Gordon H. Smith
Gordon Harold Smith is an American politician, a former United States Senator and businessman from the state of Oregon. A Republican, he served two terms in the Senate. On September 18, 2009, he was appointed president of the National Association of Broadcasters. Smith was born in Pendleton, Oregon, to Jessica and Milan Dale Smith on May 25, 1952. Smith's family moved to Bethesda, Maryland during his childhood, when his father became an Assistant United States Secretary of Agriculture, he earned the rank of Eagle Scout. Smith is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. After graduating from high school, Smith served for two years as an LDS Church missionary in New Zealand. Smith went to college at Brigham Young University, received his Juris Doctor from Southwestern University School of Law, became an attorney in New Mexico and Arizona, he moved back to Oregon in the 1980s to become director of the family owned Smith Frozen Foods company in Weston, Oregon. Smith and his wife, adopted three children in the 1980s, including two sons and a daughter.
On September 8, 2003, Garrett a 21-year-old college student majoring in culinary arts, committed suicide. Smith wrote a book entitled One Family's Battle with a Child's Depression. In 2004, President George W. Bush signed the Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Act, authorizing $82 million for suicide-prevention and awareness programs at colleges. Smith is a member of the Udall political family, his mother was a cousin of the late Representatives Mo Udall and Stewart Udall, Smith is a second cousin of Senators Mark Udall and Tom Udall. He is a double second cousin of both of them, as their great-grandparents were a pair of brothers and a pair of sisters who married. All three of them were candidates for Senate in the 2008 elections. Smith was the only Republican and incumbent senator of the group, the only one of the three to lose his electoral bid. Smith's brother, Milan Dale Smith, Jr. is a federal judge appointed by President George W. Bush in 2006. Smith is a member of the board of directors of the International Republican Institute.
In 2010, another second cousin, fellow Republican Mike Lee of Utah, was elected to the Senate. On March 31, 2012, Smith was called as an area seventy in the LDS Church. Smith entered politics with his election to the Oregon State Senate in 1992, became president of that body in 1995. In 1995, he ran in a special election for a Senate seat vacated by the resignation of Bob Packwood, but was narrowly defeated in the January 1996 special election by then-Congressman Ron Wyden. Smith carried all but eight counties, but could not overcome an 89,000-vote deficit in Multnomah County, home to Portland–far exceeding the overall margin of 18,200 votes. United States Senator Mark Hatfield, a fellow Republican, announced his retirement in 1996. Smith became the first person to run for the Senate twice in one year; this time he won defeating Lon Mabon in the Republican primary and Democrat Tom Bruggere in the general election by a close margin. Before his election, Oregon had not elected a senator from the eastern part of the state since 1938.
Smith was re-elected in 2002, defeating Oregon Secretary of State Bill Bradbury by 57% to 39%. Smith's approval rating was 52 percent, with 38 percent disapproving. In 1996 Smith was endorsed by the conservative political activist group the Oregon Citizens Alliance in his race against Wyden. After losing that initial race for Packwood's seat, Smith renounced the OCA endorsement and won in his subsequent race for the seat being vacated by Senator Hatfield. In October 1999, Smith was one of four Republicans to vote in favor of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; the treaty was designed to ban underground nuclear testing and was the first major international security pact to be defeated in the Senate since the Treaty of Versailles. Smith has described himself as pro-life, in 2003 he voted in favor of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, legislation that prohibits the controversial intact dilation and extraction procedure. In 2006, he voted to pass another controversial bill, this time crossing party lines to vote for the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act.
The measure, which would have expanded federal funding of stem cell research to cell lines extracted from embryos discarded during fertility treatment, became the first bill to be vetoed by President George W. Bush. Smith is one of 19 Senate Republicans. In January 2006, Smith began circulating a draft of the Digital Content Protection Act of 2006; the legislation would grant the Federal Communications Commission the authority to authorize a technology known as the broadcast flag. This technology would enable the producers of television programming to ensure the programs cannot be recorded by viewers in their homes, for instance using a digital video recorder or onto recordable DVDs. Smith is described as politically moderate, but has strong conservative credentials as well. In a 2007 web video, Smith refers to "the values that make us Republicans, that make us conservatives". Smith is a member of the moderate Republican Main Street Partnership, a February 2006 National Journal congressional rating placed Smith in the exact ideological center of the Senate.
