Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League; the city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC. The city was famed for the nearby Temple of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Among many other monumental buildings are the Library of Celsus, a theatre capable of holding 25,000 spectators. Ephesos was one of the seven churches of Asia; the Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th-century Christian Councils; the city was destroyed by the Goths in 263, although rebuilt, the city's importance as a commercial centre declined as the harbour was silted up by the Küçükmenderes River. It was destroyed by an earthquake in AD 614; the ruins of Ephesus are a favourite international and local tourist attraction owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport or from the cruise ship port of Kuşadası, some 30 km to the South.
The area surrounding Ephesus was inhabited during the Neolithic Age, as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük of Arvalya and Cukurici. Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at Ayasuluk Hill. According to Hittite sources, the capital of the Kingdom of Arzawa was Apasa; some scholars suggest that this is the Greek Ephesus. In 1954, a burial ground from the Mycenaean era with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John; this was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi settled in Asia Minor during the 14th and 13th centuries BC. The names Apasa and Ephesus appear to be cognate, found inscriptions seem to pinpoint the places in the Hittite record. Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on a hill, three kilometers from the centre of ancient Ephesus; the mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, King Kodros.
According to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place. Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder, he was a successful warrior, as a king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. During his reign the city began to prosper, he died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze. Greek historians such as Pausanias and Herodotos and the poet Kallinos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons; the Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building of the ancient world according to Pausanias. Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus, before the arrival of the Ionians.
Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains. Ancient sources seem to indicate. About 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. After the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. Following a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council; the city prospered again under a new rule, producing a number of important historical figures such as the elegiac poet Callinus and the iambic poet Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus. About 560 BC, Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus, though a harsh ruler, treated the inhabitants with respect and became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis, his signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple. Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city.
In the same century, the Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians refused a peace offer from siding with the Lydians instead. After the Persians defeated Croesus, the Ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire, they were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC. The Persians incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire; those cities were ruled by satraps. Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbou
In Christianity, an abbess is the female superior of a community of nuns, an abbey. In the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican abbeys, the mode of election, position and authority of an abbess correspond with those of an abbot, she must have been a nun for 10 years. The age requirement in the Catholic Church has evolved over time, ranging from 30 to 60; the requirement of 10 years as a nun is only 8 in Catholicism. In the rare case of there not being a nun with the qualifications, the requirements may be lowered to 30 years of age and 5 of those in an "upright manner", as determined by the superior. A woman, of illegitimate birth, is not a virgin, has undergone non-salutory public penance, is a widow, or is blind or deaf, is disqualified for the position, saving by permission of the Holy See; the office is the choice being by the secret votes of the nuns belonging to the community. Like an abbot, after being confirmed in her office by the Holy See, an abbess is solemnly admitted to her office by a formal blessing, conferred by the bishop in whose territory the monastery is located, or by an abbot or another bishop with appropriate permission.
Unlike the abbot, the abbess receives only the ring, the crosier, a copy of the rule of the order. She does not receive a mitre as part of the ceremony; the abbess traditionally adds a pectoral cross to the outside of her habit as a symbol of office, though she continues to wear a modified form of her religious habit or dress, as she is unordained—females cannot be ordained—and so does not vest or use choir dress in the liturgy. An abbess serves except in Italy and some adjacent islands. Abbesses are, like abbots, major superiors according to canon law, the equivalents of abbots or bishops, they receive the vows of the nuns of the abbey. They have full authority in its administration. However, there are significant limitations, they may not administer the sacraments, whose celebration is reserved to bishops, deacons, those in Holy Orders. They may make provision for an ordained cleric to help train and to admit some of their members, if needed, as altar servers, extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, or lectors—all ministries which are now open to the unordained.
