The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
Baron Didrik Anders Gillis Bildt was a Swedish parliamentarian, military officer and prime minister 1888–1889. Gillis Bildt was born in Gothenburg in 1820, son of Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel Fredrik Bildt and Christina Elisabeth Fröding, his father died 7 years in 1827. His mother died in 1858. In 1848 Gillis married Lucile Rosalie Dufva, they had three children: Carl Nils Daniel Bildt, Knut Gillis Bildt. His great-great-grandson Carl Bildt became Prime Minister of Sweden High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Carl Bildt is descended from Gillis Bildt via younger son Knut Gillis Bildt. Gillis Bildt made a career in the military as an artillery officer, rising to Lieutenant General, he passed out from the Royal War Academy in Stockholm in 1837 and joined the Göta artillery regiment. He completed his higher education in 1842 in Marieberg, where he had come to the attention of Crown Prince Oscar for his diligence and competence. After graduation he worked as a mathematics tutor for several years, as well as continuing his military career and entering the Riksdag in 1847.
“Bildt was not a member of the wealthy or the upper nobility”, chronicles the writer Harald Wieselgren. “His personality alone gave him a lever up in the world. The competent artillery officer, the charming cavalier, the exemplary young man were combined in the persona of Bildt”. While a lieutenant he was appointed as an adjutant to King Oscar I in 1851, he advanced to Lieutenant-Colonel, Colonel. In 1859 he was chosen by King Karl XV to be his first aide-de-camp. In 1875 he was promoted to Lieutenant General. Bildt's early political titles included Governor of Gotland 1858–1862 and Over Governor of Stockholm 1862–1874. A major issue for Bildt was campaigning in defence of the railways routes he considered of military and commercial value to Stockholm, he garnered support throughout the city – in the Riksdag, City Council, stock exchange and among the citizens. He was a shareholder and board member in the company seeking to operate a railway between Stockholm and the Vestmanland mines. Agriculture was another subject close to his heart.
In 1850 he had called it “our country's mightiest interest”. More diplomatic was his statement in 1869: “I believe that much can be done to benefit our agriculture, but not by means of more or less public money. For who should give up their allocation, if not the non-farm sector. In 1864 Bildt was made a Friherre. Bildt was a Member of the Riksdag in 1847–1874 and 1887–1894. From 1867, when the Riksdag became bicameral, Bildt sat in the Upper House; as a representative in the House of Nobility, the most august Riksdag Estate until 1866, Bildt was aligned with Junkerpartiet. Junkerpartiet was a group of conservative free-market nobles. Bildt spoke out on social policy issues. One was the development of health care services. Another concerned the inadequate schooling for women. “It is an established fact”, he declared in a speech in 1859, “that the development of our nation depends on the education of women”. During 1848–1860 he was a reporter to the Statsutskottet, he was a strong supporter of Louis De Geer's 1863 electoral reform bill and the introduction of popular suffrage.
Bildt was a skillful debater. He sought to build a consensus rather than engage in the politics of division. With two of the four estates on side and with a large public backing, he set about overcoming the House of Nobility's inevitable opposition to its own dissolution. Given the popular support for the reform, Governor Bildt had troops ready to maintain order in the capital, in the event of the bill being blocked, but the nervousness turned to rejoicing as the bill was accepted receiving Royal assent on 22 January 1866 by King Karl XV. The unicameral legislature, representing the four estates, was replaced with a bicameral parliament, consisting of an Upper House of appointed members and a numerically superior and popularly elected Lower House. A committee was set up to define the procedures for the new Riksdag. Bildt was elected onto this committee with more votes than any other candidate. Bildt was active in the new Riksdag from 1867. In the Defence Committee as in the chamber he campaigned to maintain the necessary balance and preparedness of army units.
