stage of renunciation within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages known as ashramas, with the first three being Brahmacharya and Vanaprastha. Sannyasa is traditionally conceptualized for men or women in late years of their life, but young brahmacharis have had the choice to skip the householder and retirement stages, renounce worldly and materialistic pursuits and dedicate their lives to spiritual pursuits. Sannyasa is a form of asceticism, is marked by renunciation of material desires and prejudices, represented by a state of disinterest and detachment from material life, has the purpose of spending one's life in peaceful, love-inspired, simple spiritual life. An individual in Sanyasa is known as a Sannyasi or Sannyasini in Hinduism, which in many ways parallel to the Sadhu and Sadhvi traditions of Jain monasticism, the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis of Buddhism and the monk and nun traditions of Christianity. Sannyasa has been a stage of renunciation, ahimsa peaceful and simple life and spiritual pursuit in Indian traditions.
However, this has not always been the case. After the invasions and establishment of Muslim rule in India, from the 12th century through the British Raj, parts of the Shaiva and Vaishnava ascetics metamorphosed into a military order, to rebel against persecution, where they developed martial arts, created military strategies, engaged in guerrilla warfare; these warrior sanyasis played an important role in helping European colonial powers establish themselves in the Indian subcontinent. Saṃnyāsa in Sanskrit nyasa means purification, sannyasa means "Purification of Everything", it is a composite word of saṃ- which means "together, all", ni- which means "down" and āsa from the root as, meaning "to throw" or "to put". A literal translation of Sannyāsa is thus "to put down everything, all of it". Sannyasa is sometimes spelled as Sanyasa; the term Saṃnyasa makes appearance in the Samhitas and Brahmanas, the earliest layers of Vedic literature, but it is rare. It is not found in ancient Buddhist or Jaina vocabularies, only appears in Brahmanical literature of the 1st millennium BCE, in the context of those who have given up ritual activity and taken up non-ritualistic spiritual pursuits discussed in the Upanishads.
The term Sannyasa evolves into a rite of renunciation in ancient Sutra texts, thereafter became a recognized, well discussed stage of life by about the 3rd and 4th century CE. In Dravidian languages, "sannyasi" is pronounced as "sanyasi" and "sannasi" in colloquial form. Sanyasis are known as Bhiksu, Pravrajita/Pravrajitā, Yati and Parivrajaka in Hindu texts. Jamison and Witzel state early Vedic texts make no mention of Sannyasa, or Ashrama system, unlike the concepts of Brahmacharin and Grihastha which they do mention. Instead, Rig Veda uses the term Antigriha in hymn 10.95.4, still part of extended family, where older people lived in ancient India, with an outwardly role. It is in Vedic era and over time and other new concepts emerged, while older ideas evolved and expanded. A three-stage Ashrama concept along with Vanaprastha emerged about or after 7th Century BC, when sages such as Yājñavalkya left their homes and roamed around as spiritual recluses and pursued their Pravrajika lifestyle.
The explicit use of the four stage Ashrama concept, appeared a few centuries later. However, early Vedic literature from 2nd millennium BC, mentions Muni, with characteristics that mirror those found in Sannyasins and Sannyasinis. Rig Veda, for example, in Book 10 Chapter 136, mentions munis as those with Kesin and Mala clothes engaged in the affairs of Mananat. Rigveda, refers to these people as Muni and Vati. केश्यग्निं केशी विषं केशी बिभर्ति रोदसी । केशी विश्वं स्वर्दृशे केशीदं ज्योतिरुच्यते ॥१॥ मुनयो वातरशनाः पिशङ्गा वसते मला । वातस्यानु ध्राजिं यन्ति यद्देवासो अविक्षत ॥२॥ He with the long loose locks supports Agni, moisture and earth. The Munis, girdled with the wind, wear garments of soil hue; these Munis, their lifestyle and spiritual pursuit influenced the Sannyasa concept, as well as the ideas behind the ancient concept of Brahmacharya. One class of Munis were associated with Rudra. Another were Vratyas. Hinduism has no formal demands nor requirements on the lifestyle or spiritual discipline, method or deity a Sanyasin or Sanyasini must pursue – it is left to the choice and preferences of the individual.
This freedom has led to diversity and significant differences in the lifestyle and goals of those who adopt Sannyasa. There are, some common themes. A person in Sannyasa lives a simple life detached, drifting from place to place, with no material possessions or emotional attachments, they may have a walking stick, a book, a container or vessel for food and drink wearing yellow, orange, ochre or soil colored clothes. They may have long hair and appear disheveled, are vegetarians; some minor Upanishads as well as monastic orders consider women, students, fallen men and others as not qualified to become Sannyasa. The dress, the equipage and lifestyle varies between groups. For example, Sannyasa Upanishad in verses 2.23 to 2.29, identifies six lifestyles for six types of renunciates. One of them is descri