Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VII was the King of Germany from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg. During his brief career he reinvigorated the imperial cause in Italy, racked with the partisan struggles between the divided Guelf and Ghibelline factions, inspired the praise of Dino Compagni and Dante Alighieri, he was the first emperor since the death of Frederick II in 1250, ending the great interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire. His son, John of Bohemia, failed to be elected as his successor, there was another anti-king, Frederick the Fair contesting the rule of Louis IV. Born around 1275 in Valenciennes, he was a son of Count Henry VI of Luxembourg and Béatrice from the House of Avesnes. Raised at the French court, he was the lord of comparatively small properties in a peripheral and predominantly French-speaking part of the Holy Roman Empire, it was symptomatic of the empire’s weakness that during his rule as the Count of Luxembourg, he agreed to become a French vassal, seeking the protection of King Philip the Fair of France.
During his rule of Luxembourg, he ruled especially in keeping the peace in local feudal disputes. Henry became caught up in the internal political machinations of the Holy Roman Empire with the assassination of King Albert I on 1 May 1308. King Philip of France began aggressively seeking support for his brother, Charles of Valois, to be elected the next King of the Romans. Philip thought he had the backing of the French Pope Clement V, that his prospects of bringing the empire into the orbit of the French royal house were good, he lavishly spread French money in the hope of bribing the German electors. Although Charles of Valois had the backing of Henry, Archbishop of Cologne, a French supporter, many were not keen to see an expansion of French power, least of all Clement V; the principal rival to Charles appeared to be the Count Palatine. Given his background, although he was a vassal of Philip the Fair, Henry was bound by few national ties, an aspect of his suitability as a compromise candidate among the electors, the great territorial magnates who had lived without a crowned emperor for decades, who were unhappy with both Charles and Rudolf.
Henry of Cologne’s brother, Archbishop of Trier, won over a number of the electors, including Henry, in exchange for some substantial concessions. Henry skillfully negotiated his way to the crown, elected with six votes at Frankfurt on 27 November 1308. Henry was subsequently crowned at Aachen on 6 January 1309. In July 1309, Pope Clement V confirmed Henry's election, he agreed to crown Henry Emperor at Candlemas 1312 the title having been vacant since the death of Frederick II. Henry in exchange, swore an oath of protection to the Pope, agreed to defend the rights and not attack the privileges of the cities of the Papal States, agreed to go on Crusade once he had been crowned emperor, yet the newly crowned king had local issues to deal with. Henry was approached by part of the Bohemian nobility and some important and influential ecclesiastics to intervene in Bohemia. Unhappy with the rule of Henry of Carinthia, wary of the claims of the Habsburgs who had some legitimate claim on the crown, they convinced Henry to marry his son John I, Count of Luxemburg to Elizabeth, the daughter of Wenceslas II, so establish a claim to the Bohemian crown.
In July 1310 he engineered the removal of Henry of Carinthia. On 15 August 1309, Henry VII announced his intention to travel to Rome, having sent his ambassadors to Italy to prepare for his arrival, so expected his troops to be ready to travel by 1 October 1310. Prior to leaving Germany, he sought to smooth relations with the Habsburgs, forced against their will to accept the accession of Henry’s son in Bohemia, cowed by the threats of making the Duchy of Austria dependent on the Bohemian crown, he therefore confirmed them in their imperial fiefs by October 1309. Henry felt he needed to obtain a papal imperial coronation because of the lowly origins of his house, because of the concessions he had been forced to make to obtain the German crown in the first place, he saw it, together with the crowns of Italy and Arles, as a necessary counterweight to the ambitions of the French king. To ensure the success of his Italian expedition, Henry entered into negotiations with Robert, King of Naples in mid-1310, with the intent of marrying his daughter, Beatrix to Robert’s son, Duke of Calabria.
