Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Carl XVI Gustaf is the King of Sweden. He ascended the throne upon the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf on 15 September 1973 and he is the youngest child and only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, and Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The Kings heir apparent, upon passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture, is Crown Princess Victoria, Carl Gustaf was born on 30 April 1946 at 10,20 in Haga Palace in Solna, Stockholm County. He was the youngest of five children and the son of Swedens Prince Gustaf Adolf. He was christened at the Royal Chapel on 7 June 1946 by the Archbishop of Uppsala and he was baptized in Charles XIs baptismal font, which stood on Gustav IIIs carpet and he lay in Charles XIs cradle with Oscar IIs crown beside him. The same christening gown in white linen batiste which the prince carried had been worn by his father in 1906, Prince Carl Gustaf was given the title of the Duke of Jämtland. His father, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, was killed in a crash on 26 January 1947.
His fathers death had left the prince second in line for the throne, behind his grandfather. When his great-grandfather Gustaf V died in 1950, the prince became the heir apparent of Sweden. Carl Gustaf was seven years old before he was told about his fathers death, after graduating from high school, Carl Gustaf completed two and a half years of education in the Royal Swedish Army, the Royal Swedish Navy, and the Royal Swedish Air Force. He received his commission as an officer in all three services in 1968, and he rose to the rank of captain and lieutenant. He has completed his studies in history, political science, tax law. In addition, he studied the affairs of the Riksdag, Government. On 15 September 1973, Carl Gustaf became King of Sweden upon the death of his grandfather, on September 19, he took the required regal assurance during an extraordinary meeting of the cabinet. Afterwards, he appeared before the parliament, diplomatic corps, both the cabinet meeting and ceremony at the Hall were broadcast live on television.
Following the ceremonies, he appeared on the balcony to acknowledge gathered crowds, at the cabinet meeting, the King declared that his name would be Carl XVI Gustaf and that his title would be King of Sweden. He adopted, For Sweden – With the times as his personal motto, when Carl Gustaf ascended the throne, plans were already in place to replace the 1809 Instrument of Government which gave the King extensive involvement with government. Though the King was a near-autocrat on paper, the Riksdags authority grew steadily into the early 20th century, in 1914, Gustaf V made a speech which resulted in what is known as the Courtyard Crisis wherein he was accused of interfering with politics
Tage Fritjof Erlander was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and led the government for a tenure of 23 years. This led to Erlander being known as Swedens longest Prime Minister referring to both his physical stature –192 cm, or six feet and four inches – and tenure, until the 1960s, income taxes were lower in Sweden than in the United States. For most of his time in power, Erlander ran a minority government of the Social Democrats, from 1951 to 1957, he instead ran a coalition with the Farmers League. A snap election in 1958 reversed this result, in the 1968 general election, he won his seventh and most successful victory, with the Social Democrats winning an absolute majority of the popular vote and seats in the lower chamber. Erlander resigned the year during a process of major constitutional reform and was succeeded by his long-time protégé. He was born in Ransäter, Värmland County, as the son of school teacher Erik Gustaf Erlander and his father had originally had the surname of Andersson, but had changed that to Erlander, after his father who had the first name of Erland.
His mother was Alma, née Nilsson, on his grandmothers side, Erlander had ancestry from the Forest Finns, who migrated to Värmland from the Finnish province of Savonia in the 17th century. As a student at Lund University he was involved in student politics. He graduated in science and economics in 1928. From 1928 till 1929 he completed his military service in the Signals Corps. Erlander was a member of the staff of the encyclopedia Svensk Upplagsbok from 1929 to 1938. Erlander was elected to the council in Lund in 1930 and became a member of parliament in 1932. As State Secretary at the Ministry of Social Affairs, Erlander was one of the most senior officials responsible for the establishment of internment camps in Sweden during World War II. In the camps, which were kept secret to the Swedish public, people from ethnic minorities as well as political dissidents were interned, particularly Communists. The purpose of the registration was, according to a newspaper article, in Norway, similar lists were established that were handed over to the Nazis during the German occupation of Norway.
Erlander ascended to the cabinet in 1944 as minister without Portfolio, a post he held to the next year, when Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson suddenly died in 1946, Erlander unexpectedly was chosen as the successor and subsequently as the leader of the party. Retaining the positions of the Social Democrats from a potent Liberal opposition under Bertil Ohlin in his first election and his working relationship with the partys leader, Gunnar Hedlund, is known to have been good
Princess Margaret of Connaught
Princess Margaret of Connaught was Crown Princess of Sweden and Duchess of Scania as the first wife of the future King Gustaf VI Adolf. She was the daughter of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, third son of Queen Victoria. Nicknamed Daisy and known in Sweden as Margareta, she died 30 years before her husbands accession to the throne of Sweden, Princess Margaret was born at Bagshot Park and baptised in the Private Chapel of Windsor Castle on 11 March 1882 by, The Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were Queen Victoria, The German Emperor, the German Crown Princess and Princess Friedrich Karl of Prussia, and she was confirmed in the Private Chapel of Windsor Castle in March 1898. Princess Margaret grew up as a member of the British Royal Family, taking part in family holidays and she was a bridesmaid along with her sister at the wedding of their paternal cousins The Duke and Duchess of York on 6 July 1893. When Princess Margaret of Connaught was 23 and her younger sister Princess Patricia of Connaught was 18 and their uncle, King Edward VII, wanted his nieces to marry a European king or crown prince.
The Portuguese expected one of the Connaught princesses would become the future Queen of Portugal, the Connaughts continued their trip to Egypt and Sudan. In Cairo, they met Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, the future Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden, Margarets sister Patricia had been considered a suitable match for Gustaf Adolf, without his knowledge, a meeting was arranged with the two sisters. Gustaf Adolf and Margaret fell in love at first sight, Prince Gustaf Adolf proposed at a dinner held by Lord Cromer at the British Consulate in Egypt, and was accepted. Margaret had certainly fallen completely in love with Gustaf Adolf and her parents were very happy with the match. Prince Gustaf Adolf was short of sight and used spectacles, he was tall, well informed, fond of music, an excellent shot, Gustaf Adolf and Margaret married on 15 June 1905, in St. Georges Chapel, at Windsor Castle. The couple spent their honeymoon in Ireland, and arrived in Sweden on 8 July 1905, one of Margarets wedding presents was the Connaught tiara, which remains in the Swedish royal jewellery collection today.
Margaret was a mother to her children, and was determined to spend time with them. She was not keen on letting them be raised by nursery staff, when Gustaf Adolfs father, Crown Prince Gustaf, acceded to the throne as King Gustaf V in 1907, the couple became Crown Prince and Princess of Sweden. The marriage between Margaret and Gustaf Adolf is described as a love match. The visiting Infanta Eulalia of Spain wrote that the Crown Princess gave the Swedish court just a touch of the elegance of the Court of St Jamess and of how much Margaret loved her life in Sweden. After her arrival in Sweden, who in Sweden was called Margareta, received lessons in the Swedish language, after two years, she spoke good Swedish. She was eager to find out more about Sweden, Margaret took a great interest in many forms of sports, she used the winters for skiing, ice skating and playing hockey, and played tennis and golf during the summers
Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, the game is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, there are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, sand traps, and hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, while the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the games ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, one theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and 14th centuries, the game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages.
Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England, the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier. The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James IIs banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503-1504, to many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records. The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York.
The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green, while many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a dogleg, in reference to a dogs knee, the hole is called a dogleg left if the hole angles leftwards and dogleg right if it bends right. Sometimes, a holes direction may bend twice, this is called a double dogleg, a regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land. This gave rise to the golf links, particularly applied to seaside courses
Botany, called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist or plant scientist is a scientist who specialises in this field, the term botany comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning pasture, grass, or fodder, βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν, to feed or to graze. Nowadays, botanists study approximately 410,000 species of plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants. Medieval physic gardens, often attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance and they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards. One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden and these gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, in the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately.
Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science, dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botany originated as herbalism, the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties, many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago. This early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, the early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings. His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to science until the Middle Ages. De Materia Medica was widely read for more than 1,500 years, important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyyas Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarīs the Book of Plants, and Ibn Bassals The Classification of Soils.
In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, and Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner and these gardens continued the practical value of earlier physic gardens, often associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject, lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe, the first in England was the University of Oxford Botanic Garden in 1621, throughout this period, botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of the three German fathers of botany, along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification, physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium in 1546.
