Death and state funeral of Gerald Ford
On December 26, 2006, Gerald Ford, the 38th President of the United States, died at his home in Rancho Mirage, California at 6:45 p.m. local time. At 8:49 p.m. local time, President Ford's wife of 58 years, Betty Ford, issued a statement that confirmed his death: "My family joins me in sharing the difficult news that Gerald Ford, our beloved husband, father and great grandfather has passed away at 93 years of age. His life was filled with love of God, his family and his country." The causes of death listed on the subsequent death certificate were arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease and diffuse arteriosclerosis. At the age of 93 years and 165 days, Ford was the longest-lived U. S. president in history until November 25, 2017, when his record was surpassed by George H. W. Bush, who lived to be past 94 years. Ford was the second president to die during the presidency of George W. Bush, as well as the second to die in the twenty-first century; the other was Ronald Reagan. Upon Ford's death, President George W. Bush said in a written statement: Laura and I are saddened by the passing of former President Gerald R. Ford.
President Ford was a great American. On August 9, 1974, after a long career in the House of Representatives and service as Vice President, he assumed the Presidency in an hour of national turmoil and division. With his quiet integrity, common sense, kind instincts, President Ford helped heal our land and restore public confidence in the Presidency; the American people will always admire Gerald Ford's devotion to duty, his personal character, the honorable conduct of his administration. We mourn the loss of such a leader, our 38th President will always have a special place in our Nation's memory. On behalf of all Americans, Laura and I offer our deepest sympathies to Betty Ford and all of President Ford's family. Our thoughts and prayers will be with them in the days ahead. There were tributes from other Americans, including the living former American presidents: Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, as well as Ford's former Chief of Staff, Vice President Dick Cheney and former First Lady Nancy Reagan.
Foreign leaders who paid tribute included Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Czech President Václav Klaus and German President Horst Köhler. Harper advised Governor General Michaëlle Jean to order all flags across Canada flown to half-staff from sunrise to sunset on January 2, 2007, in sympathy with the national day of mourning in the U. S. In the United Kingdom, the Union Flag at Buckingham Palace was flown at half-staff on December 28. Gregory Willard, President Ford's personal attorney and former White House aide, was responsible for the overall planning and conduct of the state funeral as President and Mrs. Ford and the Ford family's designated personal representative; the Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region /Military District of Washington, which oversees the military and ceremonial portions of state funerals, assisted President Ford and the Ford family in development of the funeral plans. Army Major General Guy C. Swan III, Commanding General of the MDW and JFHQ-NCR, was Betty Ford's official escort throughout the State Funeral.
Michael Wagener, Chief of State Funeral Plans, was the MDW civilian liaison for the Ford family. Mr. Wagner provided advice to President and Mrs. Ford and the Ford family in planning the state funeral and accompanied the family throughout the state funeral; the schedule for the state funeral was announced at a press briefing Wednesday afternoon December 27 in Palm Desert, California. The briefing was conducted by Gregory Willard, attended by Barbara Owens, spokesperson for the MDW, by the Riverside County Sheriff. A personal statement from Mrs. Betty Ford was read by Mr. Willard, he announced details and answered media questions regarding the state funeral. President and Mrs. Ford and their family chose to have the state funeral and related services conducted in three phases, with interment in a selected hillside tomb next to the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum, in Grand Rapids, Michigan; the services and ceremonies were conducted from December 29 through January 3. A large number of tributes and symbolic remembrances during the three phases highlighted President Ford's career of public service and his unique place in American history.
Columnist Peggy Noonan summarized the nation's heartfelt farewell, "Ford's was the most human of presidential funerals. Maybe because the Fords wanted so little done, so insisted on modesty, all, done was genuine and sincere, and... perfect." The state funeral service took place at the U. S. Capitol on Saturday, December 30, 2006, with further funeral services on January 2 at Washington National Cathedral and on January 3 at Grace Episcopal Church in Grand Rapids. In addition, private services were conducted with Mrs. Ford and the family at St. Margaret's Episcopal Church in Palm Desert, at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Mrs. Ford and her family received 300 invited guests at a December 29 visitation at St. Margaret's Church; as a mark of honor, Ford's Casket was flown to Washington, on to Grand Rapids aboard the VC-25A Presidential Aircraft, which serves as Air Force One. The hearse used to carry President Ford's casket flew the American Flag and had the Presidential Seal affixed to the sides.
Upon the death of Ford, the nation's flags were ordered flown at half staff for 30 days after the death. President George W. Bush declared a national day of mourning for President Ford on Tuesday, January 2, 2007, to mark the funer
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
VII Corps (United States)
The VII Corps of the United States Army was one of the two principal corps of the United States Army Europe during the Cold War. Activated in 1918 for World War I, it was reactivated for World War II and again during the Cold War. During both World War II and the Cold War it was subordinate to the Seventh Army, or USAREUR and was headquartered at Kelley Barracks in Stuttgart, West Germany, from 1951 until it was redeployed to the US and inactivated in 1992. VII Corps was organized at the end of World War I on 19 August 1918, at Remiremont and was inactivated on 11 July 1919; the U. S. VII Corps was reactivated as part of the Organized Reserve on 29 July 1921 and inactivated on 18 October 1927. VII Corps was reactivated at Fort McClellan, Alabama 25 November 1940 and participated in the Louisiana Maneuvers staged as the US Army prepared for World War II. In late December 1941, VII Corps HQ was moved to San Jose, California as part of the Western Defense Command and as it continued to train and prepare for deployment.
Its first return to continental Europe took place on D-Day in June 1944, as one of the two assault corps for the U. S. First Army during Operation Overlord, targeting Utah Beach via amphibious assault. For Overlord, the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions were attached to VII Corps. After the Battle of Normandy the airborne units were assigned to the newly created XVIII Airborne Corps. Subsequently, VII Corps participated in many battles during the advance across France and invaded Germany until the surrender of the Third Reich in May 1945; the corps was inactivated in 1946. For the Normandy Operation, VII Corps was part of 21st Army Group under the command of General Bernard Montgomery and the U. S. First Army commanded by Lieutenant General Courtney Hodges; the Corps was commanded by Major General J. Lawton Collins. VII Corps led the initial assault of Operation Cobra, the First Army-led offensive as part of the breakout of the Normandy area, its success is credited with changing the war in France from high-intensity infantry combat to rapid maneuver warfare.
4th Infantry Division, Maj. Gen. Raymond O. Barton8th Infantry Col. James A. Van Fleet 12th Infantry Col. Russell P. Reeder Lt. Col. Hervey Tribolet 22nd Infantry Col. Hervey A. Tribolet Col. Robert T. Foster 9th Infantry Division, Maj. Gen. Manton S. Eddy39th Infantry Col. Harry A. "Paddy" Flint 47th Infantry Col. George W. Smythe 60th Infantry Col. Frederick J. de Rohan79th Infantry Division, Maj. Gen. Ira T. Wyche313th Infantry Col. Sterling A. Wood 314th Infantry Col. Warren A. Robinson 315th Infantry Col. Porter P. Wiggins Col. Bernard B. McMahon 82nd Airborne Division, Maj. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway505th Parachute Infantry Col. William E. Ekman 507th Parachute Infantry Col. George V. Millett, Jr. Col. Edson D. Raff 508th Parachute Infantry Col. Roy E. Lindquist 325th Glider Infantry Col. Harry L. Lewis90th Infantry Division, Brig. Gen. Jay W. MacKelvie357th Infantry Col. Philip De Witt Ginder Col. John W. Sheehy Lt. Col. Charles M. Schwab Col. George B. Barth 358th Infantry Col. James V. Thompson Col. Richard C.
Partridge 359th Infantry Col. Clark K. Fales101st Airborne Division, Maj. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor501st Parachute Infantry Col. Howard R. Johnson 502nd Parachute Infantry Col. George V. H. Moseley, Jr. Lt. Col. John H. Michaelis 506th Parachute Infantry Col. Robert F. Sink 327th Glider Infantry Col. George S. Wear Col. Joseph H. Harper 4th Cavalry Group, Col. Joseph M. Tully4th Cavalry Squadron Lt. Col. E. C. Dunn 24th Cavalry Squadron Lt. Col. F. H. Gaston, Jr.6th Armored Group, Col. Francis F. Fainter70th Tank Battalion Lt. Col. John C. Welborn 746th Tank Battalion Lt. Col. C. G. HupferBattle casualties, 6 June – 1 July 1944 Source: VII Corps, G-1 Reports, June 1944 From reactivation in 1950 and throughout the Cold War, the corps guarded part of NATO's front with the Warsaw Pact. Headquartered in Stuttgart at Kelley Barracks it was one of the two main US combat formations in Germany along with V Corps, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main at Abrams Building. At the end of the Cold War, VII Corps would have commanded the following units in case of war: VII Corps, Stuttgart 1st Armored Division, Ansbach 1st Infantry Division, Fort Riley, Kansas, OPERATION REFORGER unit.
POMCUS Set 1 depots at Mannheim, 4th Battalion 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division at Cooke Barracks, Germany. 1st Canadian Infantry Division, Ontario 3rd Infantry Division, Würzburg 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Nürnberg VII Corps Artillery, Stuttgart 17th Field Artillery Brigade, Augsburg 72nd Field Artillery Brigade, Wertheim 210th Field Artillery Brigade, Herzogenaurach 11th Combat Aviation Brigade, Illesheim 7th Engineer Brigade, Kornwestheim 14th Military Police Brigade, Ludwigsburg 2nd Support Command, Nellingen auf den Fildern 207th Military Intelligence Brigade, Ludwigsburg 38th Infantry Division, Indiana 602nd Air Support Operations Group, USAF Stuttgart After Saddam Hussein's troops invaded Kuwait in 1990, the corps was deployed to Saudi Arabia as part of the second major wave of deployments of American forces. Its presence took US forces in theatre from a force capable of defending Saudi Arabia to a force capable of ejecting Iraqi troops from Kuwait. In the Gulf War, VII Corps was the most powerful formation of its type to take to the battlefield.
A corps commands three divisions when at full strength, along with other units such as artillery of various types, corps-level engineers and support units. However, VII Corps had far more firepower under its command, its principal full strength fighting formations were U. S. 1st Armored Division, U. S. 3rd Armored Division
Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, Kansas, in the city of Leavenworth since it was annexed on April 12, 1977, in the northeast part of the state. Built in 1827, it is the oldest active United States Army post west of Washington, D. C. and the oldest permanent settlement in Kansas. Fort Leavenworth has been known as the "Intellectual Center of the Army."Fort Leavenworth was the base of African-American soldiers of the U. S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on 21 September 1866 at Fort Leavenworth. They became known as Buffalo Soldiers, nicknamed by the Native American tribes; the term was applied to all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866. During the country's westward expansion, Fort Leavenworth was a forward destination for thousands of soldiers, immigrants, American Indians and settlers who passed through. On August 1, 1846, a Mormon Battalion, led by Col. James Allen, arrived at Fort Leavenworth. Colonel Allen died at the fort.
Today, the garrison supports the US Army Training and Doctrine Command by managing and maintaining the home of the US Army Combined Arms Center. CAC's mission involves collective training, Army doctrine and battle command. Fort Leavenworth is home to the Military Corrections Complex, consisting of the United States Disciplinary Barracks, the Department of Defense's only maximum security prison and the Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility. In addition, the Fort Leavenworth Garrison supports numerous tenant organizations that directly and indirectly relate to the functions of the CAC, including the United States Army Command and General Staff College and the Foreign Military Studies Office; the fort occupies 7,000,000 sq ft of space in 1,000 buildings and 1,500 quarters. It is located on the Frontier Military Scenic Byway, a military road connecting to Fort Scott and Fort Gibson; the garrison commander is a colonel reporting via IMCOM West to the Installation Management Command. The fort is nicknamed the "intellectual center" of the Army because much of its mission involves training.
Major tenants include: United States Army Combined Arms Center which among its various responsibilities is the United States Army Command and General Staff College, which includes a degrees granting graduate school for U. S. and allied officers. The school trains all of the army's majors. All modern five-star army generals have passed through the college including George Marshall, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower, Henry "Hap" Arnold, Omar Bradley. Since 1978 it has been commanded by a Lieutenant General. In 2007, its commander was David Petraeus, it reports to the United States Army Doctrine Command. United States Disciplinary Barracks, the only maximum security prison for military personnel of all branches. Since a 2007 reorganization, its commander is a colonel who reports to the United States Army Corrections Command. Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility, a low security prison. Reports to the United States Army Corrections Command. Foreign Military Studies Office Munson Army Health Center University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies Sherman Army Airfield—the base airport Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery TRADOC Analysis Center Headquarters of the National Guard's 35th Infantry Division Mission Command Training Program is the focal point for National Guard of the United States division and brigade staff training and development.
Army/ACE Registry Transcript Systems See Fort Leavenworth School District The Fort Leavenworth Lamp newspaper serves the military community living on post. The fort is 10 miles south of the 18th century French Fort de Cavagnal, the farthest west fort in Louisiana, its commandant was François Coulon de Villiers, a brother to Louis Coulon de Villiers, the only military commander to force George Washington to surrender. The French abandoned the fort after ceding its territory to Louisiana at the conclusion of the French and Indian War. Early American explorers on the Missouri River to visit the area of Fort de Cavagnal include Lewis and Clark on 26–29 June 1804 and Stephen Harriman Long in 1819; the fort location had been chosen because of its proximity to a large Kansa tribe village. Colonel Henry Leavenworth, with the officers and men of the 3rd Infantry Regiment from Jefferson Barracks at St. Louis, established Fort Leavenworth in 1827 to be a forward base protecting the Santa Fe Trail. Leavenworth's instructions had been the following: Colonel Leavenworth of the 3d Infantry, with four companies of his regiment will ascend the Missouri and when he reaches a point on its left band near the mouth of Little Platte River and within a range of twenty miles above or below its confluence, he will select such position as in his judgment is best calculated for the site of a permanent cantonment.
The spot being chosen, he will construct with the troops of his command comfortable, though temporary quarters sufficient for the accommodation of four companies. This movement will be made as early. Leavenworth
3rd Cavalry Regiment (United States)
The 3rd Cavalry Regiment 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army stationed at Fort Hood, Texas. The regiment has a history in the United States Army that dates back to 19 May 1846, when it was constituted in the Regular Army as the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri; this unit was reorganized at the start of the American Civil War as the 3rd U. S. Cavalry Regiment on 3 August 1861. In January 1943, the regiment was re-designated as the 3rd Cavalry Group. Today they are equipped with Stryker vehicles; the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment was the last heavy armored cavalry regiment in the U. S. Army until it became a Stryker regiment on 16 November 2011, it will retain its lineage as the 3rd Cavalry Regiment. Under various names it has seen action during eleven major conflicts: the Indian Wars, the Mexican–American War, the American Civil War, the Spanish–American War, the Philippine–American War, World War I, World War II, the Persian Gulf War, SFOR in Bosnia, Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation New Dawn, Operation Enduring Freedom and most Operation Inherent Resolve.
Twenty-three of the regiment's troopers received the Medal of Honor, all awarded for gallantry in action between 1871 and 1898. The list includes William "Buffalo Bill" Cody, whose award was rescinded in 1916 for not being a member of the military. Cody's medal was reinstated in 1989. For further information on the current structure, see #Change of Mission, belowThe 3rd Cavalry Regiment's structure consists of seven cavalry squadrons; each cavalry squadron is divided into four cavalry Troops/Batteries/Companies. The regiment controls four independent companies/troops: Regimental Headquarters and Headquarters Troop 1st Squadron 3rd Cavalry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Troop A Troop - Infantry B Troop - Infantry C Troop - Infantry D Troop - Squadron Support 2nd Squadron 3rd Cavalry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Troop F Troop - Infantry E Troop - Infantry G Troop - Infantry H Troop - Squadron Support 3rd Squadron 3rd Cavalry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Troop I Troop - Infantry K Troop - Infantry L Troop - Infantry M Troop - Squadron support 4th Squadron 3rd Cavalry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Troop N Troop - Reconnaissance O Troop - Reconnaissance P Troop - Reconnaissance Q Troop - Heavy weapons troop consisting of Mobile Gun System and Anti-Tank Guided Missile Stryker variants.
Task organized to reconnaissance and infantry troops. R Troop - Squadron Support Field Artillery Squadron 3rd Cavalry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Battery A Battery - M777 B Battery - M777 C Battery - M777 Service Battery - Squadron Support Engineer Squadron 3rd Cavalry Regiment T Troop - Squadron Support Support Squadron 3rd Cavalry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Troop Supply and Transportation Troop Maintenance Troop Medical Troop The Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was authorized by an Act of Congress on 1 December 1845 and was formed at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri; the president signed the bill in law on 19 May 1846 and COL Persifor F. Smith was placed in command, thus came into existence a new organization in the United States Army: a regiment of riflemen, mounted to provide greater mobility than the infantry and equipped with Model 1841 percussion rifles to provide greater range and more accurate firepower than the infantry's muskets or the dragoon's carbines. The Mounted Riflemen were considered a separate branch of service at the time and wore green piping with a trumpet for the branch insignia.
When the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was organized pursuant to the act of Congress in 1846, the first companies filled were A, B, C, D. They would not be designated as troops until 1883 and would make up the core of 1st Squadron, 3rd Cavalry Regiment. Companies C and F were recruited from the mountains of Pennsylvania, Maryland and North Carolina, I Company was formed in New Orleans and the rest of the regiment was recruited from Ohio, Illinois and Tennessee."Bandit Troop" is the regiment's senior troop. It was organized 1 August 1846, consisted of 1-Captain, 1-1st Lieutenant, 1-2nd Lieutenant, 1-Brevet 2Lt, 75 enlisted men. "Crazyhorse Troop" was organized next on 1 September 1846, with Captain Samuel H. Walker as its commander, he is listed as being "on detached service at Washington, obtaining equipment and recruits for Company" until 21 May 1847. No doubt the "equipment" he was obtaining was the shipment of 1,000 Colt-Walker revolvers he had co-designed with Samuel Colt. "Apache Troop" completed its organization 1 October 1846.
Captain William Wing Loring was the first Commander of A Company, would become the Regiment's 2nd Colonel, before resigning his commission to serve the Confederacy. "Dragon Troop" was organized 4 October 1846 with 61 enlisted. Captain Henry Pope was the first commander of D Company. Formed to provide security for travelers on the Oregon Trail, the regiment was rerouted southwards when the Mexican–American War began; the Mounted Riflemen lost most of their horses in a storm during the voyage across the Gulf of Mexico
William B. Caldwell
William B. "Bill" Caldwell IV is a retired United States Army officer and the current President of Georgia Military College. Caldwell's final military assignment was as Commanding General of United States Army North known as the Fifth Army. From Columbus, Caldwell's family moved frequently, his father, William B. Caldwell, III was a serving officer in the US Army retiring as the Commander of Fifth Army. During Caldwell's early childhood, his father was stationed at the United States Military Academy. Caldwell attended the SHAPE American High School at SHAPE, Belgium followed by Hargrave Military Academy, a private military boarding school in Chatham, Virginia. From there, he was accepted to the United States Military Academy at New York, he continued his education with a master's degree in systems technology from the Naval Postgraduate School and a master of military arts and sciences from the School for Advanced Military Studies, part of the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College. Caldwell has attended the John F. Kennedy School of Government and Harvard University as a Senior Service College Fellow.
Following a battalion command position in the 25th Infantry Division in Hawaii in the mid-1990s, Caldwell was sent to Haiti to work as political-military liaison in the U. S. Embassy during Operation Uphold Democracy. After his tour in Haiti, he commanded the 1st Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, at Fort Drum, New York, he worked in the Office of the Director for Strategic Plans and Policy on the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon, served as the executive assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Caldwell was serving as deputy director for operations, U. S. Pacific Command, Hawaii, at the time of the 9/11 attacks, when the command's focus shifted from regional war plans to the Global War on Terrorism. In July 2002 Caldwell was assigned as senior military assistant to the deputy secretary of defense, Paul Wolfowitz. In this position he served his boss during the preparation and follow on for the Iraq War's Operation Iraqi Freedom and other aspects of the Global War on Terrorism.
From May 2004 until June 2006 Caldwell served as the Commanding General of the 82nd Airborne Division. As the division commander, Caldwell oversaw deployments by the units under his command to both Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as disaster-relief efforts following Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. Following his command of the 82nd, Caldwell was assigned as Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Effects and spokesperson for the Multi-National Force – Iraq, a position he held for 13 months. Caldwell was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general in June 2007 and served as the Commanding General of the Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; as the Commanding General for the Combined Arms Center, he has responsibility for the Command and General Staff College and 17 other schools and training programs throughout the United States. Caldwell assumed command of the NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan /Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan on November 21, 2009. Prior to the activation of NTM-A at that time, CSTC-A was a two-star command headed by Major General Richard Formica.
Elevating the Afghan training mission to a three-star command reflected the increased priority placed on training the Afghan National Security Force as part of President Barack Obama's Afghan "Surge." Caldwell's efforts in Afghanistan received praise from figures in the military and government, including Senator Carl Levin, United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, Admiral Mike Mullen. During this assignment Caldwell was investigated after a subordinate claimed Caldwell directed him to use psychological operations in order to influence U. S. political leaders to support the military effort in Afghanistan. Doing so would be a violation of the Smith–Mundt Act. However, an investigation cleared Caldwell of wrongdoing. Three U. S. military officers testified that Caldwell tried to prevent the U. S. Department of Defense from investigating sub-standard conditions at an American-funded Afghan military hospital in Kabul. Caldwell's reasoning, according to Colonel Mark Fassl, was that there was "an election coming."
However, Kenneth Moorefield, Deputy Inspector General for Special Plans and Operations, dismissed these allegations, claiming that there as no "attempt...to delay our investigation...or turn it off."The Department of Defense Office of Inspector General conducted an investigation into the allegations and determined that Caldwell and his deputy Major General Gary S. Patton sought in 2011 to restrict contact with a team of investigators probing allegations of corruption and sub-standard patient care at Dawood National Military Hospital; the Inspector General recommended that the Secretary of the Army take appropriate action against Caldwell and his immediate subordinate, Major General Patton. An Army spokesman stated that, following the investigation, Caldwell "requested that he be retired, knowing that these substantiated allegations would directly prevent any future promotion or assignment to a position of importance and responsibility." Caldwell's final military command was United States Army North known as the Fifth Army, his father's final military assignment.
Caldwell turned over command of U. S. Army North to Lieutenant General Perry L. Wiggins on September 4, 2013. Honorary Member of the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club Veterans of Foreign Wars Commander-in-Chief Gold Medal and Citation of Merit Award Honorary ROCK of the Year in 2008 Caldwell, W.. Enhancing North American Security – A Military Perspective. "Interagency Journal" The Journal of the Simons Center, Vol. 3, Issue 4, Special Edition, November 2012. Cald
9th Infantry Division (United States)
The 9th Infantry Division is an inactive infantry division of the United States Army. It was created as the 9th Division during World War I. In years, it would become an important unit of the U. S. Army during World War II and the Vietnam War, it was activated as a peacetime readiness unit from 1947 to 1962 at Fort Dix, New Jersey, Fort Carson and from 1972 to 1991 as an active-duty infantry division at Fort Lewis, Washington. Nicknamed the "Old Reliables", the division was inactivated in December 1991; the shoulder sleeve insignia is an octofoil resembling a heraldic design given to the ninth son of a family. This represents the son as a circle in the middle with eight brothers around him; the blue represents the infantry, the red the artillery with all the white making the colors of the flag of the United States of America. The 9th Infantry Division was created on 18 July 1918 at Camp Sheridan, Alabama but did not serve overseas, it was disbanded on 15 February 1919 at Camp Sheridan. Activated: 1 August 1940 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.
Overseas: 11 December 1942 Campaigns: Algeria-French Morocco, Sicily, North France, Rhineland Campaign, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe Days of combat: 304 Distinguished Unit Citations: 24 Awards: Medal of Honor – 4. Elliott, Brig. Gen. Francis W. Honeycutt, Maj. Gen. Jacob L. Devers, Maj. Gen. Rene E. DeR. Hoyle, Maj. Gen. Manton S. Eddy, Maj. Gen. Louis A. Craig, Brig. Gen. Jesse A. Ladd, Maj. Gen. Horace L. McBride, Maj. Gen. William W. Eagles, Maj. Gen. Arthur A. White Inactivated: 15 January 1947 Reactivated: 15 July 1947 at Fort Dix, New Jersey Inactivated: 31 January 1962 at Fort Carson, Colorado Redesignated 1 February 1966 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 9th Infantry Division, activated at Fort Riley, Kansas Inactivated 25 September 1969 in Hawaii Activated: 21 April 1972 at Fort Lewis, Washington Inactivated: 15 December 1991 at Fort Lewis, Washington The 9th Infantry Division was among the first U. S. combat units to engage in offensive ground operations during World War II.
The 9th saw its first combat on 8 November 1942, when its elements landed at Algiers and Port Lyautey, with the taking of Safi by the 3rd Battalion of the 47th Infantry Regiment standing as the first liberation of a city from Axis control in World War II. With the collapse of French resistance on 11 November 1942, the division patrolled the Spanish Moroccan border; the 9th engaged in small defensive actions and patrol activity. On 28 March 1943 it launched an attack in southern Tunisia and fought its way north into Bizerte, 7 May. In August, the 9th landed at Palermo and took part in the capture of Randazzo and Messina. After returning to England for further training, the division landed on Utah Beach on 10 June 1944, cut off the Cotentin Peninsula, drove on to Cherbourg and penetrated the port's heavy defenses. After a brief rest in July, the division took part in the St. Lo break-through and in August helped close the Falaise Gap. Turning east, the 9th crossed the Marne, 28 August, swept through Saarlautern, in November and December held defensive positions from Monschau to Losheim.
Moving north to Bergrath, Germany, it launched an attack toward the Roer, 10 December, taking Echtz and Schlich. From mid-December through January 1945, the division held defensive positions from Kalterherberg to Elsenborn. On 30 January the division jumped off from Monschau in a drive across the Roer and to the Rhine, crossing at Remagen, 7 March. After breaking out of the Remagen bridgehead, the 9th assisted in the sealing and clearing of the Ruhr Pocket moved 150 miles east to Nordhausen and attacked in the Harz Mountains, 14–20 April. On 21 April the Division relieved the 3d Armored Division along the Mulde River, near Dessau, held that line until VE-day. Previous: II Corps May 1943: I Armored Corps 20 November 1943: First Army 25 November 1943: VII Corps 1 August 1944: VII Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group 26 October 1944: V Corps 6 December 1944: VII Corps 18 December 1944: V Corps 20 December 1944: Attached, with the entire First Army, to the British 21st Army Group 18 January 1945: V Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group 17 February 1945: III Corps 31 March 1945: VII Corps 4 April 1945: III Corps 14 April 1945: VII Corps Headquarters, 9th Infantry Division 39th Infantry Regiment 47th Infantry Regiment 60th Infantry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 9th Infantry Division Artillery 26th Field Artillery Battalion 34th Field Artillery Battalion 60th Field Artillery Battalion 84th Field Artillery Battalion 15th Engineer Combat Battalion 9th Medical Battalion 9th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop Headquarters, Special Troops, 9th Infantry Division Headquarters Company, 9th Infantry Division 709th Ordnance Light Maintenance Company 9th Quartermaster Company 9th Signal Company Military Police Platoon Band 9th Counterintelligence Corps Detachment Activated