It was hoped that this would lessen the tensions in Italy between the anti-imperial Guelphs, who looked to the King of Naples for leadership, the pro-imperial Ghibellines. Negotiations broke down due to Robert’s excessive monetary demands, as well as through the interference of Philip, who did not want such an alliance to succeed. While these negotiations were taking place, Henry began his descent into northern Italy in October 1310, with his eldest son John remaining in Prague as the Imperial vicar; as he crossed the Alps and travelled into the Lombard plain and prelates of both Guelph and Ghibelline factions hastened to greet him, Dante circulated an optimistic open letter addressed to the rulers and the people. As Emperor, Henry had planned to restore the glory of the Holy Roman Empire, but he did not reckon on the bitterly divided state that Italy had now become. Decades of warfare and strife had seen the rise of dozens of independent city-states, each
Theobald II, Duke of Lorraine
Theobald II was the Duke of Lorraine from 1303 until his death in 1312. He was daughter of King Theobald I of Navarre. In 1298, he took part in the Battle of Göllheim, near Speyer, in which the king of Germany, was killed fighting his rival, Albert of Habsburg. Theobald was on Albert' side, despite the history of support for the legitimate emperors in the history of his family. In 1302, he was at war helping the king of France, Philip IV, married to his cousin Joan I of Navarre, he was at the Battle of the Golden Spurs at Kortrijk, where the Flemings defeated the French chivalry under Robert II of Artois. He was present at the Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle in 1304, where the French king led the army in a less decisive battle. He, along with John II, Duke of Brabant, Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, was sent to negotiate peace with Flanders. In 1305, he was at Lyon, at the crowning of Pope Clement V; when Clement imposed a tax, a tenth-part, on the clergy and charged the duke to collect it, Theobald met the opposition of Renaud de Bar, bishop of Metz.
A contract for the marriage of Theobald II, Duke of Lorraine and Isabel de Rumigny was signed in April 1270. On 23 May 1278, he married Isabelle, lady of Rumigny, daughter of Hugh, lord of Rumigny, Philippine d'Oulche, they had seven children: his successor in Lorraine. Matthias, lord of Darney, Boves and Florennes, married Mathilde of Flanders. Hugh, his successor in Rumigny and Aubenton. Mary, married Guy de Châtillon, had one child. Margaret, married Guy de Dampierre, count of Zeeland and married Louis V, de Looz & Chiny. Isabella, married Érard de Bar, had six children. Philippine, nun Dukes of Lorraine family tree
Battle of Zierikzee
The battle of Zierikzee was a naval battle between a Flemish fleet and an allied Franco-Hollandic fleet which took place on 10 and 11 August 1304. The battle, fought near the town of Zierikzee, ended in a Franco-Holland victory; the battle is part of a larger conflict between the Count of Flanders and his French feudal lord, King Philip IV of France. The County of Zeeland was an area, contested between the Count of Flanders and the Count of Holland since the 11th century. Granted in 1012 by Emperor Henry II to the count of Flanders Baldwin IV, by 1076 the area had become part of Holland but under Flemish overlordship. After the Flemish victory in the battle of the Golden Spurs, the Flemish attacked John II Avesnes, count of Holland, Zeeland and of Hainaut and conquered Lessines; the House of Dampierre and the House of Avesnes had been involved in a familial war for decades. In retaliation to the Flemish invasion of Hainaut John's son William plundered Cadzand. In reaction on this raid, Guy of Namur, son of Guy I of Flanders, formed a fleet at Sluis, which sailed on 23 April 1303 to claim Zeeland for the Flemish.
After Flemish landings near Arnemuiden and Veere the troops of William fled to Middelburg which surrendered on 9 May 1303. After this the Flemings conquered the whole of several other islands. Only Zierikzee was held for the count of Holland. In July 1303 an armistice was arranged between the count of Holland. Covered by an armistice in the north, the Flemings raised an army near Cassel, which entered France and attacked Saint-Omer and Tournai. In August 1303 Philip IV of France tried to raise a new army to counter this threat, but due to mutiny over backpay he was forced to conclude an armistice until May 1304 with the Flemings, extended to June; the armistice gave the French the opportunity to raise a new army in peace for the next campaigning season. In the Spring of 1304 the armistice between the Flemings and Holland was broken. William defeated the Flemings near Castle Blodenburg. A fleet led by William and his uncle Guy of Avesnes, bishop of Utrecht however was defeated by the Flemings, the bishop being captured.
After this victory, the Flemings invaded Utrecht. Seeing the Flemish success John II, Duke of Brabant joined the Flemish cause. Dordrecht, led by Witte van Haemstede, a bastard son of count Floris V, brought the cities of Holland to the side of William and the Flemings retreated. After this Zierikzee, still held by Holland, was besieged. Upon the end of the armistice between France and Flanders, Philip IV launched his army on Tournai and sent his fleet, led by Rainier Grimaldi, to aid the count of Holland. Grimaldi's fleet consisted out 30 French and eight Spanish cogs and 11 Genoese galleys; this fleet was joined at Schiedam by the small fleet of Holland. This combined fleet set sail for Zierikzee. Guy of Namur could count on a motley fleet of 37 Flemish, Hanseatic and Swedish ships as well as numerous smaller vessels. In the evening of August 1304 the two fleets met on the Gouwe, back a bay near Zierikzee; as the river was silted, maneuvering was hindered. The Flemish tried a fire ship attack which failed when the vessels were blown back to the Flemish lines.
At first the battle seemed to go to the Flemings as the larger French ships were immobilized by grounding. But when the tides changed the larger French ships came free and joined the fight, turning the battle to Grimaldi's advantage; the next morning, the Flemish ships were seen to aimlessly float sabotaged by a traitor who cut their moorings. As the Franco-Hollander fleet was still in battle array, it was able to put down further Flemish resistance; as a result of the French victory, Guy of Namur was captured and the siege of Zierikzee was lifted. One week after the naval battle, on 18 August Philip IV himself was able to defeat the Flemish main army at the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle. On 22 August Count John II died and was succeeded as count of Hainaut and Zeeland by his son William. G. Asaert, J. van Beylen en H. P. H. Jansen et al. Maritieme geschiedenis der Nederlanden 1, De Boer Maritiem, Bussum, 1976 J. I. Israel, De Republiek, 1477-1806, Uitgeverij Van Wijnen, Franeker, 1996 Arco Willeboordse, Een woensdag in 1302, 2002
Battle of the Golden Spurs
The Battle of the Golden Spurs known as the Battle of Courtrai, was fought between the Kingdom of France and the County of Flanders at Kortrijk in modern-day Belgium on 11 July 1302. On 18 May 1302, after two years of French occupation and several years of unrest, the people of Flanders revolted against French rule and massacred many Frenchmen in the Belgian city of Bruges. King Philip IV of France organized an expedition of 8,000 troops, including 2,500 men-at-arms, under Count Robert II of Artois to put down the rebellion. Meanwhile, 9,400 men from the civic militias of several Flemish cities were assembled to counter the expected French attack; when the two armies met outside the city of Kortrijk on 11 July, the cavalry charges of the mounted French men-at-arms proved unable to defeat the armoured, well-equipped and well-trained Flemish militia infantry pike formation on a battlefield. The result was a rout of the French nobles; the battle was a famous early example of an all-infantry army overcoming an army that depended on the shock attacks of heavy cavalry.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, the Battle of the Golden Spurs became an important cultural reference point for the Flemish Movement. In 1973, the date of the battle was chosen to be the date of the official holiday of the Flemish Community in Belgium; the origins of the Franco-Flemish War can be traced back to the accession of Philip IV "the Fair" to the French throne in 1285. Philip hoped to reassert control over the County of Flanders, a semi-independent polity notionally part of the Kingdom of France, even to annex it into the crown lands of France. In the 1290s, Philip attempted to gain support from the Flemish aristocracy and succeeded in winning the allegiance of some local notables, including John of Avesnes, he was opposed by a faction led by the Flemish knight Guy of Dampierre who attempted to form a marriage alliance with the English against Philip. In Flanders, many of the cities were split into factions known as the "Lilies", who were pro-French, the "Claws", led by Pieter de Coninck in Bruges, who advocated independence.
In June 1297, the French gained some rapid successes. The English, under Edward I, withdrew to face a war with Scotland and the Flemish and French signed a temporary armistice in 1297, the Truce of Sint-Baafs-Vijve, which halted the conflict. In January 1300, when the truce expired, the French invaded Flanders again and by May were in total control of the county. Guy of Dampierre was imprisoned and Philip himself toured Flanders making administrative changes. After Philip left Flanders, unrest broke out again in the Flemish city of Bruges directed against the French governor of Flanders, Jacques de Châtillon. On 18 May 1302, rebellious citizens who had fled Bruges returned to the city and murdered every Frenchman they could find, an act known as the Bruges Matins. With Guy of Dampierre still imprisoned, command of the rebellion was taken by Guy of Namur. Most of the towns of the County of Flanders agreed to join the Bruges rebellion except for the city of Ghent which refused to take part. Most of the Flemish nobility took the French side, fearful of what had become an attempt to take power by the lower classes.
