Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England. It took place 7 miles northwest of Hastings, close to the present-day town of Battle, East Sussex, was a decisive Norman victory; the background to the battle was the death of the childless King Edward the Confessor in January 1066, which set up a succession struggle between several claimants to his throne. Harold was crowned king shortly after Edward's death, but faced invasions by William, his own brother Tostig, the Norwegian King Harald Hardrada. Hardrada and Tostig defeated a hastily gathered army of Englishmen at the Battle of Fulford on 20 September 1066, were in turn defeated by Harold at the Battle of Stamford Bridge five days later; the deaths of Tostig and Hardrada at Stamford Bridge left William as Harold's only serious opponent. While Harold and his forces were recovering, William landed his invasion forces in the south of England at Pevensey on 28 September 1066 and established a beachhead for his conquest of the kingdom.
Harold was forced gathering forces as he went. The exact numbers present at the battle are unknown; the composition of the forces is clearer. Harold appears to have tried to surprise William, but scouts found his army and reported its arrival to William, who marched from Hastings to the battlefield to confront Harold; the battle lasted from about 9 am to dusk. Early efforts of the invaders to break the English battle lines had little effect. Harold's death near the end of the battle, led to the retreat and defeat of most of his army. After further marching and some skirmishes, William was crowned as king on Christmas Day 1066. There continued to be rebellions and resistance to William's rule, but Hastings marked the culmination of William's conquest of England. Casualty figures are hard to come by, but some historians estimate that 2,000 invaders died along with about twice that number of Englishmen. William founded a monastery at the site of the battle, the high altar of the abbey church placed at the spot where Harold died.
In 911, the Carolingian ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings to settle in Normandy under their leader Rollo. Their settlement proved successful, they adapted to the indigenous culture, renouncing paganism, converting to Christianity, intermarrying with the local population. Over time, the frontiers of the duchy expanded to the west. In 1002, King Æthelred II married the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy, their son Edward the Confessor spent many years in exile in Normandy, succeeded to the English throne in 1042. This led to the establishment of a powerful Norman interest in English politics, as Edward drew on his former hosts for support, bringing in Norman courtiers and clerics and appointing them to positions of power in the Church. Edward was childless and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex, his sons, he may have encouraged Duke William of Normandy's ambitions for the English throne. King Edward's death on 5 January 1066 left no clear heir, several contenders laid claim to the throne of England.
Edward's immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, the richest and most powerful of the English aristocrats and son of Godwin, Edward's earlier opponent. Harold was elected king by the Witenagemot of England and crowned by Ealdred, the Archbishop of York, although Norman propaganda claimed that the ceremony was performed by Stigand, the uncanonically elected Archbishop of Canterbury. Harold was at once challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. Duke William claimed that he had been promised the throne by King Edward and that Harold had sworn agreement to this. Harald Hardrada of Norway contested the succession, his claim to the throne was based on an agreement between his predecessor Magnus the Good and the earlier King of England Harthacnut, whereby, if either died without heir, the other would inherit both England and Norway. William and Harald Hardrada set about assembling troops and ships for separate invasions. In early 1066, Harold's exiled brother Tostig Godwinson raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders joined by other ships from Orkney.
Threatened by Harold's fleet, Tostig raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire. He was driven back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar, Earl of Northumbria. Deserted by most of his followers, he withdrew to Scotland, where he spent the middle of the year recruiting fresh forces. Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying 15,000 men. Hardrada's army was further augmented by the forces of Tostig, who supported the Norwegian king's bid for the throne. Advancing on York, the Norwegians occupied the city after defeating a northern English army under Edwin and Morcar on 20 September at the Battle of Fulford; the English army was organised along regional lines, with the fyrd, or local levy, serving under a local magnate – whether an earl, bishop, or sheriff. The fyrd was composed of men who owned their own land, were equipped by their community to fulfil the king's demands for military for
Richard II, Duke of Normandy
Richard II, called the Good, was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora. He was a Norman nobleman of the House of Normandy, he was the paternal grandfather of William the Conqueror. Richard succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy in 996. During his minority, the first five years of his reign, his regent was Count Rodulf of Ivry, his uncle, who wielded the power and put down a peasant insurrection at the beginning of Richard's reign. Richard had deep religious interests and found he had much in common with Robert II of France, who he helped militarily against the duchy of Burgundy, he forged a marriage alliance with Brittany by marrying his sister Hawise to Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany and by his own marriage to Geoffrey's sister, Judith of Brittany. In 1000-1001, Richard repelled an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula, led by Ethelred II of England. Ethelred had given orders that Richard be captured and brought to England, but the English had not been prepared for the rapid response of the Norman cavalry and were defeated at the Battle of Val-de-Saire.