They may not serve as a witness to a marriage except by special rescript. They may not administer Penance, Anointing of the Sick, or function as an ordained celebrant or concelebrant of the Mass, they may preside over the Liturgy of the Hours which they are obliged to say with their community, speak on Scripture to their community, give certain types of blessings not reserved to the clergy. On the other hand, they may not ordinarily preach a sermon or homily, nor read the Gospel during Mass; as they do not receive episcopal ordination in the Catholic and Oriental Churches, they do not possess the ability to ordain others, nor do they exercise the authority they do possess under canon law over any territories outside of their monastery and its territory. There are exigent circumstances, where due to Apostolical privilege, certain Abbesses have been granted rights and responsibilities above the normal, such as the Abbess of the Cistercian Monastery of the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas near Burgos, Spain.
Granted exceptional rights was the Abbess of the Cistercian order in Conversano Italy. She was granted the ability to appoint her own vicar-general and approve the confessors, along with the practice of receiving the public homage of her clergy; this practice continued until some of the duties were modified due to an appeal by the clergy to Rome. In 1750, the public homage was abolished. In some Celtic monasteries, abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks and nuns, the most famous example being Saint Brigid of Kildare's leadership in the founding of the monastery at Kildare in Ireland; this custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France, to Rome itself. In 1115, the founder of Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon and Saumur, committed the government of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female superior. In Lutheran churches, the title of abbess has in some cases survived to designate the heads of abbeys which since the Protestant Reformation have continued as monasteries or convents.
These positions continued changing from Catholic to Lutheran. The first to make this change was the Abb
The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 to the forces of Zengi; the county had been founded during the First Crusade by King Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was the first to fall; the Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks; the main Western Christian source, Odo of Deuil, Syriac Christian sources claim that the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos secretly hindered the crusaders' progress in Anatolia, where he is alleged to have deliberately ordered Turks to attack them. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and participated in 1148 in an ill-advised attack on Damascus.
The crusade in the east was a great victory for the Muslims. It would have a key influence on the fall of Jerusalem and give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century; the only significant Christian success of the Second Crusade came to a combined force of 13,000 Flemish, Norman, English and German crusaders in 1147. Travelling from England, by ship, to the Holy Land, the army stopped and helped the smaller Portuguese army in the capture of Lisbon, expelling its Moorish occupants. After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101, there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa. A fourth, the County of Tripoli, was established in 1109. Edessa was the most northerly of these, the weakest and least populated. Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Baldwin and Joscelin were both captured a second time in 1122, although Edessa recovered somewhat after the Battle of Azaz in 1125, Joscelin was killed in battle in 1131.
His successor Joscelin II was forced into an alliance with the Byzantine Empire, but in 1143 both the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus and the King of Jerusalem Fulk of Anjou died. Joscelin had quarreled with the Count of Tripoli and the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. Meanwhile, the Seljuq Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul, had added to his rule in 1128 Aleppo, the key to power in Syria, contested between the rulers of Mosul and Damascus. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus. Damascus, ruled by the Burid Dynasty allied with King Fulk when Zengi besieged the city in 1139 and 1140. In late 1144, Joscelin II allied with the Ortoqids and marched out of Edessa with his entire army to support the Ortoqid army against Aleppo. Zengi seeking to take advantage of Fulk's death in 1143, hurried north to besiege Edessa, which fell to him after a month on 24 December 1144. Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist, but arrived too late.
Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county from Turbessel, but little by little the rest of the territory was captured by Muslims or sold to the Byzantines. Zengi himself was praised throughout Islam as "defender of the faith" and al-Malik al-Mansur, "the victorious king", he did not pursue an attack on the remaining territory of Edessa, or the Principality of Antioch, as was feared. Events in Mosul compelled him to return home, he once again set his sights on Damascus. However, he was succeeded in Aleppo by his son Nur ad-Din; the news of the fall of Edessa was brought back to Europe first by pilgrims early in 1145, by embassies from Antioch and Armenia. Bishop Hugh of Jabala reported the news to Pope Eugene III, who issued the bull Quantum praedecessores on 1 December of that year, calling for a second crusade. Hugh told the Pope of an eastern Christian king, who, it was hoped, would bring relief to the crusader states: this is the first documented mention of Prester John. Eugene did not control Rome and lived instead at Viterbo, but the Second Crusade was meant to be more organized and centrally controlled than the First: the armies would be led by the strongest kings of Europe and a route would be planned beforehand.