In order to quell the revolt, Philip sent a powerful force led by Count Robert II of Artois to march on Bruges. Against the French, the Flemish under William of Jülich fielded a infantry force, drawn from Bruges, West Flanders and the east of the county; the city of Ypres sent a contingent of five hundred men under Jan van Renesse, despite their city's refusal to join the revolt, Jan Borluut arrived with seven hundred volunteers from Ghent. The Flemish were town militia who were well equipped and trained; the militia fought as infantry, were organized by guild, were equipped with steel helmets, mail haubergeons, pikes, bows and the goedendag. All Flemish troops at the battle had helmets, neck protection, iron or steel gloves and effective weapons, though not all could afford mail armor; the goedendag was a Flemish weapon, made from a thick 5 feet -long wooden shaft and topped with a steel spike. They were a well-organized force of 8,000–10,000 infantry, as well as four hundred noblemen, the urban militias of the time prided themselves on their regular training and preparation.
About 900 of the Flemish were crossbowmen. The Flemish militia formed a line formation against cavalry with goedendags and pikes pointed outward; because of the high rate of defections among the Flemish nobility, there were few mounted knights on the Flemish side. The Annals of Ghent claimed; the French, by contrast, fielded a royal army with a core of 2,500 noble cavalry, including knights and squires, arrayed into ten formations of 250 armored horsemen. During the deployment for the battle, they were arranged into three battles, of which the first were to attack and the third to function as a rearguard and reserve, they were supported by about 5,500 infantry, a mix of crossbowmen and light infantry. The French had about 1,000 crossbowmen, most of whom were from the Kingdom of France and a few hundred were recruited from northern Italy and Spain. Contemporary military theory valued each knight as equal to ten footmen; the combined Flemish forces met at Kortrijk on 26 June and laid siege to the castle, which housed a French garrison.
As the siege was being laid, the Flemish leaders began preparing a nearby field for battle. The size of the French response was impressive, wit
William I, Duke of Bavaria
William I, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing, was the second son of Emperor Louis IV and Margaret II of Hainaut. He was known as William V, Count of Holland, as William III, Count of Hainaut and as William IV, Count of Zeeland. In 1345 William's father was conferring Hainaut, Holland and Friesland upon his wife Margaret, shortly also upon their son William. After his father's death in 1347 William ruled Bavaria and Hainaut together with his five brothers until 1349. With the first division of the Wittelsbach possessions in 1349 he received Hainaut and Lower Bavaria together with his brothers Stephen II and Albert I. After the next division of Bavaria in 1353 he ruled together with his younger brother Albert I in Bavaria-Straubing and Hainaut. William had engaged in a long struggle with his mother Margaret, obtaining Holland and Zeeland from her in 1354, Hainaut on her death in 1356. In 1350, the nobles of Holland asked Margaret to return to Holland again, she battled for the power in Holland and Hainaut for some years with her son William who refused to pay her alimony.
The Cod league was formed on 23 May 1350 by a number of supporters of William. On 5 September the same year, the Hook league was formed. Soon afterward, these factions clashed, a civil war began. Edward III of England, Margaret's brother-in-law through her sister Philippa of Hainault, came to her aid, winning a naval engagement off Veere in 1351. Edward III shortly afterwards changed sides, the empress saw herself compelled to come to an understanding with her son, he being recognized as count of Holland and Zeeland, she of Hainaut. Margaret died two years leaving William in possession of the entire Holland-Hainaut inheritance. William was married to Matilda of sister to Blanche of Lancaster. In 1357, William began to show signs of insanity, going so far as to attack and kill one of his knights for no apparent reason, before he could be restrained, his brother Albert assumed the regency in Holland and Hainaut in 1358. William was confined to Castle Le Quesnoy for the remainder of his life, he married Matilda of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel de Beaumont in London in 1352.