Bildt continued his work for social justice, speaking out in favour of extending citizenship to non-members of the Church of Sweden and giving married women legal competence over their own affairs. During the period 1874–1886 Bildt was Sweden's ambassador in Berlin. In 1886, he became Riksmarskalk, his appointment in 1887 to the Upper House by the protectionist representatives on Stockholm City Council was against the wishes of King Oscar II. The King did not want a close friend of the Royal Family involved in party politics and opposing the incumbent pro free-trade government. Bildt remained an independent conservative; however Bildt did participate in meetings with the protectionist group in the House. Bildt himself was moderately protectionist; as Swedish ambassador in Germany 1874–1886, Bildt strengthened ties between Sweden and the new German Empire, negotiating bilateral agreements on matters such as post, telegraph and sailors. During his time in Germany Bildt witnessed the introd
Nils Daniel Carl Bildt is a Swedish politician and diplomat, Prime Minister of Sweden from 1991 to 1994. He was the leader of the Moderate Party from 1986 to 1999. Bildt served as Sweden's Minister for Foreign Affairs from October 2006 to October 2014, he had been noted internationally as a mediator in the Yugoslav wars, serving as the European Union's Special Envoy to the Former Yugoslavia from June 1995, co-chairman of the Dayton Peace Conference in November 1995 and High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina from December 1995 to June 1997 after the Bosnian War. From 1999 to 2001, he served as the United Nations Secretary-General's Special Envoy for the Balkans. Bildt was born on 15 July 1949 in Halmstad, Halland, to an old Danish-Swedish noble family traditionally domiciled in Bohus county, his grandfather's grandfather, Gillis Bildt, was a Conservative politician and diplomat, long-time Ambassador to the German Empire and Prime Minister of Sweden 1888–1889 remembered for his protectionist trade policies.
Bildt's father Daniel Bildt was a former major in the reserves of the now defunct Halland Regiment and a former bureau director in the now defunct Civil Defense Board's Education Bureau. Daniel Bildt married Kerstin Andersson-Alwå in 1947. Carl Bildt's brother, was born in 1952. Bildt was married to Kerstin Zetterberg from 1974–75. Bildt has three children. Bildt attended Stockholm University. In May 1968 Bildt opposed the occupation of the Student Union Building by leftist political forces and co-founded the Borgerliga Studenter – Opposition'68 group which went on to win the Student Union elections in Stockholm for a number of years, he served as chairman of the FMSF Confederation of Swedish Conservative and Liberal Students, a centre-right student organisation, in the early 1970s, chaired European Democrat Students, bringing together like-minded centre-right student organisations from across Europe. When the non-socialist formed government in 1976, Bildt served as the head of the Policy Coordinating Office in the Ministry of Economic Affairs and close collaborator to the party leader and Minister of Economy Gösta Bohman.
Bildt became a Member of Parliament in 1979, although he served instead as State Secretary for Policy Coordination in the reformed non-socialist government after that election. As an MP in the early eighties, he became noted as an incisive and combative debater on foreign affairs, he was a member of the Submarine Defence Commission investigating the 1982 incursions of foreign submarines in the Stockholm archipelago and naval base areas, found himself pitted against prime minister Olof Palme. Bildt was elected leader of the Moderate Party in 1986. In 1991, the Social Democrats were defeated by a four-party coalition led by Bildt's Moderate Party. On 4 October 1991, Bildt became the first conservative prime minister in Sweden in 61 years, leading a four-party coalition government; the policies of his government aimed at giving Sweden a "new start" in the middle of a mounting economic crisis caused by a speculation bubble in housing, focusing on privatising and de-regulating the economy in order to improve the conditions for big businesses.
Long a champion of European integration and Sweden's participation in this, negotiating membership in the European Union was a priority for the Bildt premiership. The preceding Social Democratic government had, as part of an emergency economic crisis package in the autumn of 1990, done a sudden U-turn, abandoned its previous opposition and in the summer of 1991 submitted a formal application for membership in the EU. Benefiting from his close links with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Bildt was able to initiate and conclude membership negotiations with the EU in record time, signing the Treaty of Accession at the EU summit in Corfu on June 23, 1994; the accession was supported by a referendum in November, Sweden entered the EU as full member on January 1, 1995, thus fulfilling a key part of the platform of the Bildt government. By that time his governing coalition had lost its majority in the September 1994 elections, in spite of his Moderate party making slight gains; the economic program of the government was focused on a series of structural reforms aiming at improving competitiveness and improving grown.
Economic reforms were enacted, including voucher schools, liberalizing markets for telecommunications and energy, privatizing publicly owned companies and health care, contributing to liberalizing the Swedish economy. These reforms were controversial at the time, the government had to deal with a rapid increase in unemployment as well as public deficits during 1991 and 1992; the period was marked by a severe economic crisis. These problems were reinforced by the economic crisis in other European countries and the crisis within the EU Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1992; as a result, Sweden in November 1992 was forced to abandon its policy of a fixed exchange rate and allow the Swedish crown to float freely. As part of the effort to handle the economic crisis, the government was able to conclude an agreement with the Social Democratic opposition on some of its expenditure-cutting measures. By 1994 the economy was registering strong growth, the deficits were declining, although unemployment was still at levels higher than in 1991.