The initial response to the new crusade bull was poor, it in fact had to be reissued when it was clear that Louis VII of France would be taking part in the expedition. Louis VII had been considering a new expedition independently of the Pope, which he announced to his Christmas court at Bourges in 1145, it is debatable whether Louis was planning a crusade of his own or in fact a pilgrimage, as he wanted to fulfil a vow made by his dead brother Philip to go to the Holy Land. It is probable that Louis had made this decision independently of hearing about Quantum Praedecessores. In any case, Abbot Suger and other nobles were not in favour of Louis's plans, as he would be gone from the kingdom for several years. Louis consulted Bernard of Clairvaux, who referred him back to Eugene. By now Louis would have heard about the papal bull, Eugene enthusiastically supported Louis's crusade; the bull was reissued on 1 March 1146, Eugene authorized Ber
Valloires Abbey is a 12th-century Cistercian abbey situated in the commune of Argoules in the Somme department of France. The Abbey de Valloires is the burial place of the Comte de Ponthieu with nearly every Count from the 12th to the 14th centuries buried there. In 1138, Count Guy II of Ponthieu agreed with Cistercian monks to the foundation of their seventh abbey in France; the monks established themselves at Valloires in the valley of the Authie river in 1158 AD. At the height of its prosperity, in the 12th and 13th centuries, the abbey was home to about one hundred monks; the abbey's wealth allowed the construction of the first abbey in the rib-vaulted style as early as 1226. In the following centuries during the Hundred Years War and the Thirty Years War, the abbey suffered badly because of military operations and pillage. In the aftermath of the nearby Battle of Crécy, injured combatants were brought to the Abbey for medical treatment. By the 17th century, the abbey was in ruins, but the abbey was rebuilt, the work being completed around 1730.
In 1738, the preserved 13th century parts of the abbey collapsed and it was necessary to construct a new church. The work began to the plans of the architect Raoul Coignard; the internal decoration was entrusted to the Austrian sculptor Simon Pfaff of Pfaffenhoffen and to metal worker Jean-Baptiste Veyren. The new church was consecrated on September 5, 1756. During the Revolution period, the abbey was sold on July 7, 1791 for 271,000 livres to Jourdain de l'Eloge, a local lord from Argoules, thus escaping further damage. In 1817, the abbey passed into the care of the lay brotherhood of the Basilians, subsequently in 1880 to the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul, to be used as an orphanage. Sold again in 1906, it was classified as a historic monument abandoned. During World War I it was used as a military hospital. In 1922, it became a preventorium for children at the instigation of Thérèse Papillon, a young French Red-Cross nurse. Nowaday the abbey is the property of a non profit association founded in 1922.
The main goal of the association de Valloires is to foster children. To support its philanthropic work, the Association de Valloires makes the abbey open to paying visitors from March to November. You can admire the oak wood panelling in the sacristy, in the Louis XV rocaille style, the Baroque church, with its gallery, superb metal screen in the chancel, high-altar surmounted by unique 18th century papier-mâché angels. At the same time, its 18th century suites are open all year round and available as bed-and-breakfast accommodation. From these rooms, above the monks' refectory, there is a breath-taking view over the gardens. Created in 1989 with a collection of over 4000 rare plants, the Jardins de Valloires cover an area of eight hectares. Laid out below the abbey, the gardens are split into three distinct parts: A formal garden in keeping with the abbey building An English style garden, which contains the rare plant collection A marsh wilderness garden. Gilles Clément, the famous landscape gardener was assigned to create the gardens.
His ideas integrated the wild environment and the historic character of the place, but with little regard for the monastic garden style. Valloires is much a contemporary garden; the collection spans a huge variety of species, such as maple, deutzia, beech and rare apple family members. Certain varieties are unique in Europe. A new garden has been laid out, dedicated to the work of the naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, born in the Somme department in 1744. Official Valloires Website Endowment fund Website for the Abbaye de Valloires Bay de Somme Tourist website Website of the committee of tourism of the Somme: Valloires The abbey as a military hospital
The French nobility was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790. The nobility was revived in 1805 with limited rights as a titled elite class from the First Empire to the fall of the July Monarchy in 1848, when all privileges were abolished for good. Hereditary titles, without privileges, continued to be granted until the Second Empire fell in 1870, they survive among their descendants as a social convention and as part of the legal name of the corresponding individuals. In the political system of pre-Revolutionary France, the nobility made up the Second Estate of the Estates General. Although membership in the noble class was inherited, it was not a closed order. New individuals were appointed to the nobility by the monarchy, or they could purchase rights and titles, or join by marriage. Sources differ about the actual number of nobles in France. For the year 1789, French historian François Bluche gives a figure of 140,000 nobles and states that about 5% of nobles could claim descent from feudal nobility before the 15th century.
With a total population of 28 million, this would represent 0.5%. Historian Gordon Wright gives a figure of 300,000 nobles, which agrees with the estimation of historian Jean de Viguerie, or a little over 1%. In terms of land holdings, at the time of the revolution, noble estates comprised about one-fifth of the land; the French nobility had specific financial rights and prerogatives. The first official list of these prerogatives was established late, under Louis XI after 1440, included the right to hunt, to wear a sword and, in principle, to possess a seigneurie. Nobles were granted an exemption from paying the taille, except for non-noble lands they might possess in some regions of France. Furthermore, certain ecclesiastic and military positions were reserved for nobles; these feudal privileges are termed droits de féodalité dominante. With the exception of a few isolated cases, serfdom had ceased to exist in France by the 15th century. In early modern France, nobles maintained a great number of seigneurial privileges over the free peasants that worked lands under their control.
They could, for example, levy an annual tax on lands leased or held by vassals. Nobles could charge banalités for the right to use the lord's mills, ovens, or wine presses. Alternatively, a noble could demand a portion of vassals' harvests in return for permission to farm land he owned. Nobles maintained certain judicial rights over their vassals, although with the rise of the modern state many of these privileges had passed to state control, leaving rural nobility with only local police functions and judicial control over violation of their seigneurial rights. In the 17th century this seigneurial system was established in France's North American possessions. However, the nobles had responsibilities. Nobles were required to honor and counsel their king, they were required to render military service. The rank of "noble" was forfeitable: certain activities could cause dérogeance, within certain limits and exceptions. Most commercial and manual activities, such as tilling land, were prohibited, although nobles could profit from their lands by operating mines and forges.
A nobleman could emancipate a male heir early, take on derogatory activities without losing the family's nobility. If nobility was lost through prohibited activities, it could be recovered as soon as the said activities were stopped, by obtaining letters of "relief". Certain regions such as Brittany applied loosely these rules allowing poor nobles to plough their own land; the nobility in France was never an closed class. Nobility and hereditary titles were distinct: while all hereditary titleholders were noble, most nobles were untitled, although many assumed titres de courtoisie. Nobility could be granted by the king or, until 1578, acquired by a family which had occupied a government or military post of high enough rank for three generations. Once acquired, nobility was hereditary in the legitimate male-line for all male descendants. Wealthy families found ready opportunities to pass into the nobility: although nobility itself could not be purchased, lands to which noble rights and/or title were attached could be and were bought by commoners who adopted use of the property's name or title and were henceforth assumed to be noble if they could find a way to be exempted from paying the taille to which only commoners were subject.