They had only one daughter, who died in 1356. He had illegitimate children: Wilhelm, married 1398 Lisbeth Hughe. Elisabeth, married Brustijn van Herwijnen, lord of Stavenisse, he was succeeded by his brother Albert in 1389. Counts of Hainaut family tree
Pavia is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 kilometres south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c. 73,000. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774. Pavia is the capital of the fertile province of Pavia, known for agricultural products including wine, rice and dairy products. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, these tend not to disturb the peaceful atmosphere of the town, it is home to the ancient University of Pavia, which together with the IUSS, Ghislieri College, Borromeo College, Nuovo College, Santa Caterina College and the EDiSU, belongs to the Pavia Study System. Pavia is the episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Pavia; the city possesses many artistic and cultural treasures, including several important churches and museums, such as the well-known Certosa di Pavia. The Central Hospital of Pavia is one of the most important hospitals in Italy.
Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia known as Ticinum, was a municipality and an important military site under the Roman Empire. It was said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres; the Roman city most began as a small military camp, built by the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio in 218 BC to guard a wooden bridge he had built over the river Ticinum, on his way to search for Hannibal, rumoured to have managed to lead an army over the Alps and into Italy. The forces of Rome and Carthage ran into each other soon thereafter, the Romans suffered the first of many crushing defeats at the hands of Hannibal, with the consul himself losing his life; the bridge was destroyed, but the fortified camp, which at the time was the most forward Roman military outpost in the Po Valley, somehow survived the long Second Punic War, evolved into a garrison town. Its importance grew with the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum to the Po River, which it crossed at Placentia and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum and the other to Ticinum, thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum.
It was at Pavia in 476 AD that the reign of Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire ended and Roman rule ceased in Italy. Romulus Augustulus, while considered the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was a usurper of the imperial throne. Though being the emperor, Romulus Augustulus was the mouthpiece for his father Orestes, the person who exercised power and governed Italy during Romulus Augustulus's short reign. Ten months after Romulus Augustulus's reign began, Orestes's soldiers under the command of one of his officers named Odoacer and killed Orestes in the city of Pavia in 476; the rioting that took place as part of Odoacer's uprising against Orestes sparked fires that burnt much of Pavia to the point that Odoacer, as the new king of Italy, had to suspend the taxes for the city for five years so that it could finance its recovery. Without his father, Romulus Augustulus was powerless. Instead of killing Romulus Augustulus, Odoacer pensioned him off at 6,000 solidi a year before declaring the end of the Western Roman Empire and himself king of the new Kingdom of Italy.
Odoacer's reign as king of Italy did not last long, because in 488 the Ostrogothic peoples led by their king Theoderic invaded Italy and waged war against Odoacer. After fighting for 5 years, Theoderic defeated Odoacer and on March 15, 493, assassinated Odoacer at a banquet meant to negotiate a peace between the two rulers. With the establishment of the Ostrogoth kingdom based in northern Italy, Theoderic began his vast program of public building. Pavia was among several cities that Theodoric chose to expand, he began the construction of the vast palace complex that would become the residence of Lombard monarchs several decades later. Theoderic commissioned the building of the Roman-styled amphitheatre and bath complex in Pavia. Near the end of Theoderic's reign the Christian philosopher Boethius was imprisoned in one of Pavia's churches from 522 to 525 before his execution for treason, it was during Boethius's captivity in Pavia that he wrote his seminal work the Consolation of Philosophy. Pavia played an important role in the war between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Ostrogoths that began in 535.
After the Eastern Roman general Belisarius's victory over the Ostrogothic leader Wittigis in 540 and the loss of most of the Ostrogoth lands in Italy, Pavia was among the last centres of Ostrogothic resistance that continued the war and opposed Eastern Roman rule. After the capitulation of the Ostrogothic leadership in 540 more than a thousand men remained garrisoned in Pavia and Verona dedicated to opposing Eastern Roman rule; the resilience of Ostrogoth strongholds like Pavia against invading forces allowed pockets of Ostrogothic rule to limp along until being defeated in 561. Pavia and the peninsula of Italy didn't remain long under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire, for in 568, a new people invaded Italy; this new invading people in 568
Ronse is a Belgian city and a municipality in the Flemish province of East Flanders. The municipality has only the city of Ronse proper; the hills around Ronse show clues of human activity in the Paleolithic period. In the Neolithic, the area was populated with settled cattle breeders. Assorted fragments of building structures attest of settlements in the area during Roman times. Ronse's urban center took shape in the 7th century, when Saint Amand – or one of his successors – built a church and monastery in honour of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. In the 9th century and its monastery were given to the Inde Monastery by Louis the Pious, it is around that time. During those troubled times, Viking raids forced the monks to flee the town more than once, the monastery was burnt by the Normans in 880; the relics were recovered in 940 and housed in a Romanesque-style crypt in 1083. The church of Saint Hermes, built on top of the crypt, was consecrated in 1129. A pilgrimage in honour of the Saint, who had by be known to cure mental illnesses, sustained the local economy.
There is still a French saying today which translates as "Saint Hermes cures the area's madmen but keeps the Ronse dwellers as they are". The Lord of Ronse, Gerard de Wautripont, in charge of the Inde Monastery at that time, gave the town all the privileges of a city in 1240. A few years the economy was flourishing and the Inde Monastery sold all its Ronse-based possessions; until the French Revolution, the Ronse seigneury – a barony as of 1549 – included an enclave, the Ronse Franchise, administered by the Chapter of Saint Hermes with complete juridical and fiscal independence and its own justice system. On March 26, 1478, French troops burned the city, it recovered, thanks to its booming economy based on the fabrication and preparation of linen. Around the middle of the 16th century, the city became an important Calvinist center in the Spanish Netherlands; the religious troubles of that century the terrible repression of the Duke of Alba, forced a large number of the city's weavers and fullers to find permanent refuge in Holland and Germany.
The fire of July 21, 1559 ruined the city. At the beginning of the 17th century, Ronse took advantage of the relative peaceful period under the archdukes Ferdinand and Isabella to get back on its feet, it is during that period that one of the most beautiful castles of the Southern Netherlands was built for Count Jean de Nassau-Siegen, baron of Ronse since 1629. The plague in 1635–1636 nearly emptied the city. Despite opposition by the King of Spain, Ronse was annexed to France from 1680 to 1700. During the following Austrian period, on March 31, 1719, a gigantic fire again turned most of the city to ashes. Thanks to the perseverance of its inhabitants, Ronse could again rank as a city, with its commerce and businesses still based on the textile industry; the Fleurus Victory, on June 26, 1794, allowed France to annex the country. Ronse faced the city soon found itself in financial difficulty. In 1796, the old city administration was disbanded and a municipality was created. French legislation was applied from this point on, until Belgium merged with the Netherlands in 1815.
In 1798, the so-called "farmers' war", a reaction to the military conscription imposed by France, cost many lives. In 1799, Ronse counted about 10,000 inhabitants but a third of the population lived in poverty. In 1840, within the newly created Kingdom of Belgium, more than 55% of the city's inhabitants derived a living from the textile industry. A few years however, increased mechanisation gave rise to a deep economic crisis. Many left Ronse to join the textile plants in Northern France or to take on agricultural work in the Somme or the Oise... From the 1870s, Ronse's textile industry prospered despite a temporary slow down during World War I; the decline of this industry started after World War II but was acute during the 1960s. Today, Ronse is a commercial center and a touristic destination; the church of Saint Hermes, famous for its 13th-century Romanesque crypt. A folklore museum and a textile museum; the city's one of the oldest in Europe. An Art Nouveau house built by Victor Horta: the Villa Carpentier.
The surrounding hills, several of which offer good views of the city The "Bommels" fest, which takes place in January on the Saturday preceding the first Monday after Epiphany, is the first carnival of the year in Belgium. Its roots can be traced to the Middle Ages; the "Fiertel" dating from the Middle Ages, takes place on Trinity Sunday. On that occasion, the reliquary of Saint Hermes is carried around the city in a 32-km long procession, with thousands of walkers and cyclists cheering in; the GP Mario De Clercq is a BPost Bank Trophy cyclo-cross competition in October. Cipriano de Rore, Flemish composer and teacher Alphonse Francois Renard and petrographer Ovide Decroly and psychologist Princess Isabelle of Liechtenstein Rudy Demotte, socialist politician Roland Cardon and teacher Nicolas Provost, film maker Ann De Renais, Soprano Astrid Stockman, Soprano Stéphanie de Lannoy, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. Associated Weavers, a textile manufacturing company. Germany: Kleve United Kingdom: Sandwich, Kent France: Saint-Valery-sur-Somme Czech Republic: Jablonec nad Nisou Tunisia: Masakin Sanderus A. Flandria Illustr