Ivan Yakovych Franko was a Ukrainian poet, writer and literary critic, interpreter, political activist, doctor of philosophy and the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language. He was a political radical, a founder of the socialist and nationalist movement in western Ukraine. In addition to his own literary work, he translated the works of such renowned figures as William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Dante Alighieri, Victor Hugo, Adam Mickiewicz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller into Ukrainian, his translations appeared on the stage of the Ruska Besida Theatre. Along with Taras Shevchenko, he has had a tremendous impact on modern literary and political thought in Ukraine. Franko was born in the Ukrainian village of Nahuievychi located in the Austrian kronland of Galicia, today part of Drohobych Raion, Lviv Oblast, Ukraine; as a child he was baptized as Ivan by Father Yosyp Levytsky known as a poet and the author of the first Galician-Ruthenian Hramatyka and, exiled to Nahuyevychi for a "sharp tongue".
At home, Ivan was called Myron because of a local superstitious belief that naming a person by different name will dodge a death. Franko's family in Nahuyevychi was considered "well-to-do", with their own servants and 24 hectares of their own property. Franko senior was to be a Ukrainianized German colonist, or at least Ivan Franko himself believed; that statement is supported by Timothy Snyder who describes Yakiv Franko as a village blacksmith of German descent. Snyder however stated that Ivan Franko's mother was of Polish petty noble origin, while more detailed sources state that she came from an impoverished Ukrainian noble background, from the well-known Ukrainian noble family Kulchytsky and was remotely related to Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny. According to Yaroslav Hrytsak, Ivan Franko was of mixed German and Ukrainian ancestry. Ivan Franko attended school in the village Yasenytsia Sylna from 1862 until 1864, from there attended the Basilian monastic school in Drohobych until 1867, his father died before Ivan was able to graduate from the gymnasium, but his stepfather supported Ivan in continuing his education.
Soon, Franko found himself without parents after his mother died as well and the young Ivan stayed with unrelated people. In 1875, he graduated from the Drohobych Realschule, continued on to Lviv University, where he studied classical philosophy, Ukrainian language and literature, it was at this university that Franko began his literary career, with various works of poetry and his novel Petriï i Dovbushchuky published by the students' magazine Druh, whose editorial board he would join. A meeting with Mykhailo Drahomanov at Lviv University made a huge impression on Ivan Franko, it developed into a long political and literary association. Franko's own socialist writings and his association with Drahomanov led to his arrest in 1877, along with Mykhailo Pavlyk and Ostap Terletsky, among others, they were accused of belonging to a secret socialist organization. However, the nine months in prison did not discourage his political writing or activities. In prison Franko wrote the satire Smorhonska Akademiya.
After release, he studied the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, contributed articles to the Polish newspaper Praca and helped organize workers' groups in Lviv. In 1878 Franko and Pavlyk founded the magazine Hromads'kyi Druh. Only two issues were published. Franko published a series of books called Dribna Biblioteka from 1878 until his second arrest for arousing the peasants to civil disobedience in 1880. After three months in the Kolomyia prison, the writer returned to Lviv, his impressions of this exile are reflected in his novel Na Dni. Upon his release Franko was kept under police surveillance. At odds with the administration, Franko was expelled from Lviv University, an institution that would be renamed Ivan Franko National University of Lviv after the writer's death. Franko was an active contributor to the journal Svit in 1881, he wrote more than half excluding the unsigned editorials. That year, Franko moved to his native Nahuievychi, where he wrote the novel Zakhar Berkut, translated Goethe's Faust and Heine's poem Deutschland: ein Wintermärchen into Ukrainian.