Moreover, non-nobles who owned noble fiefs were obliged to pay a special tax on the property to the noble liege-lord. Properly, only those who were noble could assume a hereditary title attached to a noble fief, thereby acquiring a title recognised but not conferred by the French crown; the children of a French nobleman, unlike those of a British peer, were not considered commoners but untitled nobles. Inheritance was recognized only in the male line, with a few exceptions in the independent provinces of Champagne and Brittany; the king could grant nobility to individuals, convert land into noble fiefs or, elevate noble fiefs into titled estates. The king could confer special privilege
William III, Count of Ponthieu
William III of Ponthieu called William Talvas. He was seigneur de Montgomery in Count of Ponthieu. William was son of Robert II of Agnes of Ponthieu, he succeeded his father as count of Ponthieu some time between 1105 and 1111, when he alone as count made a gift to the abbey of Cluny. His father Robert de Bellême had turned against Henry I on several occasions, had escaped capture at the battle of Tinchebrai in 1106 commanding Duke Robert's rear guard and while serving as envoy for King Louis of France, he was arrested by Henry I and imprisoned for life. William was driven by this to oppose King Henry. In June 1119, Henry I restored all his father's lands in Normandy. Sometime prior to 1126, William resigned the county of Ponthieu to his son Guy but retained the title of count. In 1135 Henry I again confiscated all his Norman lands to which William responded by joining count Geoffrey of Anjou in his invasion of Normandy after Henry I's death He married, abt. 1115, Helie of Burgundy, daughter of Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy.
The Gesta Normannorum Ducum says that they had three sons and two daughters. Europäische Stammtafeln, shows eleven; the five both agree on are: Guy II. He assumed the county of Ponthieu during his father Talvas' lifetime, but died in 1147 predeceasing his father. William, Count of Alençon. John I, Count of Alençon, married Beatrix d'Anjou, daughter of Elias II, Count of Maine and Philippa, daughter of Rotrou III, Count of Perche. Clemence married Juhel, son of Walter of Mayenne. Adela married William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey, she married, Patrick of Salisbury. The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, Robert of Torigni and translated by Elisabeth M. C. Van Houts, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995
Montreuil or Montreuil-sur-Mer is a sub-prefecture in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It is located on the Canche river, not far from Étaples; the sea, however, is now some distance away. Montreuil is surrounded by notable brickwork ramparts, constructed following the destruction of the town by troops of Habsburg emperor Charles V in June 1537; these fortifications pre-date the extensive fortification of towns in northern France by Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban in the 17th century. Population: 2,688 inhabitants for the city, 21,603 inhabitants for the canton and 99,288 inhabitants for the arrondissement. Montreuil was the headquarters of the British Army in France during the First World War from March 1916 until it closed in April 1919; the military academy providing excellent facilities for GHQ. Montreuil was chosen as G. H. Q. for a wide variety of reasons. It was on a main road from London to Paris—the two chief centres of the campaign—though not on a main railway line, which would have been an inconvenience.
It was not an industrial town and so avoided the complications alike of noise and of a troublesome civil population. It was from a telephone and motor transit point of view in a central situation to serve the needs of a Force, based on Dunkirk, Boulogne and Havre, had its front stretching from the Somme to beyond the Belgian frontier. Haig staff member Sir Frank Fox OBE wrote a critically acclaimed contemporary account of the headquarters in 1916 published under the pseudonym "GSO", called G. H. Q, his work in the QMG's Directorate in the final offensive against the German Army resulted in his being awarded the OBE He was Mentioned in Despatches. General Haig was quartered in the nearby Château de Beaurepaire, two miles SE of the town on the D138. There is a plaque on the château wall to commemorate the event. King George V, accompanied by Haig, made a triumphant passage through Montreuil on his way to Paris on 27 November 1918. A statue of Haig on horseback, commemorating his stay, can be seen outside the theatre on the Place Charles de Gaulle.
During the German occupation of the town during the Second World War, the statue was taken down. It is thought to have been melted down, it was rebuilt in the 1950s. Lawrence Sterne visited the town in 1765, he recounted his visit through the eyes of the narrator of his novel A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy. Montreuil is the setting for part of Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables, where it is identified only as M____-sur-M__ in past translations; the protagonist, Jean Valjean, is for a few years the mayor of Montreuil, as well as owner of the local factory, it is where the character Fantine lives and becomes a prostitute before dying in a local hospital. Hugo had spent several vacations in Montreuil. Montreuil is twinned with: Slough, England, UK Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department The equestrian statue of Field Marshal Haig on the website "Remembrance Trails of the Great War in Northern France" INSEE commune file