However, Smith is described as a moderate Republican by GovTrack.us, throughout 2006 Smith voted with Republican leader Bill Frist 82 percent of the time. Based on five senate votes in 2006, the abortion rights advocacy group NARAL gave Smith a score of 15 percent on abortion rights (100 percent being a co
Harry Lane was an American politician in the state of Oregon. A physician by training, Lane served as the head of the Oregon State Insane Asylum before being forced out by political enemies. After a decade practicing medicine the progressive Democrat Lane won election as the mayor of Portland in 1905, gaining re-election in 1907. Lane's tenure in office was ineffective, although he did gain lasting recognition for having appointed the first female police officer in America in 1908 as well as for his vision that the city should host an annual Rose Festival. In November 1912, Lane was elected to the United States Senate where he was a leading advocate for woman suffrage and a more benevolent relationship between the American government and the nation's Native American population, he was one of a small handful of federal legislators to vote against American participation in the war in April 1917, an action which made him the prospective subject of a recall effort. This campaign was rendered moot when Lane died in office on May 23, 1917.
Harry Lane was born in Corvallis, Oregon, a small town on the banks of the Willamette River, on August 28, 1855. He was the son of Nathaniel Lane; the elder Lane was a successful participant in the California Gold Rush of the late 1840s who had returned to Oregon to invest his mining proceeds in construction of a lumber mill. The Lanes were part of a prominent Oregon political family. Nathaniel Lane's father Joseph Lane had been the first territorial Governor of Oregon and was immortalized as the namesake of Lane County, Oregon. In the election of 1860 Joseph Lane had achieved national prominence as the Vice Presidential running mate of John C. Breckinridge on the pro-slavery Southern Democratic Party ticket — with the pair carrying 11 states in a losing effort to Abraham Lincoln. Nathaniel's brother, Lafayette Lane, was elected a member of the Oregon Legislature and United States Congress. Harry would continue the family tradition, albeit as a Democrat of an altogether different stripe than had been his uncle and grandfather.
The Lane family's mill was destroyed in a fire and his parents opened a general store following the catastrophe. It was there. Harry continued graduating from Corvallis High School. Upon graduation Lane enrolled at Willamette University, located in the capital city of Salem, from which he graduated in 1876. In 1878, Lane earned a medical degree from Willamette's medical school and continued his medical education with postgraduate work at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. Lane returned to Oregon after completing his post-graduate education, which included time spent in New York and San Francisco. Lane put down roots and opened a medical practice in the state's largest city, where he would serve as the president of city and state medical societies. In 1887, Lane was tapped by Governor Sylvester Pennoyer to become the superintendent of the Oregon State Insane Asylum. Lane aggressively investigated charges of corruption in conjunction with the hospital — activity which made him no few enemies.
In 1891 Governor Pennover responded to political pressure critical of Lane and forced him to resign his post at the hospital. The experience left distrustful of the political process. Lane returned to medical practice in Portland, working for the next decade as a "poor people's doctor," on a pro bono basis. Harry Lane was "better at making friends than making money," his widow recalled. Lane was won over to the ideas of direct democracy and political reform that were part and parcel of the Progressive Era in the United States. In 1902 he ran his first political campaign, standing for Oregon State Senate on an independent reform ticket; the campaign was unsuccessful but Lane was bitten by the "political bug" and other electoral efforts were soon to follow. In 1905, Lane ran for the non-partisan position of Mayor of Portland; this time Lane emerged victorious and he served two 2-year terms. Lane attempted to govern the city as a social reformer but he found himself the holder of an ineffective veto pen, as saloon and corporate interests continued to control the agenda of the Portland City Council.
Although he was popular among voters, as mayor he accomplished little of lasting value because, not being a "party man", he had no leverage with the leaders of either party. His independent spirit was seen as a symbol around which the "common people" could rally in defiance of the established business-political leadership, he helped the mayors of other cities in California and Oregon to create jobs for the homeless, instead of sending them from city to city as was a common practice at the time. As mayor, Lane was an enthusiastic host for a 1905 national convention in support of woman suffrage in 1905, he was thereafter recognized as a friend of the movement for equality between the sexes, he took a further step for the advance of women's rights when he swore in Lola Baldwin to the Portland Police Bureau as one of the first female police officers in the United States on April 1, 1908. While mayor, at the end of the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, he advocated for a "permanent rose carnival", leading him to be called the "Father of the Portland Rose Festival", which continues today.
Lane was an advocate of direct democracy and led an unsuccessful voter referendum to establish municipal ownership of the Portland electric system. A flurry of measures were taken before the voters — 32 proposals in 1909 alone. Among his successes at the polls in these direct votes, Lane was instrumental in winning approval of
La Fayette Grover
La Fayette Grover was a Democratic politician and lawyer from the U. S. state of Oregon. He was the fourth Governor of Oregon, represented Oregon in the United States House of Representatives, served one term in the United States Senate. Grover was born in Bethel and was educated at Bethel's Gould Academy and Brunswick's Bowdoin College, he studied law and earned entry into the bar association in Philadelphia in 1850. He began his law practice in Salem; the Oregon Territorial legislature elected him prosecuting attorney for Oregon's second judicial district and auditor of public accounts for the Oregon Territory. From 1853 to 1855, he was a member of the Territorial House of Representatives. In 1854, he was appointed by the United States Department of the Interior a member of a commission sent to audit the claims from the Rogue River Indian War, he was appointed by the Secretary of War in 1856 to a board of commissioners to audit the Indian war expenses of Oregon and Washington. In 1857, he was a delegate to the Oregon Constitutional Convention, representing Marion County.
When Oregon gained statehood, he was elected to the 35th United States Congress as Oregon's member of the House of Representatives, serving from February 15, 1859, to March 4, 1859. He did not run for reelection in 1858, resumed his law practice and the manufacture of woolens. Grover was elected Governor of Oregon in 1870 and was reelected in 1874, he served as governor until 1877. Grover served in the Senate from March 4, 1877 to March 3, 1883, serving in the 46th United States Congress as the chairman of the Senate Committee on Manufactures, he did not run for reelection in 1883. During the 1876 Presidential Election, Oregon's statewide result favored Rutherford Hayes, but then-governor Grover claimed that elector John Watts was constitutionally ineligible to vote since he was an "elected or appointed official". Grover substituted a Democratic elector in his place; the two Republican electors dismissed Grover's action and each reported three votes for Hayes, while the Democratic elector, C. A. Cronin, reported one vote for Samuel Tilden and two votes for Hayes.
The vote was critical because the electoral college without John Watts's vote was tied 184–184. A 15-member Electoral Commission awarded all three of Oregon's votes to Hayes. Grover resumed his law practice. Grover died in Portland, Oregon, on May 10, 1911, was interred in River View Cemetery. Grover, La Fayette. Report of Governor Grover to General Schofield on the Modoc War: and reports of Major General John F. Miller and General John E. Ross, to the Governor: letter of the governor to the Secretary of the Interior on the Wallowa Valley Indian question:. Salem, OR: M. V. Brown, State Printer. Retrieved 2014-03-08. National Governors AssociationUnited States Congress. "La Fayette Grover". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. La Fayette Grover at Find a Grave
Cuero is a city in DeWitt County, United States. The population was 6,841 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of DeWitt County. It is unofficially known as the "turkey capital of the world". In 2010, Cuero was named one of the "Coolest Small Towns in America" by Budget Travel magazine; the city of Cuero had its start in the mid-19th century as a stopping point on the Chisholm Trail cattle route to Kansas. However, it was not recognized as a town until 1873, when it was founded; the city was named for the Spanish word meaning "hide", referring to the leather made from animal hides. The industry was short-lived and gave way to various forms of ranching; the city had several Old West gunfights related to clan feuding following the Civil War. Cuero's population grew in the 1870s and 1880s, as residents from the coastal town of Indianola, settled here after major hurricanes in this period destroyed sizeable portions of that city. Cuero thrived through much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries by the introduction and practice of turkey ranching in the area.