Richard attempted to improve relations with England through his sister Emma of Normandy's marriage to King Ethelred. This marriage was significant in that it gave his grandson, William the Conqueror, the basis of his claim to the throne of England; the improved relations proved to be beneficial to Ethelred when in 1013 Sweyn Forkbeard invaded England. Emma with her two sons Edward and Alfred fled to Normandy followed shortly thereafter by her husband king Ethelred. Soon after the death of Ethelred, King of England forced Emma to marry him while Richard was forced to recognize the new regime as his sister was again Queen. Richard had contacts with Scandinavian Vikings throughout his reign, he employed Viking mercenaries and concluded a treaty with Sweyn Forkbeard, en route to England. Richard II commissioned his clerk and confessor, Dudo of Saint-Quentin, to portray his ducal ancestors as morally upright Christian leaders who built Normandy despite the treachery of their overlords and neighboring principalities.
It was a work of propaganda designed to legitimize the Norman settlement, while it contains numerous unreliable legends, as respects the reigns of his father and grandfather, Richard I and William I it is reliable. In 1025 and 1026 Richard confirmed gifts of his great-grandfather Rollo to Saint-Ouen at Rouen, his other numerous grants to monastic houses tends to indicate the areas over which Richard had ducal control, namely Caen, the Éverecin, the Cotentin, the Pays de Caux and Rouen. Richard II died 28 Aug 1026, his eldest son, Richard becoming the new Duke. He married firstly, c.1000, daughter of Conan I of Brittany, by whom he had the following issue: Richard, duke of Normandy Robert, duke of Normandy Alice of Normandy, married Renaud I, Count of Burgundy William, monk at Fécamp, d. 1025, buried at Fécamp Abbey Eleanor, married to Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders Matilda, nun at Fecamp, d. 1033. She died unmarried. Secondly he married Poppa of Envermeu, by whom he had the following issue: Mauger, Archbishop of Rouen William, count of Arques
Arques-la-Bataille is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France. Arques is situated near the confluence of the rivers Eaulne, Varenne and Béthune, with the forest of Arques to the north-east, it lies 4 miles southeast of Dieppe at the junction of the D23, D56 roads. The centre houses a castle dominating the town, built in the 11th century by William of Talou. After changing hands, it came into the possession of the English, who were expelled in 1449 after an occupation of thirty years. In 1589, its cannon decided the battle of Arques in favor of Henry IV. Since 1869, the castle has been state property; the first line of fortification was the work of Francis I. The church of Arques, a building of the 16th century, preserves a stone rood screen, stained glass and other relics of the Renaissance period. Just outside the town is the World War I Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery, designed by J R Truelove, the final resting place of 377 men of the South African Native Labour Corps.
Willa Cather's 1907 short story "Eleanor's House" is set in Arques-la-Bataille. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Chinese Labour Corps INSEE Official website of Arques-la-Bataille photo gallery of Arques The CWGC cemetery Arques on the Quid information website Detailed history of the castle with photos and illustrations
The river Canche is one of the rivers that flow from the plateau of the southern Boulonnais and Picardy, into the English Channel. The Somme is the largest example; the basin of the Canche extends to 1,274 square kilometres and lies in the southern end of the département of Pas-de-Calais. Forming an alluvial valley from 1 to 2 kilometres wide, the Canche is a verdant landscape of calm waters, marshes and small woods; the gentle gradient, averaging 1.5 percent, gives the river a meandering course. The river rises at Gouy-en-Ternois and passes Frévent, Montreuil-sur-Mer before leaving the chalk to flow to the coast between Étaples and Le Touquet-Paris-Plage, its principal tributaries are the Ternoise, the Planquette, the Créquoise, the Bras de Bronne, the Course, the Dordogne and the Huitrepin which all join on its right bank, i.e. to the north of the Canche. The lie of the land means there’s no notable tributary from the south until the Grande Tringue, which flows from marshland into the small, dredged estuary.