He wrote a series of articles on Taras Shevchenko, reviewed the collection Khutorna Poeziya by Panteleimon Kulish. Franko worked for the journal Zorya, became a member of the editing board of the newspaper Dilo a year later, he married Olha Khoruzhynska from Kiev in May 1886, to whom he dedicated the collection Z vershyn i nyzyn, a book of poetry and verse. The couple for some time lived in Vienna, where Ivano Franko met with such people as Theodor Herzl and Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, his wife was to suffer from a debilitating mental illness due to the death of the first-born son, one of the reasons that Franko would not leave Lviv for treatment in Kiev in 1916, shortly before his death. In 1888, Franko was a contributor to the journal Pravda, along with his association with compatriots from Dnieper Ukraine, led to a third arrest in 1889. After this two-month prison term, he co-founded the Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party with Mykhailo Drahomanov and Mykhailo Pavlyk. Fran
The Greek word aoidos referred to a classical Greek singer. In modern Homeric scholarship aoidos is used by some as the technical term for a skilled oral epic poet in the tradition to which the Iliad and Odyssey are believed to belong. In classical Greek the word aoidos, "singer", is an agent noun derived from the verb aeidein or adein, "to sing", it occurs several times in varying forms in the Iliad and Odyssey in relation to poetry: Iliad 18.490–496: a wedding song, with pipes and dancing Odyssey 23.133–135: a wedding song with dancing, led by the singer Phemius: there is no wedding but Odysseus wants to create the impression of festivity while he is killing the suitors Iliad 18.567–572: a child sings and plays the lyre to accompany the vintage. The song is the linos Iliad 18.593–606: young men and women take part in a singing-dance, molpe Odyssey 8.250–385: young men and women take part in a molpe. In the world described in these poems writing is unknown. In the fifth and fourth centuries, the performance of epic poetry was called rhapsodia, its performer rhapsodos, but the word does not occur in the early epics or in contemporary lyric poetry, so it is unknown whether Hesiod and the poet of the Iliad and Odyssey would have considered themselves rhapsodes.
It is not known to what extent the makers of oral epic poetry were specialists. Phemius and Demodocus, in the Odyssey, are depicted performing non-epic as well as epic songs. There was, however a profession of aoidos. Eumaeus, a character in the Odyssey, says that singers, healers and craftsmen are to be welcomed as guests, while beggars are not. Hesiod describes how the Muses visited him while he tended his sheep on Mount Helicon and granted him this inspiration, permitting him to sing of the future as well as the past. An anecdote in the Iliad about Thamyris shows; as in certain other cultures, blind men sometimes became singers: Demodocus in the Odyssey is blind, the legendary creator of the Iliad and Odyssey, was said to have been blind. The audience for performances by aoidoi varied depending on circumstances. Women participated in, sometimes led, according to the Iliad. Many of the poems of Sappho seem to assume an audience of women. For narrative poetry it is sometimes said that the audience was male.
It has been shown from comparative study of orality that the Iliad and Odyssey come from a tradition of oral epics. In oral narrative traditions there is no exact transmission of texts; these poets were bearers of the early Greek oral epic tradition. Whenever the writing took place, any contemporary poets and writers who may have known of it did not notice the event or name the poet. According to classical Greek sources, Homer lived. Aulos Citharede Rhapsode Ban'kowski, Lev, ed.... And a star speaks to a star, Perm: Perm book publisher, p. 1 Burkert, Walter, "The making of Homer in the 6th century BC: rhapsodes versus Stesichorus", Papers on the Amasis painter and his world, Malibu: Getty Museum, pp. 43–62 Dalby, Rediscovering Homer, New York, London: Norton, ISBN 978-0-393-05788-1 Graziosi, Inventing Homer: the early reception of epic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Latacz, Joachim and Homer: towards a solution of an old mystery, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-926308-0 Le
A crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly a synonym for all of Corvus. The term "crow" is used as part of the common name of many species. Species with the word "crow" in their common name include: Corvus albus – pied crow Corvus bennetti – little crow Corvus brachyrhynchos – American crow Corvus capensis – Cape crow or Cape rook Corvus caurinus – northwestern crow Corvus cornix – hooded crow Corvus corone – carrion crow Corvus edithae – Somali crow Corvus enca – slender-billed crow Corvus florensis – Flores crow Corvus fuscicapillus – brown-headed crow Corvus hawaiiensis – Hawaiian crow Corvus imparatus – Tamaulipas crow Corvus insularis – Bismarck crow Corvus jamaicensis – Jamaican crow Corvus kubaryi – Mariana crow or aga Corvus leucognaphalus – white-necked crow Corvus macrorhynchos – jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos macrorhynchos – large-billed crow Corvus macrorhynchos levaillantii – eastern jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos culminatus – Indian jungle crow Corvus meeki – Bougainville crow or Solomon Islands crow Corvus moneduloides – New Caledonian crow Corvus nasicus – Cuban crow Corvus orru – Torresian crow or Australian crow Corvus ossifragus – fish crow Corvus palmarum – palm crow Corvus ruficolis edithae – Somali crow or dwarf raven Corvus sinaloae – Sinaloan crow Corvus splendens – house crow or Indian house crow Corvus torquatus – collared crow Corvus tristis – grey crow or Bare-faced crow Corvus typicus – piping crow or Celebes pied crow Corvus unicolor – Banggai crow Corvus validus – long-billed crow Corvus violaceus – violet crow – recent split from slender-billed crow Corvus woodfordi – white-billed crow or Solomon Islands crow Raven – Corvus species with the word "raven" in their common names Rook Jackdaw Eating crow Scarecrow Magpie
Ruthenia is an exonym used in Medieval Latin as one of several designations for East Slavic regions, most as a designation for the lands of Rus'. During the early modern period, the term acquired several specific meanings; the word Ruthenia originated as a Latin rendering of the region and people known as the Rus'. During the Middle Ages, the term was applied to lands inhabited by Eastern Slavs. Russia itself was called White Ruthenia until the end of the 17th century, it is mentioned in the 1520 Latin treatise Mores, leges et ritus omnium gentium, per Ioannem Boëmum, Teutonicum ex multis clarissimis rerum scriptoribus collecti by Johann Boemus. In the chapter De Rusia sive Ruthenia, et recentibus Rusianorum moribus, Boemus tells of a country extending from the Baltic Sea to the Caspian Sea and from the Don River to the northern ocean, it is a source of beeswax, its forests harbor many animals with valuable fur, the capital city Moscow, named after the Moskva River, is 14 miles in circumference.
Danish diplomat Jacob Ulfeldt, who traveled to Russia in 1578 to meet with Tsar Ivan IV, titled his posthumously published memoir Hodoeporicon Ruthenicum. In European manuscripts dating from the 11th century, Ruthenia was used to describe Rus', the wider area occupied by the ancient Rus'; this term was used to refer to the Slavs of the island of Rügen or other Baltic Slavs, whom in the 12th century were portrayed by chroniclers as fierce pirate pagans though Kievan Rus' had long since converted to Christianity: Eupraxia, the daughter of Rutenorum regis Vsevolod, had married Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV in 1089. After the devastating Mongolian occupation of the main part of Ruthenia, western Ruthenian principalities were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish Kingdom into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. A small part of Rus', was subordinated to the Kingdom of Hungary in the 11th century. By the 15th century the Moscow principality had established its sovereignty over a large portion of ancient Ruthenian territory, including Novgorod and Pskov, began to fight with Lithuania over the remaining Ruthenian lands.
In 1547, the Moscow principality adopted the title of The Great Principat of Moscow and Tsardom of the Whole Rus and claimed sovereignty over "all the Rus'" — acts not recognized by its neighbour Poland. The Muscovy population was Eastern Orthodox and preferred to use the Greek transliteration Rossia rather than the Latin "Ruthenia." In the 14th century the southern territories of ancient Rus', including the principalities of Galicia–Volhynia and Kiev, became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which in 1384 united with Catholic Poland to form the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Due to their usage of the Latin script rather than the Cyrillic script, they were denoted by the Latin Ruthenia. Other spellings were used in Latin and other languages during this period. Contemporaneously, the Ruthenian Voivodeship was established in the territory of Galicia-Volhynia and existed until the 18th century; these southern territories have corresponding names in Polish: Ruś Halicko-Wołyńska or Księstwo halicko-wołyńskie — Galicia–Volhynia or Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Ruś Halicka — Galicia Ruś Biała — White Ruthenia, White Russia or Belarus Ruś Czarna — Black Ruthenia, part of modern Belarus Ruś Czerwona — Red Ruthenia, western Ukraine and southeast Poland Ruś Podkarpacka — Carpathian RutheniaThe Russian Tsardom was called Velikoye Kn'yazhestvo Moskovskoye, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, until 1547, although Ivan III was been named "Great Tsar of All Russia."
The use of the term Rus/Russia in the lands of ancient Rus' survived longer as a name used by Ukrainians for Ukraine. When the Austrian monarchy made vassal state Galicia–Lodomeria a province in 1772, Habsburg officials realized that the local East Slavic people were distinct from both Poles and Russians and still called themselves Rus; this was true until the empire fell in 1918. In the 1880s through the first decade of the 20th century, the popularity of the ethnonym Ukrainian spread, the term Ukraine became a substitute for Malaya Rus' among the Ukrainian population of the empire. In the course of time, the term Rus′ became restricted to western parts of present-day Ukraine, an area where Ukrainian nationalism, ardently supported by Austro-Hungarian authorities, competed with Galician Russophilia. By the early 20th century, the term Ukraine had replaced Malorussia in those lands, by the mid-1920s in the Ukrainian diaspora in North America as well. Rusyn has been an official self-identification of the Rus' population in Poland.
Until 1939, for many Ruthenians and Poles, the word Ukrainiec meant a person involved in or friendly to a nationalist movement. The Russians, the most numerous cultural descendants of the ancient Rus', retain the name for their ethnicity, while the name of their state, Rus', was replaced by its Greek transliteration Rossia; the Russian population dominates the former territory of Muscovy, Vladimir Rus', the Grand Principality of Smolensk, the Novgorod Republic, the Pskov Republic. After 1918, the name Ruthenia became narrowed to the area south of the Carpathi
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries a name of the Roman god of war, is referred to as the "Red Planet" because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance, distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys and polar ice caps of Earth; the days and seasons are comparable to those of Earth, because the rotational period as well as the tilt of the rotational axis relative to the ecliptic plane are similar. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System; the smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped.
These may be captured asteroids, similar to a Mars trojan. There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, less than 1% of the Earth's, except at the lowest elevations for short periods; the two polar ice caps appear to be made of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters. In November 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars; the volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior. Mars can be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring, its apparent magnitude reaches −2.94, surpassed only by Jupiter, the Moon, the Sun.
Optical ground-based telescopes are limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth's atmosphere. Mars is half the diameter of Earth with a surface area only less than the total area of Earth's dry land. Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earth's volume and 11% of Earth's mass, resulting in about 38% of Earth's surface gravity; the red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by rust. It can look like butterscotch. Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a dense metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Current models of its interior imply a core with a radius of about 1,794 ± 65 kilometers, consisting of iron and nickel with about 16–17% sulfur; this iron sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements as Earth's. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but it appears to be dormant. Besides silicon and oxygen, the most abundant elements in the Martian crust are iron, aluminum and potassium.
The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 km, with a maximum thickness of 125 km. Earth's crust averages 40 km. Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen and other elements that make up rock; the surface of Mars is composed of tholeiitic basalt, although parts are more silica-rich than typical basalt and may be similar to andesitic rocks on Earth or silica glass. Regions of low albedo suggest concentrations of plagioclase feldspar, with northern low albedo regions displaying higher than normal concentrations of sheet silicates and high-silicon glass. Parts of the southern highlands include detectable amounts of high-calcium pyroxenes. Localized concentrations of hematite and olivine have been found. Much of the surface is covered by finely grained iron oxide dust. Although Mars has no evidence of a structured global magnetic field, observations show that parts of the planet's crust have been magnetized, suggesting that alternating polarity reversals of its dipole field have occurred in the past.
This paleomagnetism of magnetically susceptible minerals is similar to the alternating bands found on Earth's ocean floors. One theory, published in 1999 and re-examined in October 2005, is that these bands suggest plate tectonic activity on Mars four billion years ago, before the planetary dynamo ceased to function and the planet's magnetic field faded, it is thought that, during the Solar System's formation, Mars was created as the result of a stochastic process of run-away accretion of material from the protoplanetary disk that orbited the Sun. Mars has many distinctive chemical features caused by its position in the Solar System. Elements with comparatively low boiling points, such as chlorine and sulphur, are much more common on Mars than Earth. After the formation of the planets, all were subjected to the so-called "Late Heavy Bombardment". About 60% of the surface of Mars shows a record of impacts from that era, whereas much of the remaining surface is underlain by immense impact basins caused by those events.
There is evidence of an enormous impact basin in the northern hemisphere of Mars, spanning 10,600 by 8,500 km, or four times the size of the Moon's South Pole – Aitk
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is translated into English as prince, duke or count, depending on specific historical context and the known Latin equivalents of the title for each bearer of the name. In Latin sources the title is translated as comes or princeps, but the word was derived from the Proto-Germanic *kuningaz; the female form transliterated from Bulgarian and Russian is knyaginya, kneginja in Slovene and Serbo-Croatian. In Russian, the daughter of a knyaz is knyazhna. In Russian, the son of a knyaz is knyazhich; the title is pronounced and written in different European languages. In Serbo-Croatian and West Slavic languages, such as Polish, the word has come to denote "lord", in Czech and Slovak came to mean "priest" as well as "duke". In Sorbian it means "Mister". Today the term knez is still used as the most common translation of "prince" in Bosnian and Serbian literature.
Knez is found as a surname in former Yugoslavia. The etymology is a cognate of the English king, the German König, the Swedish konung; the proto-Slavic form was кънѧѕь, kŭnędzĭ. The meaning of the term changed over the course of history; the term was used to denote the chieftain of a Slavic tribe. With the development of feudal statehood, it became the title of a ruler of a state, among East Slavs, for example, of Kievan Rus'. In medieval Latin sources the title was rendered as either dux. In Bulgaria, Boris I of Bulgaria changed his title to knyaz after his conversion to Christianity, but his son Simeon took the higher title of tsar son in 913. In Kievan Rus', as the degree of centralization grew, the ruler acquired the title Velikii Knyaz, he ruled a Velyke Knyazivstvo, while a ruler of its vassal constituent was called udelny knyaz or knyaz. When Kievan Rus' became fragmented in the 13th century, the title Kniaz continued to be used in East Slavic states, including Kiev, Novgorod, Vladimir-Suzdal', Tver, Halych-Volynia, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
As noted above, the title knyaz or kniaz became a hereditary noble title in the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Following the union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, kniaź became a recognised title in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. By the 1630s - apart from the title pan, which indicated membership of the large szlachta noble class - kniaź was the only hereditary title, recognised and used in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Notable holders of the title kniaź include Jeremi Wiśniowiecki; as the Tsardom of Russia gained dominion over much of former Kievan Rus', Velikii Kniaz Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was crowned as Tsar. From the mid-18th century onwards, the title Velikii Kniaz was revived to refer to sons and grandsons of Russian Emperors. See titles for Tsar's family for details. Kniaz continued as a hereditary title of Russian nobility patrilineally descended from Rurik or Gediminas. Members of Rurikid or Gedyminid families were called princes when they ruled tiny quasi-sovereign medieval principalities.
After their demesnes were absorbed by Muscovy, they settled at the Moscow court and were authorised to continue with their princely titles. From the 18th century onwards, the title was granted by the Tsar, for the first time by Peter the Great to his associate Alexander Menshikov, by Catherine the Great to her lover Grigory Potemkin. After 1801, with the incorporation of Georgia into the Russian Empire, various titles of numerous local nobles were controversially rendered in Russian as "kniazes". Many petty Tatar nobles asserted their right to style themselves "kniazes" because they descended from Genghis Khan. See "Velikiy Knyaz" article for more details. Within the Russian Empire of 1809-1917, Finland was called Grand Principality of Finland. In the 19th century, the Serbian term knez and the Bulgarian term knyaz were revived to denote semi-independent rulers of those countries, such as Alexander Karađorđević and Alexander of Battenberg. In parts of Serbia and western Bulgaria, knez was the informal title of the elder or mayor of a village or zadruga until around the 19th century.
Those are called градоначелник and градоначалник or кмет. Prior to Battenberg, the title knyaz was born by Simeon I during the First Bulgarian Empire. At the height of his power, Simeon adopted the title of tsar, as did the Bulgarian rulers after the country became independent