Today, agriculture is still the primary industry in the region. Cuero is considered to be shippers in Texas. Cuero is located east of the center of DeWitt County near the mouth of Sandies Creek, where it empties into the Guadalupe River. U. S. Routes 87, 77 Alternate, 183 pass through the city. All three highways follow South Esplanade Street into the center of town. US 87 leads west 87 miles to San Antonio. US 77 Alternate leads northeast 16 miles to Yoakum, US 183 leads north 32 miles to Gonzales. 77 Alternate and 183 together lead south 31 miles to Goliad. According to the United States Census Bureau, Cuero has a total area of 4.9 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.36%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Cuero has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Cuero has an annual average precipitation of 38.0 inches, all rain, as snow is negligible in the area.
As of the census of 2000, 6,571 people, 2,500 households, 1,695 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,331.1 people per square mile. There were 2,867 housing units at an average density of 580.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.25% White, 16.71% African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 12.84% from other races, 2.07% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 34.73% of the population. Of the 2,500 households, 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were not families. About 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was distributed as 27.1% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,931, for a family was $29,500. Males had a median income of $26,154 versus $16,551 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,286. About 21.5% of families and 26.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.6% of those under age 18 and 20.1% of those age 65 or over. Turkey Fest is a local festival during which the townsfolk compete with people at various turkey-centric events; the competitions revolve around the turkeys in which each takes immense pride. The events are the prettiest turkey contest, turkey toss, turkey trot, turkey race. Unlike most turkey trots, where humans do the racing, in Cuero, the "turkey trot" involves racing actual turkeys. In 1972, Charles Kuralt did an "On the Road" Report for CBS News from Cuero, where he did his own turkey call. "Christmas in Cuero" began in 2000 with the lighting of the gazebo in Cuero Municipal Park.
It has grown to over 100 displays of Victorian and Western scenes, 12-car trains, gingerbread houses, other scenes. A live nativity scene is sponsored by a church in Cuero. Two of the scenes were vandalized by two teens in November 2009; the park was still open to the public excluding the two damaged scenes. The teens arrested for the crime had their bonds set at $150,000, in part because of the effect the crime had on the community. Cuero has many places for recreation, including a baseball complex, a golf course, volleyball courts, tennis courts, a basketball pavilion, a park area with access to public swimming pool; the City of Cuero is served by the Cuero Independent School District. John C. French serves PK-K grades, Hunt Elementary serves grades 1–3, Cuero Intermediate School serves grades 4–6, Cuero Junior High serves grades 7–8, Cuero High School serves grades 9–12. In addition, the City of Cuero is served by St. Michael's Catholic School. Providing education for the children of DeWitt County for over 130 years, the school has a accredited early childhood program and offers education for grades K-6.
Barr McClellan, author, entrepreneur Frank Bass, professor a
George Henry Williams
George Henry Williams was an American judge and politician. He served as Chief Justice of the Oregon Supreme Court, was the 32nd Attorney General of the United States, was elected Oregon's U. S. senator, served one term. Williams, as U. S. senator and supported legislation that allowed the U. S. military to be deployed in Reconstruction of the southern states to allow for an orderly process of re-admittance into the United States. Williams was the first presidential Cabinet member; as attorney general under President Ulysses S. Grant, Williams continued the prosecutions that shut down the Ku Klux Klan, he had to contend with controversial election disputes in Reconstructed southern states. President Grant and Williams recognized P. B. S. Pinchback as the first African American state governor. Williams ruled that the Virginius, a gun-running ship captured by Spain during the Virginius Affair, did not have the right to bear the U. S. flag. However, he argued. Nominated for Supreme Court Chief Justice by President Grant, Williams failed to be confirmed by the U.
S. Senate due to Williams's removal of A. C. Gibbs, United States District Attorney at Portland, Oregon. In 1875, Williams resigned as U. S. Attorney General under the controversy of his wife taking payment money from the custom house firm Pratt & Boyd in order to drop litigation by the U. S. Justice Department. After his resignation, Williams took part in counting Florida ballots for Rutherford B. Hayes in settling the controversial presidential election of 1876. Williams returned to Oregon, resumed private law practice, was elected Portland's mayor, serving two terms from 1902 to 1905. Williams advocated women's suffrage and that marriage and divorce proceedings needed to be handled by the civil courts rather than the church. Williams, at the age of 83, was indicted while Mayor of Portland for not enforcing gambling restriction statutes. On May 28, 1905, Mayor Williams made a speech at the opening ceremony of the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition. Williams was the second to last surviving cabinet member of the Grant Administration.
George Henry Willams was born in upstate New York, New Lebanon, Columbia County, on March 26, 1823. At an early age his family moved to Onondaga County, where was educated in public and private schools, including Pompey Academy. Williams studied law under Honorable Daniel Scott having passed the bar in 1844 at the age of 21. In the same year Williams moved west, practiced law in the Iowa Territory. After Iowa was admitted to statehood, Williams was elected district judge in 1847, serving until 1852. In 1853, Williams was appointed Chief Justice of the Oregon Territory by President Franklin Pierce. In 1857, at the Oregon Constitutional Convention, Williams urged that slavery be made illegal in Oregon as a requirement for statehood. Williams advocated unsuccessfully. In the early years of the Oregon Supreme Court, the three justices rode circuit and acted as trial level judges; as a presiding judge while riding circuit, Williams presided over the Holmes v. Ford case that freed a slave family since slavery was illegal in the territory.
In 1857, he was a member of the Oregon Constitutional Convention held before the establishment of Oregon as a U. S. state. Williams remained on the court until 1858, he moved to Portland, where he resumed the practice of law. Williams, a Democrat, supported Stephen Douglas during the Presidential Election of 1860. Williams attended the Oregon Union convention of 1862, having opposed slavery, was the chairman of the Election Committee. In 1864 Williams, having changed over to the Republican Party, was elected to the United States Senate. In 1865, Sen. Williams, a Radical Republican, was appointed to the Committee on Finance and Public Lands and the Joint Committee on Reconstruction. In 1866 Williams authored the Tenure of Office Act, passed by Congress in 1867 over President Andrew Johnson's veto, that limited the President in removing Cabinet officers; this act was vital to the Republican Party, having saved the offices of appointed Republicans throughout the United States. In 1867, he authored and supported the Military Reconstruction Act, passed by Congress over President Johnson's veto, that authorized U.
S. military control of the South. This act permanently restored and Reconstructed the Confederate states in rebellion back into the United States in an orderly and peaceful manner using the strength of the U. S. military. In 1868, Williams and his senatorial colleague Henry W. Corbett voted guilty in President Andrew Johnson's impeachment trial. Williams was defeated in the election of 1870. In 1871, President Grant appointed Williams one of six U. S. Joint High Commissioners to negotiate a settlement treaty between Britain and the U. S. in Washington, D. C. over the Alabama Claims and America's Northwest boundary between the U. S. and Canada. Six representatives had been chosen to represent British and Canadian interests making a total of twelve High Commissioners. Williams was chosen to be on the U. S. treaty commission due to his career in the Pacific Northwest. Williams proved to be a valuable member of the U. S. Commission and served in this position with dignity. In addition to settling the Alabama claims against Britain for allowing Confederate ships to be armed in British ports, at stake was the U.