The valley of the Canche has been occupied by man since ancient times because of the productive nature of the land. The unhealthy aspect of marshland means much has been done over the centuries to drain the land efficiently, which has brought about the partial destruction of its original character; the principal activities of the village communities occupying the valley and its surrounds have been farming and reed harvesting. The extraction of peat from the marshes of the lower river was known in the 16th century; the alder tree, which grew well in the local marshy soils, contributed to bind the ground, of course, it furnishing timber for many purposes. It was realized that forestry helped in drainage. Further developments in the 18th century saw permanent enclosures with animals being fenced-in, keeping them off the crops, property boundaries by the planting of hedges and the digging of ditches, contributing to organized and cooperative farming methods; the 18th century saw the emergence of new perceptions of marshland, long considered as unhealthy places in which to live.
Administrative authorities encouraged action to recover the peat marshes by drainage work and the planting of more trees. The reduction of marshland again allowed for more areas of cultivation to feed the increasing population. During the 19th century, technical progress led to further improvements in drainage, contributing to the drying-up of the valley downstream as far as Hesdin). In the last quarter of the 20th century the authorities became aware of the importance of the marshes and started trying to preserve them, having earlier contributed to their disappearance; the Canche and its valley have been incorporated into a national natural reserve since 1987. ). The Canche estuary was the first site in northern France where a conservation victory, in respect of the coast, was first achieved, in 1976. Plans had been made to put in place an earlier project, dating from the 1960s, to create an artificial environment on the estuary; the work included creating a marina. This was supposed to be “compensation” for extracting the waters of the Canche at Hesdin in order to supply the city of Lille.
Of course, this threatened to destroy flora of the estuary. The mobilisation of the local inhabitants, various associations and many scientists, after many public enquiries and heated arguments, stopped the plans and left the estuary to nature. With sandbars and spits, the estuary of the Canche is typical of the estuaries of this region of France; the coastal dunes and valley are home to 485 different plants and a diverse range of wildlife. Seventy-five varieties of resident and migratory birds nest in and around the estuary and valley, such as the nightjar, several types of warblers, oyster catchers and the predatory merlin and buzzard; this area shelters mammals such as deer, wild boar, badgers, squirrels and the occasional seal, but, in contrast to the bay of the Somme, the estuary of the Canche does not seem to possess a seal colony. Numerous amphibians are found along the river. Site de l'Agence de l'eau Bassin Artois-Picardie Site personnel SAGE de la Canche Tourisme dans la vallée de la Canche French water management scheme This article is derived from the French Wikipedia.
Carte Géologique de la France à l'échelle du millionième 6th edn. BRGM ISBN 2-7159-2158-6
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre, it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating. There are 37 bridges within dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur; the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864. A number of associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source.
The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, a dog, a dragon. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of the dea Sequana "Seine goddess" and other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archaeological museum; the Seine can artificially be divided into five parts: the Petite Seine "Small Seine" from the sources to Montereau-Fault-Yonne the Haute Seine "Upper Seine" from Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris the Traversée de Paris "the Paris waterway" the Basse Seine "Lower Seine" from Paris to Rouen the Seine maritime "Maritime Seine" from Rouen to the English channel. The Seine is dredged and ocean-going vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Commercial craft can use the river from 516 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges; the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus navigable. The Seine Maritime, 123 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft.
The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a canalized section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Smaller locks at Bougival and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the junction with the Canal Saint-Martin is located; the distance from the mouth of the Oise is 72 km. The Haute Seine, from Paris to Montereau-Fault-Yonne, has 8 locks. At Charenton-le-Pont is the mouth of the Marne. Upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine. From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft to Marcilly-sur-Seine. At Marcilly-sur-Seine the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes; this canal has been abandoned since 1957. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres.
Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks. Today the depth is controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is filled with water; the average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur. A severe period of high water in January 1910 resulted in extensive flooding throughout the city; the Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982, 1999–2000, June 2016, January 2018. After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms.
A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas. In January 2018 the Seine again flooded. An official warning was issued on January 24 that heavy rainfall was to cause the river to flood. By January 27, the river was rising; the Deputy Mayor of Paris, Colombe Brossel, warned that the heavy rain was caused by climate change, that "We have to understand that climatic change is not a word, it's a reality." The basin area is 78,910 square kilometres, 2 percent of, forest and 78 percent cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine watershed: Le Havre at the estuary, Rouen in the Seine valley and Reims at the northern limit—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2 percent. The population density is 201 per square kilometer. Periodically
Duchy of Normandy
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings. The duchy was named for the Normans. From 1066 until 1204 it was held by the kings of England, except for the brief rule of Robert Curthose, eldest son of William the Conqueror but unsuccessful claimant to the English throne. In 1202, Philip II of France declared Normandy forfeit to him and seized it by force of arms in 1204, it remained disputed territory until the Treaty of Paris of 1259, when the English sovereign ceded his claim except for the Channel Islands. In the Kingdom of France, the duchy was set apart as an apanage to be ruled by a member of the royal family. After 1469, however, it was permanently united to the royal domain, although the title was conferred as an honorific upon junior members of the royal family; the last French duke of Normandy in this sense was Louis-Charles, duke from 1785 to 1789. The first Viking raid on the region took place in 820.
By 911, the area had been raided many times and there were small Viking settlements on the lower Seine. The text of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte has not survived, it is only known through the historian Dudo of Saint-Quentin, writing a century after the event. The exact date of the treaty is unknown, but it was in the autumn of 911. By the agreement, Charles III, king of the West Franks, granted to the Viking leader Rollo some lands along the lower Seine that were already under Danish control. Whether Rollo himself was a Dane or a Norwegian is not known. For his part, Rollo agreed to defend the territory from other Vikings and that he and his men would convert to Christianity; the territory ceded to Rollo comprised the pagi of the Caux, Évrecin and Talou. This was territory known as the county of Rouen, which would become Upper Normandy. A royal diploma of 918 confirms the donation of 911. There is no evidence that Rollo owed any service or oath to the king for his lands, nor that there were any legal means for the king to take them back: they were granted outright.
Rollo does not seem to have been created a count or given comital authority, but sagas refer to him as Rúðujarl. In 924, King Radulf extended Rollo's county westward up to the river Vire, including the Bessin, where some Danes from England had settled not long before. In 933, King Radulf granted the Avranchin and Cotentin to Rollo's son and successor, William Longsword; these areas had been under Breton rule. The northern Cotentin had been settled by Norwegians coming from the region of the Irish Sea. There was much hostility between these Norwegian settlers and their new Danish overlords; these expansions brought the boundaries of Normandy in line with those of the ecclesiastical province of Rouen. The Norman polity had to contend with the Frankish and Breton systems of power that existed in Normandy. In the early 10th century, Normandy was not a monetary unit. According to many academics, "the formation of a new aristocracy, monastic reform, episcopal revival, written bureaucracy, saints’ cults – with different timelines" were as important if not more than the ducal narrative espoused by Dudo.
The formation of the Norman state coincided with the creation of an origin myth for the Norman ducal family through Dudo, such as Rollo being compared to a "good pagan" like the Trojan hero Aeneas. Through this narrative, the Normans were assimilated closer to the Frankish core as they moved away from their pagan Scandinavian origins. There were two distinct patterns of Norse settlement in the duchy. In the Danish area in the Roumois and the Caux, settlers intermingled with the indigenous Gallo-Romance-speaking population. Rollo shared out the large estates with his companions and gave agricultural land to his other followers. Danish settlers cleared their own land to farm it, there was no segregation of populations. In the northern Cotentin on the other hand, the population was purely Norwegian. Coastal features bore Norse names as did the three pagi of Haga and Helganes; the Norwegians may have set up a þing, an assembly of all free men, whose meeting place may be preserved in the name of Le Tingland.
Within a few generations of the founding of Normandy in 911, the Scandinavian settlers had intermarried with the natives and adopted much of their culture. But in 911, Normandy was not a monetary unit. Frankish culture remained dominant and according to some scholars, 10th century Normandy was characterized by a diverse Scandinavian population interacting with the "local Frankish matrix" that existed in the region. In the end, the Normans stressed assimilation with the local population. In the 11th century, the anonymous author of the Miracles of Saint Wulfram referred to the formation of a Norman identity as "shaping all races into one single people". According to some historians, the idea of "Norman" as a political identity was a deliberate creation of the court of Richard I in the 960s as a way to "to create a powerful if rather incoherent sense of group solidarity to galvanize the duchy's disparate elites around the duke". Starting with Rollo, Normandy was ruled by an long-lived Viking dynasty.
Illegitimacy was not a bar to succession and three of the first six rulers of Normandy were illegitimate sons of concubines. Rollo's successor, William Longsword managed in expanding his domain and came into co
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment