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Guttural speech sounds are those with a primary place of articulation near the back of the oral cavity. In some definitions, this is restricted to pharyngeal consonants, but in others includes some velar and uvular consonants. Guttural sounds are consonants, but some vowels' articulations may be considered guttural in nature. Although the term has been used by phoneticians, is used by phonologists today, its technical use is now limited, it is more common in popular use as an imprecise term for sounds produced far back in the vocal tract; the term does, continue to be used by some phonologists to denote laryngeal consonants, as well as murmured, pharyngealized and strident vowels. The word guttural means'of the throat', was first used by phoneticians to describe the Hebrew glottal and and pharyngeal; the term is now extended to include velar consonants, which deviates from the strict etymology. As used in linguistics, such a definition includes all velar consonants, regardless of manner of articulation.

The term is commonly used non-technically by English speakers to refer to sounds that subjectively appear harsh or grating. This definition includes a number of consonants that are not used in English, such as epiglottal and, uvular and, velar fricatives and. However, it excludes sounds used in English, such as the velar stops and, the velar nasal, the glottal consonants and. In popular consciousness, languages that make extensive use of guttural consonants are considered to be guttural languages. English-speakers sometimes find such languages strange and hard on the ear; some of the languages that extensively use, and/or are: Afrikaans Arabic Armenian Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Azerbaijani Crimean Tatar Dutch German Hebrew Irish Manx Kartvelian languages Pashto Persian Scottish Gaelic Spanish Tajik Persian Tswana WelshIn addition to their usage of, these languages have the pharyngeal consonants of and: Berber languages Cushitic languages Kurdish, only in words borrowed from Semitic languages Northeast Caucasian languages Northwest Caucasian.

Salishan and Wakashan language families in British Columbia Semitic languages In French, the only guttural sound is a uvular fricative. In Portuguese, is becoming dominant in urban areas. There is a realization as a, the original pronunciation as an remains common in various dialects. In Russian, /x/ is assimilated to the palatalization of the following velar consonant: лёгких, it has a voiced allophone ɣ, which occurs before voiced obstruents. In Romanian, / h / becomes the velar before consonants. In Czech, the phoneme /x/ followed by a voiced obstruent can be realized as either or, e.g. abych byl. In Kyrgyz, the consonant phoneme /k/ has a uvular realisation in back vowel contexts. In front-vowel environments, /g/ is fricativised between continuants to, in back vowel environments both /k/ and /g/ fricativise to and respectively. In Uyghur, the phoneme /ʁ/ occurs with a back vowel. In the Mongolian language, /x/ is followed by /ŋ/; the Tuu and Juu languages of southern Africa have large numbers of guttural vowels.

These sounds share certain phonological behaviors that warrant the use of a term for them. There are scattered reports of pharyngeals elsewhere, such as in the Tama language. In Swabian German, a pharyngeal approximant is an allophone of / ʁ / in coda positions. In onsets, it is pronounced as a uvular approximant. In Danish, /ʁ/ may have slight frication, according to Ladefoged & Maddieson, it may be a pharyngeal approximant. In Finnish, a weak pharyngeal fricative is the realization of /h/ after the vowels /ɑ/ or /æ/ in syllable-coda position, e.g.'star'. Guttural R Bauer, Michael Blas na Gàidhlig - The Practical Guide to Gaelic Pronunciation, Akerbeltz. ISBN 978-1-907165-00-9 Beyer, Klaus; the Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-53573-2. An Introduction to Syriac Studies. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-59333-349-8. Kyzlasov I. L. Runic scripts of Eurasian steppes, Восточная литература, Moscow, 1994, pp. 80 on, ISBN 5-02-017741-5 Ladefoged, Peter.

The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4

Marius Baciu

Marius Achim Baciu is a Romanian former player and current football manager of Oman Professional League club Sohar SC. Baciu started his career playing as a youth for Gaz Metan Mediaș, before joining the squad of FC Inter Sibiu as a professional player in 1992. One year he was loaned to his former team Gaz Metan Mediaș, rejoining FC Inter Sibiu in 1994. In 1996, FC Inter Sibiu was relegated from Liga I, but Baciu 21, was signed by Steaua București winning the championship in 1997 and 1998 and the Romanian Cup in 1999. After a new championship in 2001, Baciu refused to renew his contract with Steaua and as a result, he was sent to play for the reserves team. During his years at Steaua, Baciu was the team's captain. In 2002, he left Steaua to play in France for Lille OSC but after two mediocre seasons he was released from his contract and signed with the German squad Rot-Weiß Oberhausen as a free agent. Between 2005 and 2007 he was part of the Oțelul Galați squad. In 2007, Baciu signed a contract with the new promoted U Cluj.

In summer 2011, Baciu signed a two-year contract with Romanian side Politehnica Iași. In August 2011, he was released from his contract. Since he started his coaching career Baciu has achieved great praise for his consistent results specially when taking Vointa Sibiu from second Romanian Division to First Romanian League and keeping the team in the first places in the championship. While at Concordia Chiajna in 2015, Baciu managed to keep the team away from the relegation in his last season in charge with the team. Steaua BucureștiRomanian Championship League: 1996–97, 1997–98, 2000–01 Romanian Cup: 1996–97, 1998–99 Romanian Supercup: 1998, 2001Gaz Metan MediașLiga II: 1999–00 Marius Baciu at and

Deus Ex Machina (punk band)

Deus Ex Machina is a popular Greek hardcore punk band from Athens formed in 1989 by Dimitris Spyropoulos and Dimitris Manthos, with Spyropoulos and Yiannis Venardis having been early Greek Punk scene's'veterans'. The band's lyrics are political having references to subjects such as the War on Iraq and the Mexican Zapatista Army of National Liberation movement. Motorpsycho Worlds Apart Execute/Iraq'n' Roll No Silence/SDS Different? Signs Time Expires 38 Hiliosta / bastardokratia The Sound of Liberation Stavros X Dimitris Spyropoulos Tolik Dimitris Manthos Kostas Petrou Official site Band's History by Band's History by


Nimbuzz is a proprietary cross-platform instant messaging aggregator for smartphones and personal computers developed by MSM Global Holdings Limited, with the origins of its technology dating back to the early 2000s. As of March 2013, Nimbuzz had 150 million users in 200 countries. By April 2014, Nimbuzz was growing by more than 210,000 new registrations per day. In October 2014, now with over 200 million users, New Call acquired 70% of Nimbuzz, valuing the business at $250 million. Under CEO Anubhav Nagar's leadership from March 2015, the Nimbuzz suite of applications enables users to enjoy free calls, instant messaging, social-network games, file sharing, social networking on their mobile device. In addition, Nimbuzz offers discounted calling rates to most countries in the world. Nimbuzz site and servers went offline in 2019, as February 2020, remain unavailable. Adopting the Nimbuzz brand from 2004 onwards, the company entered the mainstream VoIP market in January 2007. In May 2008, the company launched its combined Voice-over-Internet Protocol and instant messaging client.

In January 2009, the company was selected as one of 100 winners of the Red Herring Global 100 technology industry awards for 2008. Early stage investors over three rounds between December 2005 and July 2008 included Skype- and Mark Tluszcz's Mangrove Capital Partners, Naspers and HV Holtzbrinck Ventures, before its eventual majority acquisition by New Call in October 2014. MSM consolidated Nimbuzz with some of its other technologies in March 2017. MSM is headquartered in Dubai with its principal development centre in New Delhi, after a relocation in May 2012 to be closer to the mobile Internet boom and growing smartphone penetration across South Asia. A fifth of Nimbuzz's users reside in India, the app accounts for a quarter of the smartphone chat market in the country. Additional offices are located in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in San Francisco, California, in Sao Paulo, in Córdoba, where a further software development team is located. Revenue for the company comes from NimbuzzOut, e-commerce sales on N-World, from advertising inside the application.

The company partners directly with telecom operators. Nimbuzz has been made available for Android, iOS, BlackBerry OS, Windows Phone and Java ME mobile operating systems, it was one of the few IM apps available for Java-based phones, they account for 25% of Nimbuzz users. For non-natively supported devices, a WAP interface is available. For desktop computers, clients are available for both Windows and Mac OS X, it is available in Spanish, German, Dutch, Russian and Arabic. Nimbuzz users can send XMPP based instant messages and share their location. Group chat is supported. Voice-over-Internet Protocol calls between most Nimbuzz clients is supported, there is a VoIP-to-PSTN service branded as "NimbuzzOut". Nimbuzz can be set up with any valid SIP account. Nimbuzz supported interaction with popular messaging services such as Twitter, Facebook Chat and Google Talk. In February 2012, Nimbuzz announced the discontinuation of support for ICQ, AIM, Myspace and Hyves because of the general lack of usage of these chat services.

Nimbuzz has an in-app portal called N-World, with applications, games and other virtual goods for sale. N-World has its own currency called Nimbuckz. Official website

Kanchrapara - Nagarukhra - Bongaon Intercity Roadway

Kanchrapara-Nagarukhra-Bongaon Military Road is an emergency road used by the Indian Army and Border Security Force for special purposes. This road connects many important towns and highways; this major road acts as a bypass to avoid congested roads in towns and cities like Kanchrapara, Habra and Gaighata. The entire road is 33 km long, running from Kanchrapara Railway Station to Gaighata, via Haringhata and Nagarukhra; this road is connected to one expressway. In Kanchrapara it intersects with Kalyani Expressway. At Bara-jaguli it crosses over the National Highway 12. In Nagarukhra it intersects with three different roads, Habra Road, Nimtala Road and Ashokenagar-Kalyangarh Rd. In Gaighata it intersects with National Highway 112

Zagłębie Lubin

KGHM Zagłębie Lubin is a Polish professional football club based in Lubin, Poland. It was founded in 1945 as OMTUR Lubin; the history of Zagłębie Lubin dates back to August 1945, when former German town of Luben became Polish Lubin. In a group of ethnic Poles, who were forced to abandon their homes in former Eastern Poland, was a number of football enthusiasts, including players and officials of Pogoń Lwów; some of them were members of pre-1939, socialist Youth Organization of the Association of Workers’ Universities. In August 1945, they formed the OMTUR Lubin football team, which played its games at a former German field, located on Kosciuszko Street; the games of OMTUR Lubin were popular, attracting crowds of people. Among the opponents, was the team of the local Red Army garrison, which faced the Poles in autumn 1945. In March 1946, Sports Club Zawisza, based on OMTUR Lubin, was formed. Among its players were Emil Czyzewski of Pogoń Lwów, Tadeusz Rela of Tarnovia Tarnow, Stanislaw Lesniewski, who had played for Dynamo Kiev, settled in the Recovered Territories.

In April 1946, Autonomous District of Polish Football Association was formed in Wroclaw. Newly created teams from now Polish Lower Silesia were divided into four groups. Zawisza Lubin was in Group IV. In 1947, Zawisza won the Cup of Lower Silesia, in the same year, the team from Lubin faced the team of the Northern Group of Forces, headquartered in nearby Legnica; the game, which Poles won 1–0, was attended by Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky. In 1949, Zawisza Lubin changed name into Gwardia, in 1951, to Spojnia. In 1953, the team returned to Zawisza. In 1957, rich deposits of copper were discovered in the area of Lubin. With construction of the Lubin mine, the team gained a rich sponsor. In 1960, its name was changed into Gornik, new departments were added: volleyball, boxing, handball and field, weight lifting and table tennis. In 1966, the Inter-Enterprise Sports Club Zagłębie Lubin was established; the new organization was a powerful establishment, with 10 departments. Its football team won promotion to the third division.

In 1974, Alojzy Sitko became its new manager. Zagłębie was a sensation in the 1975–76 Polish Cup, beating Ruch Chorzów, losing to Górnik Zabrze. In 1975, Zagłębie won promotion to the second division. In 1978, it again was promoted, relegated after one year; the team was a sensation in the 1978–79 Polish Cup, beating GKS Katowice, Legia Warszawa and Górnik Zabrze, reaching the semi-final, where it lost 0–3 to Wisła Kraków. In 1982, under manager Stanislaw Swierk, Zagłębie again won promotion to the second division. In 1985, it was promoted to the Ekstraklasa. With a new manager, Eugeniusz Rozanski, a new stadium, Zagłębie was at that time one of the most powerful sports organization in Poland. On July 27, 1985, Zagłębie played its first Ekstraklasa home game, beating 1–0 GKS Katowice, after a goal by Eugeniusz Ptak. In the 1985–86 season, Zagłębie was 12th, in 1986–87, 8th, in 1987–88, 11th. To avoid relegation, the team from Lubin had to participate in the play-offs, in which it lost to Górnik Wałbrzych.

After one year in the second division, Zagłębie returned to the Ekstraklasa. Managed by Stanislaw Swierk, it was Polish runner-up. In the first round, Zagłębie faced Italian side Bologna, losing both games 0–1, 0–1. In June 1991, managed by Marian Putyra, Zagłębie won Polish championship, earning a spot in the 1991–92 European Cup, where it faced Brøndby Copenhagen; the champion of Poland lost 0–3 in the first leg, won 2–1 at home, to be eliminated. Among Zagłębie’s top players at that time were Romuald Kujawa and Adam Zejer, both top scorers of the Ekstraklasa in 1990 and 1991. In 1995 Zagłębie was the 4th team in Poland, winning a spot in the 1995–96 UEFA Cup, to lose to the European powerhouse, AC Milan. In June 2003, after 13 years, Zagłębie was relegated from the Ekstraklasa. Before that, Zagłębie played 20 games with 7 victories, 5 ties and 8 losses. Furthermore, in 2001, it was the fifth team in Poland reaching semi-final of the Cup of Poland. After one year Zagłębie returned to the Ekstraklasa, in spring 2005, it again reached the final of Polish Cup, losing 0–2 to Dyskobolia Grodzisk Wielkopolski.

In 2005–06, under Franciszek Smuda, Zagłębie, with its top scorer Michal Chalbinski, finished third in the league, winning a spot in European cups. Furthermore, the team again reached the final of the Polish Cup, losing 2 -- 1 -- 3 to Wisła Płock. In the UEFA Cup, Zagłębie was eliminated by Dinamo Minsk. Ekstraklasa: Winner: 1990–91, 2006–07 2nd: 1989–90 3rd: 2005–06, 2015–16 Second Division: Winner: 1984–85, 1988–89, 2014–15 2nd: 2003–2004, 2008–09 Third Division Winner: 1974–75, 1977–78 Runners-up: 1979–80, 1981–82 Polish Cup: Finalist: 2004–05, 2005–06, 2013–14 Semi-Finalist: 1978–79, 2000–01 Polish SuperCup: Winner: 2007 Finalist: 1991 Polish League Cup: Finalist: 2000–01 Młoda Ekstraklasa: Champions: 2010, 2011 Runners-up: 2012 Polish U-19 Championship: Winners: 2009, 2010 Runner Up: 1990 As of 24 August 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one n