103rd Ohio Infantry
The 103rd Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry was a three-years' infantry regiment from northeastern Ohio that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It participated in many of the battles of the Army of the Ohio in the Western Theater. "this Regiment was organized in the State of Ohio at large, in August and September, 1862, to serve for three years. It was mustered out of service June 1865, in accordance with orders from the War Department; the official list of battles in which this Regiment bore an honorable part is not yet published by the War Department, but the following list has been compiled after careful research during the preparation of this work" Blue Spring Tennessee, October 5, 1863 Knoxville Tennessee, November 17 to December 4, 1863 Dandridge Tennessee, January 16–18, 1864 Resaca Georgia, May 13–16, 1864 Atlanta Georgia, July 28-September 2, 1864 Spring Hill Tennessee, November 29, 1864 The battle and the enlistment records of every soldier from the 103rd Ohio Infantry is available online.
Needing additional soldiers, President Lincoln put out the call for volunteers to serve in the Union army. Several hundred men - farmers - from the northern Ohio counties of Cuyahoga and Lorain answered the call; this unit was organized in Cleveland in August 1862 and became known as the 103rd Regiment of the Ohio Volunteer Infantry"On July 21, 1862, William B. Castle, as chairman of the District Military Committee in Cleveland, sent a letter to Governor David Tod, enclosing a copy of a resolution recommending that the appointment of company officers for the 103rd Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry; the new regiment was to draw members from Lorain County and Medina County. The 103rd OVI was organized at Cleveland in August 1862 under command of Colonel John S. Casement, it was ordered to Kentucky on September 3, 1862, attached to the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Army of Kentucky, Department of the Ohio. The regiment saw action in Kentucky, Georgia and Tennessee. After mustering up near Cleveland Ohio travelling by train to Cincinnati, where the 103 OVI ferried across the Ohio River to Covington.
September 10–11, 1862 members of the 103rd OVI skirmish with Henry Heth, before the rebels retreated to Lexington, Kentucky. From Fort Mitchell the 103rd OVI marched ninety miles to Lexington, where the infantry men boarded a train to Frankfort, arriving around 1:00 pm on October 30, 1862 March 26, 1863, The 103 Ohio Volunteer Infantry Commanded by Colonel John S. Casement begins construction of Fort on a Hill in Frankfort Kentucky. Named Fort Crittenden by the 103 OVI in honour of Kentucky's famed United States Senator John J. Crittenden, who gave the 103rd OVI a rousing speech and warm welcome when they arrived. Sometime during the war this Frankfort post received the name Fort Boone, not to be confused with Fort Boone. Lyman Beecher Hannaford describes "We have now moved our encampment up on the hill in the rear of the fort", the planned Fort would over look the city providing defense of the now Union controlled Kentucky Capital, the only Union capital to fall to the Rebels"Towards the city, there is first a stone wall and an embankment about 5 feet high and 8 feet thick.
This is right on the brow of the hill. The embankment on the other side is eight feet high. On the inside is a platform or shelf about three or four feet wide for infantry to stand on to repel an attack. On the outside of the embankment there is a ditch 8 feet wide and five feet deep". 1–inside of fort 2–shelf for infantry 3–embankment of dirt 4–cedar brush 2 feet thick and projecting over the side of the ditch about 18 inches. The other end buried in 5 -- ditch. I understand. Six 32-pounders & six 64-pounders. "I shall now tell you. It is about ten rods wide at the widest place and thirty rods long."The 103rd mustered out on June 12, 1865. It lost during its term of service two officers and 137 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded, three officers and 106 enlisted men by disease, a total 248 fatalities. List of casualties: Field and Staff Assistant Surgeon, Frank M. Andrews, Died October 8, 1864 Company A Captain, Isaac C. Vail, died August 10, 1863 at Danville Kentucky In 1866, veterans formed the 103rd O.
V. I. Association, they and/or their descendants have held a reunion every year since, the only U. S. organization of its kind. The association operates the 103rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry Museum in Sheffield Lake, Ohio that houses and displays historic Civil War relics which have been inherited, collected by or donated to the descendants of the members. June 17, 1886, at a meeting of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, held at Bedford, it was determined that the time had arrived to commence the undertaking, which had for many years been contemplated by that body, of erecting the Memorial, authorized by Legislative enactment, accordingly a vote was taken as to the character and style of the structure; the names of members of the 103rd OVI can be found on this monument as well as an image depicting the Color Guard of the 103rd OVI "in vivid truthfulness" a gallant defense of the flag by the 103rd Ohio Infantry at the battle of Resaca Georgia, May 13–16, 1864. "The lion-hearted Sergeant Matin Striebler and eight Corporals stood before the enemys fire until they were wounded or killed.
March 9, 2014, Charles Levereth Bonney, 103rd OVI letter to Henry Sanford is transcribed. In the letter from Fort Mitchell where the 103rd Ohio Infantry had been brought to bolster the Defense of Cincinnati from Confederate Brigadier General Henry Heth, Charles indicates in his letter
Bridgeport is a city in Jackson County, United States. At the time of 2010 census the population was 2,418, down from 2,728 in 2000. Bridgeport is included in TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. Bridgeport developed after the 1840s, when European Americans established a riverboat landing here along the Tennessee River; this landing was a place for local farmers to trade their crops for other goods. Within a few years, a small hamlet known as "Jonesville" had developed around the landing, included a trading post, gristmill and several saloons; the Jonesville post office opened in 1852. Fluctuating river levels made riverboat trade unreliable, area merchants began campaigning for railroad access in the late 1840s; the first rail line reached Jonesville in 1852. A railroad bridge over the Tennessee River was completed in 1854, connecting the city with Chattanooga, Tennessee. In recognition of this accomplishment, the name of the city was changed to "Bridgeport." Construction of a second rail line connecting Bridgeport with Jasper, Tennessee, to the north, began in 1860, but was not completed until after the Civil War.
Because of its location on both a rail line and the Tennessee River, Bridgeport was a strategic site during the Civil War. The rail bridge at Bridgeport was among those targeted by the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy in November 1861. Although this attempt failed, the bridge would be burned twice during the course of the war. Bridgeport was the site of a major skirmish on April 29, 1862, when Union General Ormsby Mitchel seized control of the city, numerous other small actions over the following year as Confederate forces attempted to regain control of the area; the city was burned by Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg in the Summer of 1863, but it was reoccupied by Union forces. In the latter part of the war, Bridgeport was the site of a major Union shipyard that built gunboats and transports for the Union Army; the USS Chattanooga was built here. In the early 1880s, brothers Frank and Walter Kilpatrick, investors from New York, along with their father, established a lumber company in Bridgeport.
Believing the city's location and resources had extraordinary potential for development, the Kilpatricks began buying up land in the area. Other investors became interested in the city, in 1889 the Bridgeport Land and Development Company was incorporated; this company bought up land and laid out a new grid pattern for the city, which incorporated in 1891. Frank Kilpatrick, who became the city's mayor, built a series of imposing Queen Anne-style houses on the street now known as Kilpatrick Row. Several factories, including a pipe works, stove works, rail car works, planing mill, were built along the river; the rapid development of Bridgeport came to an abrupt end, with the onset of the financial Panic of 1893. Investors withdrew from the area, the Bridgeport Land and Improvement Company went out of business. Frank Kilpatrick returned to Bridgeport in 1895, managed to lure some industry to the city; the Mission Revival-style Bridgeport Depot was completed in 1917, two hosiery mills were operating in the city by the 1920s.
The construction of the nearby Widows Creek Power Plant by the Tennessee Valley Authority in the 1950s brought a small housing boom to the city. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.2 square miles, of which 3.1 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. The city is situated along the western bank of the Tennessee River, at river mile 410; this section of the river is part of Guntersville Lake, created by Guntersville Dam about 60 miles downstream from Bridgeport. The Cumberland Plateau rises prominently to the northwest, the plateau's southern extension, Sand Mountain, rises across the river to the east. U. S. Route 72 connects Bridgeport with South Pittsburg across the Tennessee state line to the north, Stevenson to the southwest; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,728 people, 1,159 households, 793 families residing in the city. The population density was 875.4 people per square mile. There were 1,290 housing units at an average density of 414.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 87.76% White, 8.03% Black or African American, 1.43% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. 1.32% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,159 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 29.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,981, the median income for a family was $33,712.
Males had a median income of $30,685 versus $19,583 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,779. About 9.5% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 23.8% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,418 people, 1,012 households, 686 families residing in the c
Spring Grove Cemetery
Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum is a nonprofit garden cemetery and arboretum located at 4521 Spring Grove Avenue, Ohio. It is the second largest cemetery in the United States and is recognized as a US National Historic Landmark; the cemetery dates from 1844, when members of the Cincinnati Horticultural Society formed a cemetery association. They took their inspiration from contemporary rural cemeteries such as Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the numerous springs and groves suggested the name "Spring Grove". On December 1, 1844 Salmon P. Chase and others prepared the Articles of Incorporation; the cemetery was designed by Howard Daniels and formally chartered on January 21, 1845. The first burial took place on September 1, 1845. In 1855, Adolph Strauch, a renowned landscape architect, was hired to beautify the grounds, his sense and layout of the "garden cemetery" made of lakes and shrubs, is what visitors today still see. He created a more open landscape by setting limits on private enclosures and monument heights.
The results of the redesign earned Strauch praise in the U. S. and abroad, including from Frederick Law Olmsted and the French landscape architect Edouard André. On March 29, 2007, the cemetery was designated a National Historic Landmark; the Spring Grove Cemetery Chapel is listed separately on the National Register of Historic Places. On October 23, 2013, cemetery staff removed a large and disturbing SpongeBob SquarePants headstone from the grave of U. S. Army Corporal another for her still-living sister a day after her funeral; the family believed. In February 2014, both parties agreed to replace the statues with granite slabs hiding them from passersby. Spring Grove encompasses 733 acres of which 400 acres are landscaped and maintained, its grounds include 12 ponds, many fine tombstones and memorials, various examples of Gothic Revival architecture. As of 2005, its National Champion trees were Halesia diptera. See Category:Burials at Spring Grove Cemetery. Jacob Ammen, Civil War general Nicholas Longworth Anderson, Civil War colonel Joshua Hall Bates, Civil War general George K. Brady, United States Army officer.
Commander of the Department of Alaska Emma Lucy Braun, botanist Charles Elwood Brown, Civil War Brevet Brigadier General and U. S. Representative Sidney Burbank, Civil War colonel Jacob Burnet, US Senator Samuel Fenton Cary, prohibitionist Kate Chase, daughter of Salmon Chase and Washington, D. C. Civil War socialite Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice of the United States Henry M. Cist, Civil War brevet brigadier general Levi Coffin, Quaker abolitionist Arthur F. Devereux, Brevet Brigadier General during the Civil War. S. Senator, American Civil War Captain Manning Force, Civil War Brevet Brigadier General, Medal of Honor recipient James Gamble, co-founder of Procter & Gamble Company Kenner Garrard, Civil War general Heinie Groh, Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame third baseman Theodore Sommers Henderson, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church Andrew Hickenlooper, Civil War general Joseph Hooker, Civil War general and commander of the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville Waite Hoyt, professional baseball player.
Camp Dennison was a military recruiting and medical post for the United States Army during the American Civil War. It was located near Cincinnati, not far from the Ohio River; the camp was named for Ohio's governor at the start of the war. With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, George B. McClellan, commander of Ohio's state militia, was charged by Governor Dennison with selecting a site for a recruitment and training center for southern Ohio, a possible target for the Confederate States Army due to its Ohio River location and proximity to slave states such as Kentucky and Virginia, from which invasions could be launched. McClellan was joined by Joshua H. Bates and another member of the militia in preparing the plans for the new camp; the site was chosen by Captain William S. Rosecrans, who chose a level tract of land near Indian Hill, Ohio, 17 miles from Cincinnati; the land was on both sides of the Little Miami Railroad tracks, which ended at Cincinnati's Public Landing. There are variable area listed, but 700 acres of land appears to have been rented from the Buckingham and Nimrod Price families.
They were offered $12 to $20 per acre per month, a figure named without negotiation, considered generous. Rosecrans laid out the camp via survey around April 24, 1861, a large contingent of recruits from Camp Chase, numbering about 1,500 men were sent by train; the first post commander was Melancthon Smith Wade, a Cincinnatian, a former general in the Ohio Militia. The LMR could transport volunteers from Central Ohio, from areas along those tracks; the location had fresh water in the nearby Little Miami River but the recruits had to be trained to use latrines, for in 1862, the United States Sanitary Commission reported that men refused to use latrines, instead used an area hillside, at the bottom of, their water supply. It was the Little Miami Railroad which could transport troops into Cincinnati in case of enemy threat. However, among the men sent, there were less than a dozen muskets among them, but the Confederates, if they considered attacking Cincinnati, were not aware. One can view the land of Camp Dennison via Google.
The Little Miami Railroad tracks are now a bicycle trail. More than 50,000 Union soldiers were mustered out of service at Camp Dennison; as many as 12,000 occupied the camp at any one time. During Morgan's Raid in 1863, troops from Camp Dennison responded to the invasion by Confederate cavalry under Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan, as they had in 1862 when Cincinnati was threatened by the cavalry of Albert G. Jenkins. Within the first week, inclement weather made life hard on those who were first there, they had no chance to build substantial structures, the weather turned cold and accompanied by a lot of rain. The fields became a sea of mud; the camp hospital was established on the ground floor of the Waldschmidt barn, after horses were liveried elsewhere, the manure removed, fresh straw laid down. Camp Dennison along with its surrounding cities of Indian Hill and Madeira have a curfew of 1 AM, Many men contracted pneumonia, there was a measles epidemic. For a time, the "hospital" was a shelter, although there was minimal bedding.
At least one man died. As the war progressed, shortly after the Battle of Shiloh a military hospital was established on the grounds of Camp Dennison, with over 200 beds situated in a series of wooden barracks; these wooden barracks were used to house soldiers, but were converted into hospital wards. There were more men sent there over the course of the war; the nearby Waldschmidt Cemetery served as the temporary gravesite for 340 Union soldiers and 31 Confederate soldiers who were prisoners of war. The bodies were reinterred at Camp Chase in Columbus in the late 1860s; the end of the Civil War in 1865 eliminated the need for Camp Dennison, deactivated in September. A small community, Camp Dennison, sprang up around the hospital. Many of the barns and homes used lumber and materials from the abandoned army camp. In 1973, two of the remaining buildings from the fort were listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district, the "Waldschmidt-Camp Dennison District." Cincinnati in the American Civil War History of Camp Dennison, Ohio home page 48th OVI webpage for Camp Dennison Indian Hill Historical Society webpage for Camp Dennison Camp Dennison, 1861 -1865 by Stephen Z.
Starr Christian Waldschmidt Homestead D. A. R
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
A regiment is a military unit. Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the arm of service. In Medieval Europe, the term "regiment" denoted any large body of front-line soldiers, recruited or conscripted in one geographical area, by a leader, also the feudal lord of the soldiers. By the end of the 17th century, regiments in most European armies were permanent units, numbering about 1,000 men and under the command of a colonel. During the modern era, the word "regiment" – much like "corps" – may have two somewhat divergent meanings, which refer to two distinct roles: a front-line military formation. In many armies, the first role has been assumed by independent battalions, task forces and other, similarly-sized operational units. However, these non-regimental units tend to be short-lived. A regiment may be a variety of sizes: smaller than a standard battalion, e.g. Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment. S. Infantry Regiment and Royal Regiment of Scotland; the French term régiment is considered to have entered military usage in Europe at the end of the 16th century, when armies evolved from collections of retinues who followed knights, to formally organised, permanent military forces.
At that time, regiments were named after their commanding colonels, disbanded at the end of the campaign or war. It was customary to name the regiment by its precedence in the line of battle, to recruit from specific places, called cantons; the oldest regiments which still exist, their dates of establishment, include the Spanish 9th Infantry Regiment “Soria”, Swedish Life Guards, the British Honourable Artillery Company and the King's Own Immemorial Regiment of Spain, first established in 1248 during the conquest of Seville by King Ferdinand the Saint. In the 17th century, brigades were formed as units combining infantry and artillery that were more effective than the older, single-arms regiments. By the beginning of the 18th century, regiments in most European continental armies had evolved into permanent units with distinctive titles and uniforms, each under the command of a colonel; when at full strength, an infantry regiment comprised two field battalions of about 800 men each or 8–10 companies.
In some armies, an independent regiment with fewer companies was labelled a demi-regiment. A cavalry regiment numbered 600 to 900 troopers. On campaign, these numbers were soon reduced by casualties and detachments and it was sometimes necessary to amalgamate regiments or to withdraw them to a depot while recruits were obtained and trained. With the widespread adoption of conscription in European armies during the nineteenth century, the regimental system underwent modification. Prior to World War I, an infantry regiment in the French, German and other smaller armies would comprise four battalions, each with a full strength on mobilization of about 1,000 men; as far as possible, the separate battalions would be garrisoned in the same military district, so that the regiment could be mobilized and campaign as a 4,000 strong linked group of sub-units. A cavalry regiment by contrast made up a single entity of up to 1,000 troopers. A notable exception to this practice was the British line infantry system where the two regular battalions constituting a regiment alternated between "home" and "foreign" service and came together as a single unit.
In the regimental system, each regiment is responsible for recruiting and administration. The regiment is responsible for recruiting and administering all of a soldier's military career. Depending upon the country, regiments can be administrative units or both; this is contrasted to the "continental system" adopted by many armies. In the continental system, the division is the functional army unit, its commander is the administrator of every aspect of the formation: his staff train and administer the soldiers and commanders of the division's subordinate units. Divisions are garrisoned together and share the same installations: thus, in divisional administration, a battalion commanding officer is just another officer in a chain of command. Soldiers and officers are transferred out of divisions as required; some regiments recruited from specific geographical areas, incorporated the place name into the regimental name. In other cases, regiments would recruit from a given age group within a nation, an ethnic group, or foreigners.
In other cases, new regiments were raised for new functions within an army.