Sandusky is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. Situated in northern Ohio on the shores of Lake Erie, Sandusky is midway between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east. According to 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,793, the Sandusky, Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area had 77,079 residents. In 2011, Sandusky was ranked No. 1 by Forbes as the "Best Place to Live Cheaply" in the United States. The city has a median family income of $64,000. Sandusky is home to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company and its flagship amusement park, Cedar Point. Cedar Point has one of the largest collections of roller coasters in the world. Cedar Point includes 17 roller coasters, it is home to the second tallest roller coaster in the Top Thrill Dragster. The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Sandusky as a Tree City USA; the accepted etymology is that the name "Sandusky" is derived from the Wyandot word saundustee, meaning "water" or andusti, "cold water". In his 1734 history of New France, Charlevoix transliterated the word as "Chinouski".
Sandusky Bay is identified as "Lac Sandouské" on a 1718 map by Guillaume DeLisle. The name "L. Sandoski" appears on a 1733 map. Sandusky Bay was called Lac Ondaské, in another French transliteration of the Wyandot, it was used as the name of an English trading post on the north side of the bay, a French Fort Sandoské that replaced it, a British Fort Sandusky on the south shore of the bay, an American Fort Sandusky upriver at what is now Fremont. This area was a center of trading and fortifications since the 18th century: the English and Americans had trading posts and forts built on both the north and south sides of Sandusky Bay. Development by European Americans of the city of Sandusky, starting in 1818, on the southeast shore of Sandusky Bay, followed settlement of the war of 1812. Part of the city enveloped the site of an earlier small village named "Portland"; the city of Sandusky encompassed most of the entire township, called Portland. Some of the city was built on land occupied by a Native-American man named Ogontz, therefore the city is said to have been built on "Ogontz' place".
Prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States, Sandusky was a major stop for refugee slaves on the Underground Railroad, as some would travel across Lake Erie to reach freedom in Canada. Although Ohio was a free state, they felt at risk from slavecatchers because of bonuses offered under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850; as depicted in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, many refugee slaves seeking to get to Canada made their way to Sandusky, where they boarded boats crossing Lake Erie to the port of Amherstburg in Ontario. Sandusky‘s original plat was designed by surveyor Hector Kilbourne according to a modified grid plan, known today as the Kilbourne Plat. Kilbourne became the first Worshipful Master of the first Sandusky Masonic Lodge known as Science Lodge #50, still in operation on Wayne Street, his design featured a street grid with avenues cutting diagonally to create patterns reminiscent of the symbols of Freemasonry. On September 17, 1835, Sandusky was the site of groundbreaking for the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, which brought change to the town.
Industrial areas developed near the railroad and goods were transported through the port. The coal docks located west of downtown still use a portion of the original MR&LE right-of-way, but since the late 20th century, Battery Park Marina was developed on the original site of the MR&LE Railroad after restructuring of the industry reduced traffic on the line. The tracks that ran through downtown Sandusky have since been removed. Most of the downtown industrial area is being redeveloped for other purposes, including marina dockage; the English author Charles Dickens visited the city in 1842, wrote of it in his subsequent travelogue, American Notes. Said Dickens, who rode the newly constructed MR&LE railroad from Tiffin, "At two o'clock we took the railroad. We put up at a comfortable little hotel on the brink of Lake Erie, lay there that night, had no choice but to wait there next day, until a steamboat bound for Buffalo appeared; the town, sluggish and uninteresting enough, was something like the back of an English watering-place out of the season."
The city developed as a center of paper-making. With a mill in the industrial area near the lake, the Hinde & Dauch Paper Company was the largest employer in the city in the early 1900s. Sandusky is located at 41°26′48″N 82°42′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.91 square miles, of which 9.73 square miles is land and 12.18 square miles is water. Sandusky occupies the defunct township Portland and borders the following townships: Margaretta Township - west and south Perkins Township - south Huron Township - east Sandusky has a humid continental climate, typical of much of the central United States, with warm, humid summers and cold winters. Winters tend to be cold, with an average January high temperature of 32 °F, an average January low temperature of 19 °F, with considerable variation in temperatures. Sandusky averages 28.4 inches of snow per winter. Summers tend to be warm, sometimes hot, with an average July high temperature of 82 °F, an average July low temperature of 66°.
Summer weather is more stable humid with thunderstorms common
Daniel Frohman was an American theatrical producer and manager, an early film producer. Frohman was born to a Jewish family in Ohio, his parents were Barbara Straus Frohman. In his younger days he worked as a clerk at the New York Tribune, while there witnessed the fatal shooting of the reporter Albert Deane Richardson by Daniel McFarland on November 25, 1869, was a witness at McFarland's murder trial. With his brothers Charles and Gustave Frohman, he helped to develop a system of road companies that would tour the nation while the show played in New York City; the three brothers worked together at the Madison Square Theatre in the early 1880s. Daniel was the producer-manager of the old and new Lyceum Theatres and the Lyceum stock company from 1886 to 1909. During this period he launched careers for such actors as E. H. Sothern, Henry Miller, William Faversham, Maude Adams, Richard Mansfield and James Keteltas Hackett. Daniel Frohman was at 1903 -- 1909, married to Broadway actress Margaret Illington.
Illington married Major Edward Bowes. Frohman became involved in the motion picture business as a partner and producer with Adolph Zukor in the Famous Players Film Company, he worked from offices on West 26th Street in New York City. On his death in 1940, Frohman was buried in the Union Field Cemetery in Queens, near his brother Charles, who had died in 1915 in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania. Thomas Allston Brown, A History of the New York Stage From the First Performance in 1732 to 1901, vol. III, George Cooper, Lost Love: A True Story of Passion and Justice in Old New York ISBN 0-679-43398-8 Stanhope Searles, "Six Books of the Month: Charles Frohman and Man", The Bookman, vol. 44, no. 3 p. 306 Works by Daniel Frohman at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Daniel Frohman at Internet Archive Daniel Frohman at the Internet Broadway Database Daniel Frohman on IMDb Daniel Frohman at Find a Grave Daniel Frohman picture gallery in life
Sam Lucas was an African American actor, comedian and songwriter. Sam Lucas's exact date of birth is disputed. Lucas's year of birth, to freed former slaves, has been cited as 1839, 1840, 1841, 1850, his career began in blackface minstrelsy, but he became one of the first African Americans to branch out into more serious drama, with roles in seminal works such as The Creole Show and A Trip to Coontown. He was the first black man to portray the role of Uncle Tom on both screen. James Weldon Johnson described him as the "Grand Old Man of the Negro Stage". Lucas was born Samuel Mildmay Lucas in Ohio to free black parents, he showed a talent for guitar and singing as a teenager, while working as a barber, his local performances gained him a positive reputation. In 1858 he began his career as a performer with the traveling African-American minstrel companies. Over the next five years, he sang and acted on stage and on riverboats, composed music for his shows. Meanwhile, he found ways to integrate his African-American roots into the white form.
As black minstrelsy grew popular with the general public, Lucas became one of its first celebrities known for his portrayals of pitiable, comic characters. His fame allowed him to choose his engagements, over the span of his career, he performed with some of the best black minstrel troupes, he never led a troupe of his own, however. Throughout his life, Lucas performed with many minstrel groups including Lew Johnson's Plantation Minstrels, Callender’s Georgia Minstrels, Sprague’s Georgia Minstrels in Havana, Cuba. After his time as a minstrel performer, Lucas began to perform in vaudeville. Meanwhile, Lucas attempted to branch out into non-minstrel material. In 1875, for instance, he performed alongside Emma and Anna Hyer in Out of Bondage, a musical drama about a freed slave, made over to fit into upper-class, white society, he followed this by another stint in black minstrelsy, in 1876, he was playing with Sprague's Georgia Minstrels, alongside both James A. Bland and Billy Kersands. In 1878, Charles and Gustave Frohman needed an advertising gimmick to help rescue a poorly performing comedy troupe.
Their answer was to stage a serious production of Uncle Tom's Cabin with a black man in the lead role. Lucas's reputation as an actor was well known. Be sure to tell Sam to bring his diamonds."Lucas became the first African American to play Uncle Tom in a serious production. The show fared poorly in Richmond and not a change of venue to Lucas's home state of Ohio could save the production; the problems seem to have been many. One critic remarked that "little" Eva was so large that she nearly flattened St. Clair when she sat in his lap. Lucas had to hawk his stash of diamonds to pay the troupe's transport back to Cincinnati. Lucas rejoined the Hyer sisters for The Underground Railroad, only to go back to blackface acts after its run, he continued to write, much of his output shows a more African American perspective when compared to work of other black composers, such as James Bland. For example, the lyrics to "My Dear Old Southern Home" say: I remember now my poor wife's face, Her cries ring in my ear.
My children sobbed about my knees, They've all grown up since But bress de Lord de good time's come. Another Lucas tune declares, "I nebber shall forget, no nebber, / De day I was sot free." In 1890, Lucas served as an endman in Sam T. Jack's The Creole Show cited as the first African American production to show signs of breaking the links to minstrelsy, he married during its run, afterward he and his wife played a succession of variety houses, vaudeville stages, museums. In 1898, he performed in Boston in A Trip to Coontown, produced by Bob Cole; this was the first black production to use only African American writers and producers, the first black musical comedy to make a complete break with minstrelsy. From 1905-06, he starred in Rufus Rastus, directed by Ernest Hogan. In 1907, Lucas starred in the second showing of an original musical comedy from Cole and Johnson, The Shoe-Fly Regiment, which ran from June 3, 1907 to August 17, 1907; this production showed at the Grand Opera House in New York City from June 6–8, 1907 and at the Bijou Theatre, located in New York, from August 6 to August 17, 1907.
The Shoe-Fly Regiment was a three-act musical, with Acts One and Three taking place in the Lincolnville Institute in Alabama and act two taking place in the Philippines. Lucas played Brother Doolittle, a member of the Bode of Education. Lucas performed in another original musical comedy The Red Moon, portraying Bill Webster, a barber; the Red Moon ran from May 3, 1909 to May 29, 1909. The Red Moon was a three-act musical, but set in fictional "Swamptown, Virginia". In 1908, he became a charter member for the professional theatrical club The Frogs, in 1913 he participated in The Frog Follies. In 1913, Lucas was featured in the unfinished film, Lime Kiln Field Day, produced by the Biograph Company and Klaw and Erlanger; the footage of the unfinished film was assembled in 2014 by the Museum of Modern Art, which had rescued the film cans from a Biograph film storage vault in 1938. In 1914, Lucas revived his role of Uncle Tom in William Robert Daly's film adaptation of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
He is credited as the first black man to portray Uncle
The Frohman brothers were American theatre owners, including on Broadway, theatrical producers who owned and operated motion picture production companies. The brothers were: Daniel Frohman Gustave Frohman Charles Frohman Born to a Jewish family from Sandusky, the Frohman brothers developed a system of touring theatrical companies that would perform in various parts of the United States, they made their way to New York City in the 1880s where they set up offices that managed bookings for a chain of Western theaters whose operations extended through to California. Charles Frohman became the representative partner in the Theatrical Syndicate which created a monopoly in 1896 that controlled every aspect of theatre contracts and bookings for the next twenty years. Daniel Frohman led the brothers business interests into a 1912 partnership with filmmaker Adolph Zukor named the Famous Players Film Company; the new film production company made its first film in 1913, The Prisoner of Zenda and the Frohmans remained involved until 1918 when they parted ways with Zukor after having been part of seventy-four Famous Players productions.
In 1915 the brothers created Frohman Amusement Corp to be used as a vehicle to make motion pictures from theatrical plays on which they held the rights. A few months after the film company was set up, Charles Frohman died in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania. Brothers Gustave and Daniel assumed control of the theatre operations plus the management of the film production company. Between its startup in 1915 and 1917, all of the company's films were directed by George Irving; until its dissolution in 1920, their film company produced twenty-one motion pictures. William L. Sherrill was a partner, they made more than two dozen two-reel Western films with Texas Guinan in 1918 including The Boss of the Rancho and The Heart of Texas. Body and Soul Then I'll Come Back to You from the novel by Larry Evans starring Alice Brady with Jack Sherrill in a supporting role God's Man Once to Every Man The Boss of the Rancho Ambrose's Day Off starring Mack Swain and bathing beauties Daddy Ambrose starring Mack Swain The Girl of Hell's Agony The Invisible Ray science fiction serial Gustave and Daniel Frohman continued producing theatrical plays until the early part of the 1930s.
They managed their theatres until Daniel, the last surviving brother, died in 1940
Washington National Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the City and Diocese of Washington known as Washington National Cathedral, is an American cathedral of the Episcopal Church. The cathedral is located in Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. The structure is of Neo-Gothic design modeled on English Gothic style of the late fourteenth century, it is both the second-largest church building in the United States, the fourth-tallest structure in Washington, D. C; the cathedral is the seat of both the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, Michael Bruce Curry, the bishop of the Diocese of Washington, Mariann Edgar Budde. Over 270,000 people visit the structure annually; the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation, under the first seven Bishops of Washington, erected the cathedral under a charter passed by the United States Congress on January 6, 1893. Construction began on September 29, 1907, when the foundation stone was laid in the presence of President Theodore Roosevelt and a crowd of more than 20,000, ended 83 years when the "final finial" was placed in the presence of President George H. W. Bush in 1990.
Decorative work, such as carvings and statuary, is ongoing as of 2011. The Foundation is the legal entity; the cathedral stands at Wisconsin Avenues in the northwest quadrant of Washington. It is an associate member of the organized inter-denominational Washington Theological Consortium, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2007, it was ranked third on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. In 1792, Pierre L'Enfant's "Plan of the Federal City" set aside land for a "great church for national purposes"; the National Portrait Gallery now occupies that site. In 1891, a meeting was held to renew plans for a national cathedral. On January 6, 1893, the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation of the District of Columbia was granted a charter from Congress to establish the cathedral; the 52nd United States Congress declared in the act to incorporate the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation of the District of Columbia that the "said corporation is hereby empowered to establish and maintain within the District of Columbia a cathedral and institutions of learning for the promotion of religion and education and charity."
The commanding site on Mount Saint Alban was chosen. Henry Yates Satterlee, first Episcopal bishop of the Diocese of Washington, chose George Frederick Bodley, Britain's leading Anglican church architect, as the head architect. Henry Vaughan was selected supervising architect. Construction started September 29, 1907, with a ceremonial address by President Theodore Roosevelt and the laying of the cornerstone. In 1912, Bethlehem Chapel opened for services in the unfinished cathedral, which have continued daily since; when construction of the cathedral resumed after a brief hiatus for World War I, both Bodley and Vaughan had died. Gen. John J. Pershing led fundraising efforts for the church after World War I. American architect Philip Hubert Frohman took over the design of the cathedral and was thenceforth designated the principal architect. Funding for Washington National Cathedral has come from private sources. Maintenance and upkeep continue to rely upon private support. From its earliest days, the cathedral has been promoted as more than an Episcopal cathedral.
Planners hoped. They wanted it to be a venue for great services. For much of the cathedral's history, this was captured in the phrase "a house of prayer for all people." In more recent times the phrases "national house of prayer" and "spiritual home for the nation" have been used. The cathedral has achieved this status by offering itself and being accepted by religious and political leaders as playing this role, its initial charter was similar to those granted to American University, Catholic University of America, other not-for-profit entities founded in the District of Columbia around 1900. Contrary to popular misconception, the government has not designated it as a national house of prayer. During World War II, monthly services were held there "on behalf of a united people in a time of emergency". Before and since, the structure has hosted other major events, both religious and secular, that have drawn the attention of the American people, as well as tourists from around the world. State funerals for four American presidents have been held at the cathedral: 34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower: lay in repose at the cathedral before lying in state 38th President Gerald Ford 40th President Ronald Reagan 41st President George H. W. Bush Memorial services were held at the cathedral for the following presidents: Warren G. Harding William Howard Taft Calvin Coolidge Harry S. Truman Richard NixonPresidential prayer services were held the day after the inaugurations for: 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt in January 1937 40th President Ronald Reagan in 1985 41st President George H. W. Bush in 1989 43rd President George W. Bush in 2001 and 2005 44th President Barack Obama in 2009 and 2013 45th President Donald Trump in 2017 Other events have included: Funeral for former first lady Edith Wilson Memorial service for former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt Memorial service for the casualties of the Vietnam War on November 14, 1982 Public funeral for Chief of Naval Operations, United States Navy, Admiral Jeremy M
RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner and the world's largest passenger ship. The ship was sunk on 7 May 1915 by a German U-boat 11 mi off the southern coast of Ireland; the sinking presaged the United States declaration of war on Germany. Lusitania was a holder of the Blue Riband appellation for the fastest Atlantic crossing, was the world's largest passenger ship until the completion of her sister ship Mauretania, three months later; the Cunard Line launched Lusitania in 1906, at a time of fierce competition for the North Atlantic trade. She sank on her 202nd trans-Atlantic crossing. German shipping lines were aggressive competitors for the custom of transatlantic passengers in the early 20th century. In the face of the competition, Cunard responded by trying to outdo them in speed and luxury. Cunard used assistance from the British Admiralty to build Lusitania, on the understanding that the ship would be available as a light merchant cruiser in time of war. Lusitania had gun mounts for deck cannons, but no guns were installed.
Both Lusitania and Mauretania were fitted with revolutionary new turbine engines that enabled them to maintain a service speed of 25 knots. They were equipped with lifts, wireless telegraph and electric light, provided 50% more passenger space than any other ship; the Royal Navy had blockaded Germany at the start of the First World War. The UK declared the entire North Sea a war zone in the autumn of 1914, mined the approaches; when RMS Lusitania left New York for Britain on 1 May 1915, German submarine warfare was intensifying in the Atlantic. Germany had declared the seas around the United Kingdom a war zone, the German embassy in the United States had placed newspaper advertisements warning people of the dangers of sailing on Lusitania. On the afternoon of 7 May, a German U-boat torpedoed Lusitania 11 mi off the southern coast of Ireland and inside the declared war zone. A second, internal explosion that of munitions she was carrying, sent her to the seabed in 18 minutes, with the deaths of 1,198 passengers and crew.
The Germans justified treating Lusitania as a naval vessel because she was carrying hundreds of tons of war munitions, therefore making her a legitimate military target, argued that British merchant ships had violated the Cruiser Rules from the beginning of the war. The internationally recognized Cruiser Rules were obsolete by 1915 - with the British introduction of Q-ships in 1915 with concealed deck guns, it had become more dangerous for submarines to surface and give warning. RMS Lusitania was transporting war munitions, she operated under the control of the Admiralty, she could be converted into an armed auxiliary cruiser to join the war, her identity had been disguised, she flew no flags, she was a non-neutral vessel in a declared war zone, with orders to evade capture and ram challenging submarines. However the ship was technically unarmed and was carrying thousands of civilian passengers, so the British government accused the Germans of breaching the Cruiser Rules; the sinking caused a storm of protest in the United States because 128 American citizens were among the dead.
The sinking helped shift public opinion in the United States against Germany and was one of the factors in the United States' declaration of war nearly two years later. After the First World War, successive British governments maintained that there were no munitions on board Lusitania, the Germans were not justified in treating the ship as a naval vessel. In 1982, the head of the British Foreign Office's North America department admitted that there is a large amount of ammunition in the wreck, some of, dangerous and poses a safety risk to salvage teams. Lusitania and Mauretania were commissioned by Cunard, responding to increasing competition from rival transatlantic passenger companies the German Norddeutscher Lloyd and Hamburg America Line, they had larger, more modern and more luxurious ships than Cunard, were better placed, starting from German ports, to capture the lucrative trade in emigrants leaving Europe for North America. The NDL liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse captured the Blue Riband from Cunard's Campania in 1897, before the prize was taken in 1900 by the HAPAG ship Deutschland.
NDL soon wrested the prize back in 1903 with the new Kaiser Wilhelm Kronprinz Wilhelm. Cunard saw its passenger numbers affected as a result of the so-called "Kaiser-class ocean liners". American millionaire businessman J. P. Morgan had decided to invest in transatlantic shipping by creating a new company, International Mercantile Marine, and, in 1901, purchased the British freight shipper Frederick Leyland & Co. and a controlling interest in the British passenger White Star Line and folded them into IMM. In 1902, IMM, NDL and HAPAG entered into a "Community of Interest" to fix prices and divide among them the transatlantic trade; the partners acquired a 51% stake in the Dutch Holland America Line. IMM made offers to purchase Cunard. Cunard chairman Lord Inverclyde thus approached the British government for assistance. Faced with the impending collapse of the British liner fleet and the consequent loss of national prestige, as well as the reserve of shipping for war purposes which it represented, they agreed to help.
By an agreement signed in June 1903, Cunard was given a loan of £2.6 million to finance two ships, repayable over 20 years at a favourabl
Blackface is a form of theatrical make-up used predominantly by non-black performers to represent a caricature of a black person. The practice gained popularity during the 19th century and contributed to the spread of racial stereotypes such as the "happy-go-lucky darky on the plantation" or the "dandified coon". By the middle of the century, blackface minstrel shows had become a distinctive American artform, translating formal works such as opera into popular terms for a general audience. Early in the 20th century, blackface branched off from the minstrel show and became a form in its own right. In the United States, blackface had fallen out of favor by the turn of the 21st century, is now considered offensive and disrespectful, though the practice continues in other countries. Blackface was a performance tradition in the American theater for 100 years beginning around 1830, it became popular elsewhere so in Britain, where the tradition lasted longer than in the U. S. occurring on primetime TV, most famously in The Black and White Minstrel Show, which ended in 1978, in Are You Being Served?'s Christmas specials in 1976 and in 1981.
In both the United States and Britain, blackface was most used in the minstrel performance tradition, which it both predated and outlasted. Early white performers in blackface used burnt cork and greasepaint or shoe polish to blacken their skin and exaggerate their lips wearing woolly wigs, tailcoats, or ragged clothes to complete the transformation. Black artists performed in blackface. Stereotypes embodied in the stock characters of blackface minstrels not only played a significant role in cementing and proliferating racist images and perceptions worldwide, but in popularizing black culture. In some quarters, the caricatures that were the legacy of blackface persist to the present day and are a cause of ongoing controversy. Another view is that "blackface is a form of cross-dressing in which one puts on the insignias of a sex, class, or race that stands in opposition to one's own."By the mid-20th century, changing attitudes about race and racism ended the prominence of blackface makeup used in performance in the U.
S. and elsewhere. Blackface in contemporary art remains in limited use as a theatrical device and is more used today as social commentary or satire; the most enduring effect of blackface is the precedent it established in the introduction of African-American culture to an international audience, albeit through a distorted lens. Blackface's appropriation and assimilation of African-American culture – as well as the inter-ethnic artistic collaborations that stemmed from it – were but a prologue to the lucrative packaging and dissemination of African-American cultural expression and its myriad derivative forms in today's world popular culture. There is no consensus about a single moment; the journalist and cultural commentator John Strausbaugh places it as part of a tradition of "displaying Blackness for the enjoyment and edification of white viewers" that dates back at least to 1441, when captive West Africans were displayed in Portugal. White people portrayed the black characters in the Elizabethan and Jacobean theater, most famously in Othello.
However and other plays of this era did not involve the emulation and caricature of "such supposed innate qualities of Blackness as inherent musicality, natural athleticism", etc. that Strausbaugh sees as crucial to blackface. Lewis Hallam, Jr. a white blackface actor of American Company fame, brought blackface in this more specific sense to prominence as a theatrical device in the United States when playing the role of "Mungo", an inebriated black man in The Padlock, a British play that premiered in New York City at the John Street Theatre on May 29, 1769. The play attracted notice, other performers adopted the style. From at least the 1810s, blackface clowns were popular in the United States. British actor Charles Mathews toured the U. S. in 1822–23, as a result added a "black" characterization to his repertoire of British regional types for his next show, A Trip to America, which included Mathews singing "Possum up a Gum Tree", a popular slave freedom song. Edwin Forrest played a plantation black in 1823, George Washington Dixon was building his stage career around blackface in 1828, but it was another white comic actor, Thomas D. Rice, who popularized blackface.
Rice introduced the song "Jump Jim Crow" accompanied by a dance in his stage act in 1828 and scored stardom with it by 1832. First on de heel tap, den on the toeEvery time I wheel about I jump Jim Crow. I wheel about and turn about an do just so. Rice traveled the U. S. performing under the stage name "Daddy Jim Crow". The name Jim Crow became attached to statutes that codified the reinstitution of segregation and discrimination after Reconstruction. In the 1830s and early 1840s, blackface performances mixed skits with comic songs and vigorous dances. Rice and his peers performed only in disreputable venues, but as blackface gained popularity they gained opportunities to perform as entr'actes in theatrical venues of a higher class. Stereotyped blackface characters developed: buffoonish, superstitious and lascivious characters, who stole, lied pathologically, mangled the English language. Early blackface minstrels were all male, so cross-dressing white men played black women who were portrayed as unappealingly and grotesquely mannish, in the matronly mammy mold, or as sexually provocative.
The 1830s American stage, where blackfa