S. Northwest border running through the Rosario Strait; the U. S. desired that the boundary ru
Wayne Lyman Morse was an American attorney and United States Senator from Oregon, known for his proclivity for opposing his party's leadership, for his opposition to the Vietnam War on constitutional grounds. Born in Madison and educated at the University of Wisconsin and the University of Minnesota Law School, Morse moved to Oregon in 1930 and began teaching at the University of Oregon School of Law. During World War II, he was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican. While an independent, he set a record for performing the second longest one-person filibuster in the history of the Senate. Morse joined the Democratic Party in 1955, was reelected twice while a member of that party. Morse made a brief run for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination in 1960. In 1964, Morse was one of two senators to oppose the controversial Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, it authorized the president to take military action in Vietnam without a declaration of war. He continued to speak out against the war in the ensuing years, lost his 1968 bid for reelection to Bob Packwood, who criticized his strong opposition to the war.
Morse made two more bids for reelection to the Senate before his death in 1974. Morse was born on October 20, 1900, in Madison, home of his maternal grandparents and Flora White. Morse's parents, Wilbur F. Morse and Jessie Elnora Morse, farmed a 320-acre plot near Verona, a small community 11 miles west-southwest of Madison. Morse grew up on this farm, where the family raised Devon cattle for beef and Hackney horses, dairy cows, sheep and feed crops for the animals; the family included five children: Mabel, seven years older than Morse. Encouraged by Jessie, the Morse family held formal nightly discussions about crops, education and most about politics. Like many of their neighbors, the family was Progressive and discussed ideas championed by Robert M. La Follette, Sr. a leader of the Progressive movement who served as Wisconsin's governor from 1900 to 1906 and thereafter as a member of the U. S. Senate. During these family discussions, Morse developed debating skills and strong opinions about political corruption, corporate domination, labor rights, women's suffrage, and, on a personal level, hard work and sobriety.
Morse and his siblings began their education in a one-room school near Verona. However, the Morse parents Jessie, shared the Progressive belief that improvement of self and society came through good education, they admired the schools in Madison. After Morse finished second grade, his parents enrolled him in Longfellow School in Madison, to which Morse commuted 22 miles round-trip daily by riding relay on three of the family's smaller horses. After eighth grade, Morse attended Madison High School, where he became class president and debating club president, placed academically among the top 10 in his graduating class. In high school, he developed his relationship with Mildred "Midge" Downie, whom he had known since third grade, and, class valedictorian and class vice-president the same year Morse was president. Morse received his bachelor's degree from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1923 and his master's, in speech, from Wisconsin the next year, he married Downie in the same year. For several years, he taught speech at the University of Minnesota Law School, earned his LL.
B. degree there in 1928. He held a reserve commission as second lieutenant, Field Artillery, U. S. Army, from 1923 to 1929, was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity. Morse became an assistant professor of law at the University of Oregon School of Law in 1929. Within nine months, he was promoted to associate professor and dean of the law school. At age 31, this made him the youngest dean of any law school accredited by the American Bar Association. After becoming a full professor of law in 1931, he completed his S. J. D. at Columbia Law School in 1932. He served including: member, Oregon Crime Commission. In 1944 Morse won the Republican primary election for senator, unseating incumbent Rufus C. Holman, the general election that November. Once in Washington, D. C. he revealed his progressive roots, to the consternation of his more conservative Republican peers. In 1946, Morse cosponsored legislation proposing a full Senate investigation into labor dispute causes, saying in March, "I think we've got to find out whether certain segments of industry are out to wreck unions."
He was outspoken in his opposition to the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. In January 1946, after President Truman delivered an address criticizing Congress and defending his proposals, Morse referred to President Truman's speech as a "sad confession of the Democratic majority in Congress under the President's leadership" and called for the election of liberal Republicans in the midterm elections that year. In January 1946, Morse called on Congress to vote on President Truman's pending legislation, citing continued delay would produce "a great economic uncertainty" and add to "reconversion slow-up", he asserted
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal