Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academic. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, subsequently served as the third president of the University of California, as the first president of Johns Hopkins University, as founding president of the Carnegie Institution, he was co-founder of the Russell Trust Association, which administers the business affairs of Yale's Skull and Bones society. Gilman served for twenty five years as president of Johns Hopkins. S." Born in Norwich, the son of Eliza and mill owner William Charles Gilman, a descendant of Edward Gilman, one of the first settlers of Exeter, New Hampshire, of Thomas Dudley, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and one of the founders of Harvard College, of Thomas Adgate, one of the founders of Norwich in 1659. Daniel Coit Gilman graduated from Yale College in 1852 with a degree in geography. At Yale he was a classmate of Andrew Dickson White, who would serve as first president of Cornell University.
The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society, traveled to Europe together after graduation and remained lifelong friends. Gilman was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Gilman would co-found the Russell Trust Association, the foundation behind Skull and Bones. After serving as attaché of the United States legation at St. Petersburg, Russia from 1853 to 1855, he returned to Yale and was active in planning and raising funds for the founding of Sheffield Scientific School. Gilman contemplated going into the ministry, took out a license to preach, but settled on a career in education. From 1856 to 1865 Gilman served as librarian of Yale College, was concerned with improving the New Haven public school system; when the Civil War broke out, Gilman became the recruiting sergeant for the Norton Cadets, a group of Yale graduates and faculty who drilled on the New Haven Green under the oversight of Yale professor William Augustus Norton. In 1863, Gilman was appointed professor of geography at the Sheffield Scientific School, became secretary and librarian as well in 1866.
Having been passed over for the presidency of Yale, for which post Gilman was said to have been the favorite of the younger faculty, he resigned these posts in 1872 to become the third president of the newly organized University of California. His work there was hampered by the state legislature, in 1875 Gilman accepted the offer to establish and become first president of Johns Hopkins University. Before being formally installed as president in 1876, he spent a year studying university organization and selecting an outstanding staff of teachers and scholars, his formal inauguration, on 22 February 1876, has become Hopkins' Commemoration Day, the day on which many university presidents have chosen to be installed in office. Among the legendary educators he assembled to teach at Johns Hopkins were classicist Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve, mathematician James Joseph Sylvester, historian Herbert Baxter Adams and chemist Ira Remsen. Gilman's primary interest was in fostering advanced instruction and research, as president he developed the first American graduate university in the German tradition.
The aim of the modern research university, said Gilman, was to "extend by minute accretions, the realm of knowledge" At his inaugural address at Hopkins, Gilman asked: "What are we aiming at?" The answer, he said, was "the encouragement of research and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, the society where they dwell." In 1884, Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. Gilman was active in founding Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medical School, he founded and was for many years president of the Charity Organization of Baltimore, in 1897 he served on the commission to draft a new charter for Baltimore. From 1896 to 1897, he was a member of the commission to settle the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana. Gilman served as a trustee of the John F. Slater and Peabody education funds and as a member of John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board. In this capacity, he became active in the promotion of education in the southern United States.
He was president of the National Civil Service Reform League and the American Oriental Society, vice president of the Archaeological Institute of America, executive officer of the Maryland Geological Survey. He retired from Johns Hopkins in 1901, but accepted the presidency of the newly founded Carnegie Institution of Washington, his books include biographies of James Monroe and James Dwight Dana, a collection of addresses entitled University Problems, The Launching of a University. Gilman married twice, his first wife was daughter of Tredwell Ketcham of New York. They married on December 4, 1861, had two daughters: Alice, who married Everett Wheeler. Mary Ketcham Gilman died in 1869, Daniel Coit Gilman married his second wife, Elizabeth Dwight Woolsey, daughter of John M. Woolsey of Cleveland and niece of Yale president Theodore Dwight Woolsey, in 1877. Daniel Gilman's brother Dr. Edward Whiting Gilman was married to Julia Silliman, daughter of Yale Professor and chemist Benjamin Silliman. Daniel Coit Gilman died in Connecticut.
The original academic building on the Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University
Alexander Ignatius Roche
Alexander Ignatius Roche RSA NEAC RP was a Scottish artist in the late 19th century and an important figure in the "Glasgow Boys". He was born in the Gallowgate in the son of a milliner, Alexander Roche, he attended St Mungo's Academy in Glasgow. He trained as an architect, but changed to art, studying at the Glasgow School of Art and, from 1881, at L’Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. Here he studied under Jean-Leon Gerome. In his time here he befriended John Lavery, Thomas Millie Dow and William Stott. In the early 1880s he joined a colony of Scots artists in Grez-sur-Loing south of Fontainebleau. On his return to Scotland in 1885 he joined with the Glasgow Boys working on murals for the 1888 International Exhibition. In 1888 he travelled to Capriwhere he befriended Harold Speed. In following years he visited both Venice and Florence, married an Italian girl on the latter trip; this marriage was short-lived and they separated. As both were Catholics there seems to have never been any divorce. In 1896 he began to distance himself from the Glasgow Boys.
His work drifted from landscape to portraits. In 1906 he remarried, to Jean Alexander, daughter of Robert Alexander. During this period they enjoyed the friendship of Joseph Crawhall. From 1907 until 1914 they lived at 8 Royal Terrace, on Calton Hill, a prestigious property. Around 1910 a cerebral haemorrhage caused the loss of use of its right hand and he had to retrain to paint with the left, he died near the Water of Leith in Slateford, Edinburgh. He is buried in the Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh near the north-east corner of the original cemetery. Roche exhibited in the Royal Scottish Academy from 1887 and in the Royal Academy from 1890-1919; the Dominie’s Favourites The Shepherdess Head of a Young Girl Hunterian Art Gallery Mrs Roberts Group family portrait for Andrew Carnegie Margaret Royal Scottish Academy Lady Reid, Aberdeen Art Gallery Sir William Alexander Smith, founder of the Boys’ Brigade River Ouse Kelvingrove Art Gallery Le Chateau Gaillard, Hunterian Art Gallery Corfe Castle Afternoon Sunshine, St Monans St Monans Kirk, Kirkcaldy Galleries A Newhaven Fishwife, The Fleming Collection Sir Robert Cranston Pittenweem, Fife The Prison Gate, Morocco The Old Fisherman, Scottish National Gallery Girl in a Red Hat Self Portrait The Red Lion Inn Woodland and River The Convict Ship, Hunterian Art Gallery William Elphinstone Malcolm of Burnfoot Langholm Town Hall Flora Clift Stevenson Grez Thomas Littlejohn Galbraith, Town Clerk Gold Medal, Munich Honourable Mention, Paris Salon, Gold Medal, Dresden Elected ARSA 1894 Elected RSA 1900 https://web.archive.org/web/20140822102938/http://www.nationalgalleries.org/collection/artists-a-z/r/artist/alexander-ignatius-roche/object/alexander-ignatius-roche-1861-1921-artist-self-portrait-pg-1185 Calton Gallery biography Billcliffe, Roger: The Glasgow Boys: The Glasgow School of Painting 1875-1895
The Slave Market (Boulanger painting)
The Slave Market is a painting of about 1882 by the 19th century French artist Gustave Boulanger, who specialized in classical and Orientalist genre scenes. It depicts an Ancient Roman slave auction, it shows the marketing of seven young people, ranging in age from children to young adults, as slaves. The three male slaves, as well as two of the female slaves, bear a similarity in appearance suggesting that they are members of a family forced into slavery by economic conditions. All are wearing tags to indicate their availability as slaves; the youngest boy is naked, while the young man next to him is wearing a loincloth. The adolescent sitting next to them is holding his knees close to his chest in a protective pose; the standing African woman is topless, wearing a white loincloth, she is covering her breasts with her hands. The taller, young woman is wearing a translucent garment which shows her breasts and pubic hair—she is trying to shield her eyes because her potential buyers include former friends and neighbors, who are seeing her nude for the first time.
The adolescent girl next to her is topless and barefoot, wearing a skirt. The young woman crouching next to them is wearing a loose garment. Between the male and female slaves, the auctioneer sits eating his lunch with a casual attitude. From a common type of Salon academic art of the period, it depicts an eroticized scene clad as a history painting, as was customary at the time in Paris. Boulanger had visited Italy and North Africa, the painting reflects his attention to culturally correct details and skill in rendering the female form. Slavery in ancient Rome
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926; the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. The International Cyclopaedia was a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia; the title was changed to The New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, Frank Moore Colby. The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909 and 1911; the 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by Talcott Williams; this edition was set up from new type and revised. It was strong in biography. A third edition was published in 1923, however this was a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in volume 24, a reading and study guide.
A two-volume supplement was published in 1925 and was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 volumes. A further two volumes supplement in 1930 along with another reprint; the final edition was published in 1935, now under the Wagnalls label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade; some material from the The New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia. The 1926 material was printed in Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing 23 volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23; each book contains about 1600 pages. Like other encyclopedias of the time, The New International had a yearly supplement, The New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931.
It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor; the yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966. More than 500 men and women submitted and composed the information contained in the The New International Encyclopedia. Walsh, S. P.. Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: Bowker. OCLC 577541. Works related to The New International Encyclopedia at Wikisource
Elmer Boyd Smith
Elmer Boyd Smith was an American writer and illustrator of children's books and painter. Smith was born in Saint John, New Brunswick and studied art in Paris with Gustave Boulanger and Jules Joseph Lefebvre at the Académie Julian from 1881 to 1884, with H. Lefort for several years. In the early 1900s he moved to Wilton, where he spent the remainder of his life, he illustrated more than seventy books for both adults and children, beginning with My Village in 1896, written while he was living in France. His first children's book was The Story of Noah's Ark in 1905; the Story of Noah’s Ark, 1905 The Circus, 1909 Early Life of Mr. Man Before Noah, 1914 After They Came Out of the Ark: Completing the Story of Noah, 1918 The Story of Our Country, 1920 Fun In the Radio World, 1923 The Country Book,1924 So Long Ago, 1944 Works by Elmer Boyd Smith at Project Gutenberg Chicken World The Farm Book The Story of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith The Railroad Book The Seashore book Online books by Elmer Boyd Smith Illustrations from In the Days of Giants: a book of Norse tales Media related to Elmer Boyd Smith at Wikimedia Commons
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. These depictions are done by writers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more "the Middle East", was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern and North African societies. In Said's analysis, the West essentializes these societies as static and undeveloped—thereby fabricating a view of Oriental culture that can be studied and reproduced. Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the idea that Western society is developed, rational and superior. Orientalism refers in reference and opposition to the Occident; the word Orient entered the English language as the Middle French orient.
The root word oriēns, from the Latin Oriēns, has synonymous denotations: The eastern part of the world. In the "Monk's Tale", Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: "That they conquered many regnes grete / In the orient, with many a fair citee." The term "orient" refers to countries east of the Mediterranean Southern Europe. In Place of Fear, Aneurin Bevan used an expanded denotation of the Orient that comprehended East Asia: "the awakening of the Orient under the impact of Western ideas". Edward Said said that Orientalism "enables the political, economic and social domination of the West, not just during colonial times, but in the present." In art history, the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. In that time and scholars were described as Orientalists in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary. Despite such social disdain for a style of representational art, the French Society of Orientalist Painters was founded in 1893, with Jean-Léon Gérôme as the honorary president.
The formation of the French Orientalist Painters Society changed the consciousness of practitioners towards the end of the 19th century, since artists could now see themselves as part of a distinct art movement. As an art movement, Orientalist painting is treated as one of the many branches of 19th-century academic art. Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: the realists who painted what they observed and those who imagined Orientalist scenes without leaving the studio. French painters such as Eugène Delacroix and Jean-Léon Gérôme are regarded as the leading luminaries of the Orientalist movement. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the term Orientalist identified a scholar who specialized in the languages and literatures of the Eastern world. Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Company, who said that the Arab culture, the culture of India, the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe. Among such scholars is the philologist William Jones, whose studies of Indo-European languages established modern philology.
British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the 1820s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education. Additionally and Jewish studies gained popularity among British and German scholars in the 19th and 20th centuries; the academic field of Oriental studies, which comprehended the cultures of the Near East and the Far East, became the fields of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies. In the book Orientalism, the cultural critic Edward Said redefined the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition — academic and artistic — of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries; the thesis of Orientalism develops Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony, Michel Foucault's theorisation of discourse to criticise the scholarly tradition of Oriental studies.
Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo-Islamic cultures Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami. The analyses are of Orientalism in European literature French literature, do not analyse visual art and Orientalist painting. In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results". In the academy, the book Orientalism became a foundational text of post-colonial cultural studies. Moreover, in relation to the cultural institution of citizenship, Orientalism has rendered the concept of citizenship as a problem of epistemology, because citizenship originated as a social institution of the Western world. Furthermore, Said said that Orientalism, as an "idea of representation is a theoretical one: The Orient is a stage on which the whole East is confined" in order to make the Eastern world "les