Prior to becoming Prime Minister, Bildt had been anti-Soviet union and a strong supporter of the three Baltic nations, during his period as PM devoted considerable efforts to trying to assist the three now again
Oscar Robert Themptander was a Swedish politician and public official, Prime Minister of Sweden from 1884 to 1888 during the reign of King Oscar II, Governor of Stockholm County from 1888 to 1896. He was Minister for Finance. At the age of 40 years and 92 days, Themptander is the youngest person to become Prime Minister in Swedish history, his death at the age of 52 years and 351 days makes him the youngest prime minister at his death. Robert Themptander was born in Stockholm, the son of army lieutenant Nils Themptander and wife Adolphina Laurent. After law studies in Uppsala and a successful career in the civil service he became in 1879 a member of the Second Chamber. There from the beginning he was a member of the centre party, a party loyal to incumbent government, he began move orientate towards the agrarian party. He married in 1874 with whom he had three children. In the government of Arvid Posse in 1880, he became Minister without Portfolio and, in 1881 Minister of Finance, he stayed on in this office in three years before he became Prime Minister at the age of 40.
Only Louis De Geer had become Prime Minister at a younger age. Through good contacts in different parliamentary positions he was successful in breaking the political gridlock concerning the defense question; this issue was achieved in the year of 1885. He was less successful in his goal to protect the free trade system which Louis De Geer and Minister of Finance Gripenstedt had instituted during their time in office; this political economy had with many good benefits contributed to the modernization of Sweden. As food prices on the world markets sank because of increased imports from all of North America, demand increased for high tariffs to protect Swedish interests. Themptander was constrained to retire, yet not through defeat in the 1887 election, when his resistance towards the new duty-friendly winds of opinion meant more election debate than before. Riksdag candidates were compelled to answer about which views they had, if they were Free Traders or Protectionists; this was seen by many at the time as uncommon.
Lifelong members of the Riksdag had been elected on the basis of their high personal reputation and confidence. The Free Traders gained twenty-two parliamentary seats, but it appeared that one member had not paid his taxes and therefore the whole list was declared invalid. Lifelong members of the Riksdag who were free trade supporteers were replaced with tariff supporters. Therefore, the Second Chamber returned a protectionist majority. Themptander attempted to have King Oscar II announce a new election, but the King denied the request. Themptander resigned as Prime Minister. From 1888–96 he was Stockholm County Governor and afterwards director for Trafik AB Grängesberg–Oxelösund. Robert Themptander died on 30 January 1897 in Stockholm; this article draws on the corresponding article in the Swedish-language Wikipedia, accessed in the version of November 11, 2005. Nevéus, Torgny. Ett betryggande försvar: värnplikten och arméorganisationen i svensk politik 1880-1885. Studia historica Upsaliensia, 0081-6531.
Johan Olof Ramstedt was Prime Minister of Sweden from April to August 1905. Johan Ramstedt was born in Stockholm, son to clothing manufacturer Reinhold Ramstedt and his wife Maria Sofia Haeggström, he attended Uppsala university where he earned a degree in Government Studies in 1873 after which he interned at the Svea Court of Appeal in Stockholm. In 1878 he married Henrika Charlotta Torén. In the same year he was appointed Vice Prolocutor, he became acting official of the Court of Appeals in 1880, associate member in 1882, full member official of the Court of Appeals in 1884. Ramstedt was appointed as a government notary to the 2nd Chamber of the Swedish parliament in 1876 and to the 1st Chamber from 1877 to 1882, he moved on to the Ministry of Justice in 1892, after which he was promoted to Head of the Justice department in 1896 until 1898 when he was appointed Justice Councillor of the Supreme Court of Sweden. In 1902 the newly elected Prime Minister Erik Gustaf Boström called upon Ramstedt to join his cabinet.
Under Boström, Ramstedt served as acting Foreign Minister. Boström resigned as Prime Minister due to the Swedish-Norwegian Union crisis of 1905 at which time Ramstedt was appointed Prime Minister, his immediate task was to solve the union crisis. Together with the Crown Prince Gustav a plan was designed allowing the Norwegians to exit the Union with the caveat that the Norwegians would exit the Union without the involvement of the Norwegian Parliament; however the plan never came to fruition. Ramstedt's government made a proposal to the Swedish Parliament where in the Parliament was to grant the Government power to negotiate the terms for the dissolving of the Union with the Norwegians. A secret committee led by 1st Chamber protectionist leader Christian Lundeberg rejected the Government's proposal which led to the resignation of Ramstedt and his entire Cabinet, something which had not occurred since 1809. Ramstedt was re-appointed Justice Councillor by his successor Prime Minister Lundeberg and in 1909 became the first Government Councillor of the newly created Supreme Administrative Court.
In 1912, Ramstedt was appointed Over-Governor of Stockholm by Prime Minister Staaff. In 1920, Ramstedt retired and lived peacefully until his death in 1935
Gösta Ingvar Carlsson is a Swedish politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Sweden, first from 1986 to 1991 and again from 1994 to 1996. He was leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1986 to 1996, he is best known for leading Sweden into the European Union. Carlsson was a member of the Riksdag from 1965 to 1996 representing the constituency of Stockholm County, he served as Minister of Education from 1969 to 1973, as Minister of Housing in 1973 and again from 1974 to 1976, as Minister of Environmental affairs from 1985 to 1986. He served as Deputy Prime Minister from 1982 to 1986, assumed office as Prime Minister of Sweden upon the assassination of Prime Minister Olof Palme in 1986. Carlsson was born in Borås, Västra Götaland County, Sweden and is the third son of the warehouse worker Olof Karlsson and Ida, née Johansson. Carlsson has a degree in political science from Lund University. In Lund he met with Tage Erlander, the Swedish prime minister, his aide Olof Palme to become Erlander's successor.
After finishing studies Carlsson got a job in Erlander's staff. In 1965, after completing further studies at Northwestern University in Illinois in the United States, he was elected member of the Swedish Parliament. In the same year, he became leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League, he had the following ministerial posts: Minister of Education 1969-1973, Minister of Housing 1973-1976, Deputy Prime Minister 1982-1986. He was, together with Olof Palme, known as one of "Erlander's boys". Following the assassination of Olof Palme in 1986, Ingvar Carlsson became the new Prime Minister or Statsminister and party leader. Together with Minister for Finance Kjell-Olof Feldt, the government turned a budget deficit of 90 billion SEK to a surplus of a few hundred billion SEK, which led to large investments and record low unemployment. 1980s Social Democratic neoliberal measures—such as depressing and deregulating the currency to prop up Swedish exports during the economic restructuring transition, dropping corporate taxation and taxation on high income-earners, switching from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies—were exacerbated by international recession, unchecked currency speculation, a centre-right government led by Carl Bildt, creating the fiscal crisis of the early 1990s.
But Sweden's economy began to deteriorate in the early 1990s. In 1990 the Carlsson cabinet resigned after failing to gain a majority for its economic policy agenda, but was reinstated with a changed agenda; the Social Democrats lost the elections in 1991, but Carlsson returned to power after the elections in 1994. When the Social Democrats returned to power in 1994, they responded to the fiscal crisis by stabilizing the currency—and by reducing the welfare state and privatizing public services and goods, as governments did in many countries influenced by Milton Friedman, the Chicago Schools of political and economic thought, the neoliberal movement; as Prime Minister he carried out a comprehensive reform of the tax system. After three years in opposition and an election victory in the 1994 elections, Carlsson formed a new government; this government realigned its focus on cleaning up Swedish Government finances, the task was assigned to the newly appointed Minister of Finance Göran Persson. The ensuing governing period was difficult and it was criticized by trade unions and party members for government service cuts and tax increases that were instituted.
In August 1995, Ingvar Carlsson announced that he would resign as party leader and Swedish Prime Minister. His successor was long considered to be the Minister of Equality and Deputy Prime Minister Mona Sahlin. However, due to the so-called Toblerone Affair, she took back her candidacy and later resigned from the government. On 5 December 1995 the nominating committee proposed the Minister for Finance, Göran Persson, as the new party leader candidate, he was elected on 15 March 1996 at the Social Democratic Party Congress as party leader and on 22 March 1996 he was elected Prime Minister. Ingvar Carlsson was Chairman of the inquiry after the Gothenburg Riots of 2001 to investigate the events, their report was submitted to the Government on 14 January 2003. Ingvar Carlsson was the Chairman of the Independent Inquiry into United Nations actions during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, he is chairman of the Bergman Foundation Center on Fårö. With Shridath Ramphal, he was in 1995 one of the co-chairs of the Commission on Global Governance, which reported on issues of international development, international security and global governance.
His career has been shaped by the heritage of Olof Palme, with whom he worked but his policies are more seen as being a continuation of the legacy established by Tage Erlander. He is married since 1957 to librarian Ingrid Melander, daughter of the wholesaler Sven H Melander and Gerda, née Eriksson, they have two daughters. In 1989, Carlsson received an honorary doctorate from Lund University and in 1991 he received an honorary doctorate from Northwestern University. Ingvar Carlsson is a big supporter of football teams IF Elfsborg and Wolverhampton Wanderers F. C.. Carlsson, Ingvar. Lärdomar: personliga och politiska. Stockholm: Norstedt. ISBN 9789113052687. Carlsson, Ingvar. Vad är socialdemokrati?: en bok om idéer och utmaningar. Stockholm: Arbetarrörelsens tankesmedja. ISBN 978-91-976756-0-4. Carlsson, Ingvar. Så tänkte jag: politik & dramatik. Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg. ISBN 91-89660-22-6. Carlsson, Ingvar. Ur skuggan av O
Knut Hjalmar Leonard Hammarskjöld was a Swedish politician, cabinet minister, Member of Parliament from 1923 to 1938, Prime Minister of Sweden from 1914 to 1917. In 1890, he married Agnes Maria Carolina Almquist; the couple had four sons: Åke, Sten and Dag. The son of Knut Vilhelm Hammarskjöld, a noble and landowner, wife Maria Lovisa Cecilia Vilhelmina Cöster, Hjalmar Hammarskjöld was born into the Hammarskjöld family in Tuna, Kalmar County, he was a versatile legal expert and prominent as a legislator. In 1891 he became a professor in Uppsala University and had a great influence on Swedish and Nordic civil law, he laid the foundation for his reputation as a great expert in international law at the same time through diligent work in international meetings, became a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 1904 at The Hague. As Minister of Justice from 1901 to 1902 in Fredrik von Otter's government he made an ambitious but unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problems concerning the right to vote, was, on his resignation, appointed president of the Göta court of appeal.
In connection with the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway, he was minister of ecclesiastical affairs in Christian Lundeberg's coalition government and negotiator in Karlstad. In 1905 he was appointed to be the Swedish ambassador to Copenhagen, he returned in 1907 to Uppsala as county governor of Uppsala, but took leave of absence for various other assignments. After the peasant armament support march and the resignation of the liberal government, he became head of a non-parliamentarian government in 1914, tasked with solving defense issues, his "courtyard government" was politically independent, but loyal to the king and rather conservative. It was created on an initiative from Arvid Lindman, the leader of the right-wing party in the second chamber, who did not want the king to appoint a cabinet under the leader of the right-wing party in the first chamber, Ernst Trygger. After the outbreak of the First World War that same year, a truce was established between the parties and the defense problem was solved to the satisfaction of the military.
Hammarskjöld was principled and inflexible in his interpretations of civil law during the height of the war. It was during this time that the term "Hunger shield" was coined, because his intractability impeded efforts to get necessary food exports into Sweden, he was seen as too friendly towards Germany when he rejected the proposal for a common trade agreement with Great Britain that Marcus Wallenberg, brother of the foreign minister Knut Wallenberg, had brought home from London in 1917. The split between the PM and the Foreign Minister became apparent and the leaders of the right-wing in the parliament revoked their support for the prime minister, forced to submit his resignation. Hammarskjöld had a dominant nature and was perceived by his opponents as authoritarian and strong-willed, but claims that he favoured Germany lack documented support, he had many prestigious assignments, for example chairman of the Nobel Foundation 1929–47 and member of parliament. He was voted into the Swedish Academy in 1918 to the same chair as Prime Minister Louis De Geer had occupied, number 17.
Hammarskjöld's son, inherited the chair, as well as the position, after his death. Hammarskjöld's investigations were a major contributing factor to the decision to establish the Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden. Hjalmar Hammarskjöld died on 12 October 1953 in Stockholm, just over 6 months after his youngest son became the 2nd Secretary General of the United Nations. T. Gihl, The history of Swedish foreign policy 4 D. Hammarskjöld, Hjalmar Hammarskjöld: entry speech in the Swedish Academy W. Carlgren, The minister Hammarskjöld S. A. Söderpalm, The big company owners and the democratic breakthrough "Hammarskjöld, Hjalmar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1922