Naturalist Conrad von Gesner and herbalist John Gerard published herbals covering the medicinal uses of plants, naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi was considered the father of natural history, which included the study of plants
Stockholm Palace or The Royal Palace is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarch. Stockholm Palace is located on Stadsholmen, in Gamla stan in the capital, the offices of the King, the other members of the Swedish Royal Family, and the offices of the Royal Court of Sweden are located here. The palace is used for representative purposes by the King whilst performing his duties as the head of state. This royal residence has been in the location by Norrström in the northern part of the Gamla stan in Stockholm since the middle of the 13th century when the Tre Kronor Castle was built. In modern times the name relates to the building called Kungliga Slottet, the palace was designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and erected on the same place as the medieval Tre Kronor Castle which was destroyed in a fire on 7 May 1697. Due to the costly Great Northern War which started in 1700, construction of the palace was halted in 1709, when Tessin the Younger died in 1728, the palace was completed by Carl Hårleman who designed a large part of its Rococo interior.
The palace was not ready to use until 1754, when King Adolf Frederick and Queen Louisa Ulrika moved in, as of 2009 the interior of the palace consists of 1,430 rooms of which 660 have windows. The palace contains apartments for the Royal families and festivities such as the State Apartments, the Guest Apartments, the National Library of Sweden was housed in the northeast wing, the Biblioteksflygeln, until 1878. As of 2014 it houses the Bernadotte Library, the Slottsarkivet is housed in the Chancery Wing. In the palace are the offices of the Royal Court of Sweden, the Royal Guards has guarded the palace and the Royal Family since 1523. A comprehensive renovation of the began in 2011, to repair weather damaged parts made from sandstone. The repairs are estimated to cost approx,500 million crowns during a period of 22 years. The first building on site was a fortress with a core tower built in the 13th century by Birger Jarl to defend Lake Mälaren. The fortress grew to a castle, eventually named Tre Kronor for the towers spire top decorated with three crowns.
At the beginning of the 17th century, King Gustavus Adolphus made plans for a new royal palace, contemporaneous copperplates from 1654 shows de la Vallée’s idea of a more visible castle on a raised plateau with a connecting bridge over the Norrström. Queen Christina remodelled and embellished the castle extensively, but no new castle was built during her reign. In 1661, he presented the first draft for a conversion of the row which his son, Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, would rework. A map of the Stadsholmen from the 1650s, illustrates de la Vallées suggestion for the conversion of the old castle, the project brought about an adjustment of the Slottsbacken, making it partially enclosed by buildings
Solna Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in south-east Sweden, located just north of the Stockholm City Centre. Its seat is located in the town of Solna, which is a part of the Stockholm urban area, the municipality is a part of Metropolitan Stockholm. None of the area is considered rural, which is unusual for Swedish municipalities, Solna is the third smallest municipality in Sweden in terms of area. There are two parishes in Solna Municipality, Råsunda and Solna, Solna is divided into eight traditional parts with no administrative functions, Haga, Huvudsta, Järva, Råsunda and Ulriksdal. The largest districts are Råsunda and Huvudsta, with the Solna Centrum in between them, the final matches of both the 1958 FIFA World Cup and the 1995 FIFA Womens World Cup were played at Råsunda Stadium, the national football stadium from 1937 to 2012. Solna has very low tax rates and has attracted a range of companies and authorities. Among the most important employers are the medical university Karolinska Institutet, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute are located in Solna.
As with all 290 municipalities of Sweden, Solna has a municipal assembly, an executive committee is appointed by its members. It was served by trams until 1959, trams returned after 54 years of absence when Tvärbanan was extended from Alvik to Solna centrum. A further extension will be opened in 2014, skanska has its head office in Solna. NextJet has its office in Solna. Mall of Scandinavia has opened in November 2015 and is located in Solna, the head office of Scandinavian Airlines and SAS Group is located in Solna. The airline head office was located on the property of Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sigtuna Municipality. Haga Park, part of the Royal National City Park, was initiated by king Gustav III, the city features three of Swedens royal palaces. Friends Arena, the Swedish national arena of association football, the Solna Church was constructed in the 12th century. For defensive purposes, it was built as a round church, the following football clubs are located in Solna, AIK Blue Hill KF Råsunda IS Vasalunds IF Solna Gymnasium is the senior high school/sixth form college of Solna
Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland
Prince Bertil of Sweden, Duke of Halland, was a Swedish royal prince and the third son of King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden and his first wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught. He was the uncle of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, a maternal uncle of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and Queen Anne-Marie of Greece through his sister. Bertil was born 28 February 1912 at Stockholm, as the fourth of five born to Princess Margaret of Connaught. His siblings included, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Vasterbotten, Prince Sigvard, Duke of Uppland and Princess Ingrid and Prince Carl Johan, Duke of Dalarna. Prince Bertil was granted a very old dukedom, one that was bestowed in the Middle Ages on various Danish and Swedish royal relatives, such as Benedict, Duke of Halland. After Carl Gustaf became King, Bertil remained the next in line to the throne, Bertil became a naval officer and during the Second World War he served as Swedish naval attaché at the embassy in London. In 1943, Bertil had met his partner, Welsh commoner Lilian Craig.
Their common base was a home in Sainte-Maxime, in the south of France, since his life with Mrs Craig was not official, Prince Bertils single status meant he was suggested as a match for, among others, Princess Margaret. Lillian was made HRH Princess Lilian, Duchess of Halland, Bertil was fond of cars, owning a rare Aston Martin DB2 and a Corvette. Volvo asked him to open the Volvo Halifax Assembly plant in 1963 in Nova Scotia, a parking garage in Sainte-Maxime is named after him. He was a member of the society, La Chaine des Rotisseurs. He died at his home the Villa Solbacken in Stockholm in 1997 and his remains were buried at the Royal Cemetery in Haga Park. 28 February 1912 -15 September 1973, His Royal Highness Prince Bertil of Sweden,15 September 1973 -13 May 1979, His Royal Highness Prince Bertil, Heir Presumptive of Sweden, Duke of Halland. 13 May 1979 -5 January 1997, His Royal Highness Prince Bertil of Sweden, Duke of Halland. On his creation as Duke of Halland, Prince Bertil was granted use of a coat of arms based on the Arms of Dominion of Sweden, Swedish Royal Family Line of succession to the Swedish throne Media related to Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland at Wikimedia Commons
Prime Minister of Sweden
The Prime Minister is the head of government in Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested. Louis Gerhard De Geer, the architect behind the new bicameral Riksdag of 1866 that replaced the centuries-old Riksdag of the Estates, the current Prime Minister of Sweden is Stefan Löfven, leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. Before 1876, when the office of a prime minister was created. Historically though, the most senior member of the Privy Council had certain similarities to the office of a head of government. When the office of the Prime Minister was created in 1876, unlike the Minister for Justice, the Minister for Foreign Affairs did however continue to be styled as Excellency, an honour shared only with the Prime Minister. From that time onward, the Prime Minister depended on the support of a majority in the Riksdag, over time, the Prime Minister came to de facto exercise the Royal prerogatives.
However, the Swedish term used for the Government during this period, maj, t, an abbreviation of Kunglig Majestät. Until 1974, the authority in Sweden had been exercised through the King in Council. The Speaker holds consultations with the party leaders and appoints a Prime Minister-designate, if the Prime Minister-designate is approved he or she chooses which and how many members are to be included in his or her government. With the exception of the Prime Minister, cabinet ministers do not need the approval of the Riksdag, if the Prime Minister is forced by a vote of no confidence to resign, the entire cabinet falls, and the process of electing a Prime minister starts over. The Prime Minister can dissolve the Riksdag, even receiving a vote of no confidence. The Instrument of Government requires that the Prime Minister appoint a member of the cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister, however, if a Deputy Prime Minister is absent or has not been appointed, the senior minister in the cabinet becomes acting head of government.
If more than one minister has equal tenure, the eldest assumes the position, on paper, the Prime Ministers position is stronger than that of his counterparts in Denmark and Norway. This is because the Swedish prime minister is an office with duties specifically enumerated in the Instrument of Government. In the two neighboring Scandinavian monarchies, the monarch is the chief executive, but is bound by convention to act on the advice of the ministers. The government offices, including the Prime Ministers office, is located at Rosenbad in central Stockholm, in 1991 Sager House was acquired, and since 1995 it has served as the private residence of the Prime Minister. Harpsund, a house in Flen Municipality, Södermanland County, has served as a country residence for the Prime Minister since 1953
House of Vasa
The House of Vasa was an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden, ruling Sweden 1523–1654, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587–1668 and the Tsardom of Russia 1610–1613. Its agnatic line became extinct in Poland with the death of King John II Casimir of Poland in 1672, the House of Vasa descended from a Swedish 14th century noble family, tracing agnatic kinship to Nils Kettilsson, fogde of the castle Three Crowns in Stockholm. Several members held high offices during the 15th century, in 1523, after the abolishment of the Kalmar Union, Gustav Eriksson became King Gustav I of Sweden and the royal house was founded. Yet, his son, King John III of Sweden, married a Catholic Polish Queen Catherine Jagiellon, as a result, the dynasty was split into a Protestant Swedish branch and a Catholic Polish one, which would rival for royal titles in subsequent wars. The involvement of the famous Protestant General and King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in the Thirty Years War gave rise to the saying that he was the incarnation of the Lion of the North.
