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Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

Gustavus Adolphus known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power. He led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe, he was formally and posthumously given the name Gustavus Adolphus the Great by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634. He is regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time, with innovative use of combined arms, his most notable military victory was the Battle of Breitenfeld. With a superb military machine, good weapons, excellent training, effective field artillery, backed by an efficient government that could provide necessary funds, Gustavus Adolphus was poised to make himself a major European leader, he was killed a year however, at the Battle of Lützen. He was assisted in his efforts by Count Axel Oxenstierna, the Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, who acted as regent after his death.

In an era characterized by endless warfare, Gustavus Adolphus inherited three simultaneous and ongoing wars of his father at the age of sixteen. Two of these were border wars with Russia and Denmark, a more personal war with Gustavus' first cousin, King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland. Of these three wars that were passed onto his rule, the Danish war was the most acute one. During his reign, Sweden rose from the status of a Baltic Sea basin regional power to one of the great powers of Europe and a model of early modern era government. Gustavus Adolphus is famously known as the "father of modern warfare", or the first great modern general. Under his tutelage and the Protestant cause developed a number of excellent commanders, such as Lennart Torstensson, who would go on to defeat Sweden's enemies and expand the boundaries and the power of the empire long after Gustavus Adolphus's death in battle. Spoils meant. Called "The Golden King" and "The Lion of the North", he made Sweden one of the great powers of Europe, in part by reforming the administrative structure.

For example, he began parish registration of the population, so that the central government could more efficiently tax and conscript the people. Historian Christer Jorgensen argues that his achievement in the field of economic reform, trade and the creation of the modern bureaucratic autocracy was as great as his exploits on the battlefields, his domestic reforms, which transformed a backward medieval economy and society, were in fact not only the foundations for his victories in Germany, but absolutely crucial for the creation and survival of the Swedish Empire. He is commemorated by Protestants in Europe as the main defender of their cause during the Thirty Years' War, with multiple churches and other undertakings named after him, including the Gustav-Adolf-Werk, he became a symbol of Swedish pride. Gustavus Adolphus was born in Stockholm as the oldest son of Duke Charles of the Vasa dynasty and his second wife, Christina of Holstein-Gottorp. At the time, the King of Sweden was Gustavus Adolphus' cousin Sigismund, who ruled Sweden from Poland.

The staunch Protestant Duke Charles forced the Catholic Sigismund to let go of the throne of Sweden in 1599, a part of the preliminary religious strife before the Thirty Years' War, reigned as regent before taking the throne as Charles IX of Sweden in 1604. Crown Prince Gustav Adolph had Gagnef-Floda in Dalecarlia as a duchy from 1610. Upon his father's death in October 1611, a sixteen-year-old Gustavus inherited the throne, being declared of age and able to reign himself at seventeen as of 16 December, he inherited an ongoing succession of belligerent dynastic disputes with his Polish cousin. Sigismund III wanted to regain the throne of Sweden and tried to force Gustavus Adolphus to renounce the title. In a round of this dynastic dispute, Gustavus invaded Livonia when he was 31, beginning the Polish–Swedish War, he intervened on behalf of the Lutherans in Germany. His reign became famous from his actions a few years when in June 1630 he landed in Germany, marking the Swedish Intervention in the Thirty Years' War.

Gustavus intervened on the anti-Imperial side, which at the time was losing to the Holy Roman Empire and its Catholic allies. Gustavus was married to Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, the daughter of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, chose the Prussian city of Elbing as the base for his operations in Germany, he died in the Battle of Lützen in 1632. His early death was a great loss to the Lutheran side; this resulted in large parts of Germany and other countries, conquered for Lutheranism, to be reconquered for Catholicism. His involvement in the Thirty Years' War gave rise to the saying that he was the incarnation of "the Lion of the North", or as he is called in German "Der Löwe aus Mitternacht". Historian Ronald S. Love finds that in 1560–1660 there were "a few innovators, notably Maurice of Nassau and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, whom many scholars credit with revolutionary developments in warfare and with having laid the foundations of military practice for the next two centuries." Scholars all agree that Gustavus Adolphus was an able military commander.

His innovative tactical integration of infantry, cavalry and his use of artillery, earned him the title of t

2010 Icelandic Constitutional Assembly election

Constitutional Assembly elections were held in Iceland on 27 November 2010. The Supreme Court of Iceland invalidated the results of the election on 25 January 2011 following complaints about several faults in how the election was conducted. However, it was decided on 25 February 2011 that the elected assembly members would instead be appointed to a Constitutional Council with the same role; the proposed changes to the constitution were approved in a referendum in October 2012. This would be the first time in Iceland's history that a body had reviewed broad areas of the constitution, it was given the mandate to examine: The foundations of the Icelandic constitution and its fundamental concepts. The Constitutional Assembly was empowered to address additional matters beyond "reviewing the Constitution of the Republic"; the Assembly was required to convene by 15 February 2011 and finish its work no than 15 April 2011. The 25 members were to be elected using the single transferable vote system under the Weighted Inclusive Gregory Method.

Over 500 candidates filed to run in the election, more than double the most optimistic estimates. Turnout in the election was only 36%. 15 men and 10 women were elected. The full list of the 25 members elected to the Constitutional Assembly are as followed: The Supreme Court of Iceland ruled the election to the Constitutional Assembly null and void with a decision on 25 January 2011. Six Supreme Court Justices examined complaints about the election process; the Justices were: Garðar Gíslason, Árni Kolbeinsson, Gunnlaugur Claessen, Jón Steinar Gunnlaugsson, Páll Hreinsson and Viðar Már Matthíasson. The court received complaints from Skafti Harðarson and Þorgrímur S. Þorgrímsson. The complaints regarded various faults of the election process, according to the complainants; the court found five separate faults on the election process. It considered two of them to be serious; the fact that ballot papers had bar-codes printed in consecutive numerical order, was considered a serious fault of the election process and deemed an infringement of laws mandating a secret ballot, which the Court considered "a fundamental provision of the Icelandic Constitution concerning public elections".

The fact that cardboard dividers had been used in place of election booths, was thought in breach of Icelandic law requiring the use of closed booths for the electorate to cast their vote. The use of cardboard dividers was considered a fault of the election process, "the fact it was possible to glance a voter's ballot paper, which took some time to fill out if all options were exercised, is to restrict the right of the voter to exercise his vote if someone, whom he is dependent upon, could observe him or if the voter had reason to suspect that this could happen"; the fact that the legal requirement stipulating that ballot papers should be folded before being cast, was not followed. According to the Supreme Court, this rule was intended to "secure the right of the voter to cast his ballot in secret". A majority of the Supreme Court considered this a fault of the election process. Supreme Court Justices Garðar Gíslason and Viðar Már Matthíasson were of a different opinion in regards to this, did not consider the process unlawful.

The ballot boxes did not comply with Icelandic law, since it was not possible to secure them with a lock. Furthermore, the Supreme Court considered the ballot boxes "of a make so that it was possible without much effort to disassemble them and access ballot papers; the make and quality of the ballot boxes was thus conductive to reduce the security and secrecy of the election". This was considered a fault of the election process; the legislation concerning elections mandated that the National Electoral Commission had to draft persons to observe the electoral process. The Supreme Court stated that since there had been doubt as to how to interpret 13-15% of the votes during the election, such observers had been of special importance to guard the rights of the candidates; the Supreme Court considered this a serious fault of the election process. The Supreme Court referred to the fact that it was the role of the legislature to establish clear and unambiguous rules for the conduct of public elections which take into account the circumstances resulting from their special nature.

It was however not lawful for the government to deviate from the clear provisions of the laws concerning elections, because of the number of candidates or because of new procedures thought suitable for electronic tallying of votes. The Court further pointed to case law supporting its decision; the Court referred to the fact that in Icelandic jurisprudence there was precedent for declaring elections null and void when the election process was in breach of law and suited to violate election secrecy. For example, elections in Helgafellssveit regarding the unification of municipalities had been declared null and void; that judgement was reached because the ballot paper was of such a make that it was possible to see w

Akinetopsia

Akinetopsia known as cerebral akinetopsia or motion blindness, is a neuropsychological disorder in which a patient cannot perceive motion in their visual field, despite being able to see stationary objects without issue. There are varying degrees of akinetopsia: from seeing motion as a cinema reel to an inability to discriminate any motion. There is no effective treatment or cure for akinetopsia. Akinetopsia can be separated into two categories, "inconspicuous akinetopsia" or "gross akinetopsia", based on symptom severity and the amount the akinetopsia affects the patient's quality of life. Inconspicuous akinetopsia is described by seeing motion as a cinema reel or a multiple exposure photograph; this is the most common kind of akinetopsia and many patients consider the stroboscopic vision as a nuisance. The akinetopsia occurs with visual trailing, with afterimages being left at each frame of the motion, it is caused by prescription drugs, hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, persistent aura without infarction.

The pathophysiology of akinetopsia palinopsia is not known, but it has been hypothesized to be due to inappropriate activation of physiological motion suppression mechanisms which are used to maintain visual stability during eye movements. Gross akinetopsia is an rare condition. Patients have profound motion struggle in performing the activities of daily living. Instead of seeing vision as a cinema reel, these patients have trouble perceiving gross motion. Most of what is known about this rare condition was learned through the case study of one patient, LM. LM described pouring a cup of tea or coffee difficult "because the fluid appeared to be frozen, like a glacier", she did not know when to stop pouring, because she could not perceive the movement of the fluid rising. LM and other patients have complained of having trouble following conversations, because lip movements and changing facial expressions were missed. LM stated she felt insecure when more than two people were walking around in a room: "people were here or there but I have not seen them moving".

Movement is inferred by comparing the change in position of an person. LM and others have described crossing the street and driving cars to be of great difficulty. LM started to train her hearing to estimate distance. A change in brain structure disturbs the psychological process of understanding sensory information, in this case visual information. Disturbance of only visual motion is possible due to the anatomical separation of visual motion processing from other functions. Like akinetopsia, perception of color can be selectively disturbed as in achromatopsia. There is an inability to see motion despite normal spatial acuity, flicker detection and color vision. Other intact functions include visual space perception and visual identification of shapes and faces. Besides simple perception, akinetopsia disturbs visuomotor tasks, such as reaching for objects and catching objects; when doing tasks, feedback of one's own motion appears to be important. Akinetopsia may be an acquired deficit from lesions in the posterior side of the visual cortex.

Lesions more cause gross akinetopsia. The neurons of the middle temporal cortex respond to moving stimuli and hence the middle temporal cortex is the motion-processing area of the cerebral cortex. In the case of LM, the brain lesion was bilateral and symmetrical, at the same time small enough not to affect other visual functions; some unilateral lesions have been reported to impair motion perception as well. Akinetopsia through lesions is rare, because damage to the occipital lobe disturbs more than one visual function. Akinetopsia has been reported as a result of traumatic brain injury. Inconspicuous akinetopsia can be selectively and temporarily induced using transcranial magnetic stimulation of area V5 of the visual cortex in healthy subjects, it is performed on a 1 cm² surface of the head, corresponding in position to area V5. With an 800-microsecond TMS pulse and a 28 ms stimulus at 11 degrees per second, V5 is incapacitated for about 20–30 ms, it is effective after onset of a moving visual stimulus.

Inactivating V1 with TMS could induce some degree of akinetopsia 60–70 ms after the onset of the visual stimulus. TMS of V1 is not nearly as effective in inducing akinetopsia as TMS of V5. Besides memory problems, Alzheimer's patients may have varying degrees of akinetopsia; this could contribute to their marked disorientation. While Pelak and Hoyt have recorded an Alzheimer's case study, there has not been much research done on the subject yet. Inconspicuous akinetopsia can be triggered by high doses of certain antidepressants with vision returning to normal once the dosage is reduced. Two relevant visual areas for motion processing are V5 and V1; these areas are separated by their function in vision. A functional area is a set of neurons with common selectivity and stimulation of this area behavioral influences. There have been over 30 specialized processing areas found in the visual cortex. V5 known as visual area MT, is located laterally and ventrally in the temporal lobe, near the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus.

All of the neurons in V5 are motion selective, most are directionally selective. Evidence of functional specialization of V5 was first found in primates. Patients with akinetopsia tend to have unilateral or bi-lateral damage to the V5. V1 known as the primary visual cortex, is located in Brodmann area 17. V1 is known for it