Yet, his daughter and heiress Queen Christina of Sweden abdicated from the Swedish throne in 1654 after converting to Roman Catholicism, in Poland, John II Casimir of Poland abdicated from the throne in 1668. With his death, the royal House of Vasa became extinct in 1672, Gustav Eriksson, a son of Cecilia Månsdotter Eka and Erik Johansson Vasa, was probably born in 1496. The birth most likely place in Rydboholm Castle, northeast of Stockholm. The newborn got his name, from Eriks grandfather Gustav Anundsson, since the end of the 14th century, Sweden had been a part of the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Norway. The Danish dominance in this union led to uprisings in Sweden. During Gustavs childhood, parts of the Swedish nobility tried to make Sweden independent and his father Erik supported the party of Sten Sture the Younger, regent of Sweden from 1512, and its struggle against the Danish King Christian II. Following the battle of Brännkyrka in 1518, where Sten Stures troops beat the Danish forces, it was decided that Sten Sture and King Christian would meet in Österhaninge for negotiations.
To guarantee the safety of the king, the Swedish side sent six men as hostages to be kept by the Danes for as long as the negotiations lasted. However, Christian did not show up for the negotiations, violated the deal with the Swedish side, the six members of the kidnapped hostage were Hemming Gadh, Lars Siggesson, Jöran Siggesson, Olof Ryning, Bengt Nilsson – and Gustav Eriksson. The election of Gustav Eriksson as a regent made many Swedish nobles, some noblemen, still loyal to the king, chose to leave Sweden, while others were killed. As a result, the Swedish Privy Council lost old members who were replaced by supporters of Gustav Eriksson, most fortified cities and castles were conquered by Gustavs rebels, but the strongholds with the best defences, including Stockholm, were still under Danish control. In 1522, after negotiations between Gustav Erikssons people and Lübeck, the Hanseatic city joined the war against Denmark, the winter of 1523 saw the joint forces attack the Danish and Norwegian areas of Scania, Halland and Bohuslän.
During this winter, Christian II was overthrown and replaced by Frederick I, the new king openly claimed the Swedish throne and had hopes Lübeck would abandon the Swedish rebels
Monarchy of Sweden
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The Kingdom of Sweden has been a monarchy since time immemorial, Sweden in the present day is a representative democracy in a parliamentary system based on popular sovereignty, as defined in the current Instrument of Government. The monarch and the members of the Royal Family undertake a variety of official and other duties within Sweden. Carl XVI Gustaf became King on 15 September 1973 on the death of his grandfather, Sweden has been a kingdom since prehistoric times. Originally, the Swedish king had combined powers limited to that of a war chief, a judge, the Royal Court of Sweden, does count Olofs father as Swedens first king. The king was elected from a favored dynasty at the Stones of Mora. The ceremonial stones were destroyed around 1515 and that dynasty formed a pre-Kalmar Union Sweden into a strong state, and finally king Magnus IV even ruled Norway and Scania.
Following the Black Death, the union was weakened, and Scania was reunited with Denmark. In 1397, after the Black Death and domestic power struggles, Queen Margaret I of Denmark united Sweden, continual tension within each country and the union led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century. The unions final disintegration in the early 16th century led to prolonged rivalry between Denmark-Norway and Sweden for centuries to come. Catholic bishops had supported the King of Denmark, Christian II, Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden by the Estates of the Realm, assembled in Strängnäs on 6 June 1523. Inspired by the teachings of Martin Luther, Gustav I used the Protestant Reformation to curb the power of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1527 he persuaded the Estates of the Realm, assembled in the city of Västerås, to church lands. At the same time, he broke with the papacy and established a state church. Legally Sweden has only been a monarchy since 1544 when the Riksdag of the Estates, through Västerås arvförening.
Crown tax revenues increased, but more importantly the new system was perceived as fairer, a war with Lübeck in 1535 resulted in the expulsion of the Hanseatic traders, who previously had had a monopoly on foreign trade. With its own burghers in charge, Swedens economic strength grew rapidly, Sweden now built the first modern army in Europe, supported by a sophisticated tax system and an efficient bureaucracy. At the death of King Gustav I in 1560, he was succeeded by his oldest son Eric XIV and his reign was marked by Swedens entrance into the Livonian War and the Northern Seven Years War