History of cricket
The sport of cricket has a known history beginning in the late 16th century. Having originated in south-east England, it became the country's national sport in the 18th century and has developed globally in the 19th and 20th centuries. International matches have been played since 1844 and Test cricket began, retrospectively recognised, in 1877. Cricket is the world's second most popular spectator sport after association football. Governance is by the International Cricket Council which has over one hundred countries and territories in membership although only twelve play Test cricket. Cricket was created during Saxon or Norman times by children living in the Weald, an area of dense woodlands and clearings in south-east England that lies across Kent and Sussex; the first definite reference is dated Monday, 17 January 1597. There have been several speculations about the game's origins including some that it was created in France or Flanders; the earliest of these speculative references is dated Thursday, 10 March 1300 and concerns the future King Edward II playing at "creag and other games" in both Westminster and Newenden.
It has been suggested that "creag" was an Olde English word for cricket but expert opinion is that it was an early spelling of "craic", meaning "fun and games in general". It is believed that cricket survived as a children's game for many generations before it was taken up by adults around the beginning of the 17th century. Cricket was derived from bowls, assuming bowls is the older sport, by the intervention of a batsman trying to stop the ball from reaching its target by hitting it away. Playing on sheep-grazed land or in clearings, the original implements may have been a matted lump of sheep’s wool as the ball. A 1597 court case in England concerning an ownership dispute over a plot of common land in Guildford, Surrey mentions the game of creckett. A 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, testified that he and his school friends had played creckett on the site fifty years earlier when they attended the Free School. Derrick's account proves beyond reasonable doubt that the game was being played in Surrey circa 1550, is the earliest universally accepted reference to the game.
The first reference to cricket being played as an adult sport was in 1611, when two men in Sussex were prosecuted for playing cricket on Sunday instead of going to church. In the same year, a dictionary defined cricket as a boys' game and this suggests that adult participation was a recent development. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term "cricket". In the earliest definite reference,it was spelled creckett; the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch krick. The Middle Dutch word krickstoel means a long low stool used for kneeling in church. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of the University of Bonn, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen, it is more that the terminology of cricket was based on words in use in south-east England at the time and, given trade connections with the County of Flanders in the 15th century when it belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, many Middle Dutch words found their way into southern English dialects.
A number of references occur up to the English Civil War and these indicate that cricket had become an adult game contested by parish teams, but there is no evidence of county strength teams at this time. There is little evidence of the rampant gambling that characterised the game throughout the 18th century, it is believed, that village cricket had developed by the middle of the 17th century but that county cricket had not and that investment in the game had not begun. After the Civil War ended in 1648, the new Puritan government clamped down on "unlawful assemblies", in particular the more raucous sports such as football, their laws demanded a stricter observance of the Sabbath than there had been previously. As the Sabbath was the only free time available to the lower classes, cricket's popularity may have waned during the Commonwealth. However, it did flourish in St Paul's. There is no actual evidence that Oliver Cromwell's regime banned cricket and there are references to it during the interregnum that suggest it was acceptable to the authorities provided that it did not cause any "breach of the Sabbath".
It is believed that the nobility in general adopted cricket at this time through involvement in village games. Cricket thrived after the Restoration in 1660 and is believed to have first attracted gamblers making large bets at this time. In 1664, the "Cavalier" Parliament passed the Gaming Act 1664 which limited stakes to £100, although, still a fortune at the time, equivalent to about £15 thousand in present-day terms. Cricket had become a significant gambling sport by the end of the 17th century. There is a newspaper report of a "great match" played in Sussex in 1697, 11-a-side and played for high stakes of 50 guineas a side. With freedom of the press having been granted in 1696, cricket for the first time could be reported in the newspapers, but it was a long time before the newspaper industry adapted sufficiently to provide frequent, let alone comprehensive, covera
Guyana the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern mainland of South America. It is considered part of the Caribbean region because of its strong cultural and political ties with other Anglo-Caribbean countries and the Caribbean Community. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, Suriname to the east. With an area of 215,000 square kilometres, Guyana is the third-smallest sovereign state on mainland South America after Uruguay and Suriname; the region known as "the Guianas" consists of the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River and east of the Orinoco River known as the "land of many waters". Major rivers in Guyana include the Essequibo, the Berbice, the Demerara. Inhabited by many indigenous groups, Guyana was settled by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century, it was governed as British Guiana, with a plantation-style economy until the 1950s. It gained independence in 1966, became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970.
The legacy of British rule is reflected in the country's political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian, African and multiracial groups. Guyana is the only South American nation; the majority of the population, speak Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole language, as a first language. Guyana is part of the Anglophone Caribbean. CARICOM, of which Guyana is a member, is headquartered in Guyana's capital and largest city, Georgetown. In 2008, the country joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member; the name "Guyana" derives from Guiana, the original name for the region that included Guyana, French Guiana, parts of Colombia and Brazil. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Guyana" comes from an indigenous Amerindian language and means "land of many waters". There are nine indigenous tribes residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Patamona, Kalina, Pemon and Warao; the Lokono and Kalina tribes dominated Guyana. Although Christopher Columbus was the first European to sight Guyana during his third voyage, Sir Walter Raleigh wrote an account in 1596, the Dutch were the first Europeans to establish colonies: Essequibo and Demerara.
After the British assumed control in 1796, the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana. Since its independence in 1824 Venezuela has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo River. Simón Bolívar wrote to the British government warning against the Berbice and Demerara settlers settling on land which the Venezuelans, as assumed heirs of Spanish claims on the area dating to the sixteenth century, claimed was theirs. In 1899 an international tribunal ruled; the British territorial claim stemmed from Dutch involvement and colonization of the area dating to the sixteenth century, ceded to the British. Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth; the US State Department and the US Central Intelligence Agency, along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana during this time.
The American government supported Forbes Burnham during the early years of independence because Cheddi Jagan was identified as a Marxist. They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to Burnham's People's National Congress, to the detriment of the Jagan-led People's Progressive Party, supported by Guyanese of East Indian background. In 1978, Guyana received international notice when 918 members of the American cult, Peoples Temple, died in a mass murder/suicide drinking cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. However, most of the suicides were by Americans and not Guyanese. More than 300 children were killed. Jim Jones's bodyguards had earlier attacked people taking off at a small remote airstrip close to Jonestown, killing five people, including Leo Ryan, a US congressman. In May 2008, President Bharrat Jagdeo was a signatory to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Guyana has ratified the treaty; the territory controlled by Guyana lies between latitudes 1° and 9°N, longitudes 56° and 62°W.
The country can be divided into five natural regions. Some of Guyana's highest mountains are Mount Ayanganna, Monte Caburaí and Mount Roraima on the Brazil-Guyana-Venezuela tripoint border, part of the Pakaraima range. Mount Roraima and Guyana's table-top mountains are said to have been the inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 novel The Lost World. There are many volcanic escarpments and waterfalls, including Kaieteur Falls, believed to be the largest water drop in the world. No
Bartica, Essequibo, is a town on the left bank of the Essequibo River in Cuyuni-Mazaruni, at the confluence of the Cuyuni and Mazaruni Rivers with the Essequibo River in Guyana. Considered the "Gateway to the Interior", the town has a population of about 15,000 and is the launching point for people who work in the bush, mining gold and diamonds. Bartica developed from an Anglican missionary settlement, established in 1842; the name'Bartica' comes from an Amerindian word meaning'red earth', abundant in the area. Bartica has two secondary school Bartica Secondary and Three Miles Secondary and three primary schools, St. Anthony's Primary and St. John-the-Baptist and Two Miles Primary. There are several other primary schools in the surrounding riverine communities; the region 7 hospital is located in Bartica and is known for having implemented the country’s first Health Information System in 2005, developed by Peace Corps volunteers Geoffrey Thompson and Jason Knueppel. Bartica can be reached from Parika and Linden, Demarara.
The Denham Suspension Bridge known as the Garraway Stream Bridge, links Bartica to Mahdia. Bartica Airport is 6 kilometres southwest of the town. North of Bartica lie the ruins of the Dutch fort Kyk-Over-Al, former government seat for the County of Essequibo. Bartica is close to Marshall Falls. There are several hotels in the town including the Platinum Inn, The New Modern Hotel, Balkarran's Guest House, Zen's Plaza. There is a thriving nightclub located in the Modern Hotel building. Several Brazilians live in Bartica, so one can find Brazilian restaurants and bars. There are several restaurants as well as local fast food joints including Sunset Boulevard, a perfect place to meet and have a bite while getting information from locals. There are several resorts around the Bartica area including Baganara, Whitewater and a Guesthouse in Byderabo. During the Easter weekend every year, Bartica hosts the Bartica Regatta, with a growing variety of entertaining holiday activities including water sports, boxing, talent shows, a street parade, a Miss Bartica Regatta Pageant.
The Regatta attracts people from all parts of Guyana, from other countries. There is a summer Regatta, held annually in August. Ivor Mendonca, a West Indian cricketer was born in Bartica. Dianne Ferreira-James international FIFA referee is from Bartica, her father was one of the twelve people killed during the 17 February 2008 Bartica massacre. On the 17th of February 2008 Bartica was attacked by Rondell Rawlins' armed gang. Twelve people, including three policemen, were shot dead as the gang terrorized the town; the Bartica Police Station was overrun by the gunmen during the rampage and several business places robbed during the hour-long mayhem. The gang and attack is believed to linked to the Lusignan Massacre three weeks earlier; the perpetrators were killed on August 28, 2008 at one of their hideouts near the Guyanese capital Georgetown in a shootout with the police. Bartica Massacre
Shivnarine Chanderpaul is a Guyanese cricketer of Indian descent and former West Indian international cricketer and captain of the West Indies cricket team. Considered as one of the forgotten greats of cricket, Chanderpaul is the first Indo-Caribbean to play 100 Tests for the West Indies, third player with the international career span over two decades after Sachin Tendulkar and Sanath Jayasuriya. Chanderpaul captained West Indies in 16 One Day Internationals. A left-handed batsman, Chanderpaul is well known for his unorthodox batting stance, described as crab-like, he has scored 20,000 runs in international cricket, in 2008 he was named as one of the five Cricketers of the Year by the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, awarded Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy by the International Cricket Council. He made his international debut at the age of 19, but did not score a century in international cricket for three years, prompting some criticism. Early in his career, he was plagued by injuries, was dubbed a hypochondriac until he had a piece of floating bone removed from his foot in 2000.
Since he has enjoyed consistent form, scoring over 11,000 runs in Test cricket and is the 8th highest run scorer of all time in the format. Due to poor performances, Chanderpaul was dropped from the West Indies squad in 2015. After that, he announced his retirement from international cricket in 2016, without a farewell, at the age of 41. Shivnarine Chanderpaul was born to Indo-Guyanese parents Kamraj and Uma Chanderpaul in Unity Village, Guyana on 16 August 1974, his father, Kamraj Chanderpaul, helped to nurture his cricketing ability as a youngster. His ancestors moved from India to the West Indies as indentured labours under the indentured labour system. By the age of eight, Chanderpaul was playing for his village's cricket team, would bat for hours, being bowled at by various members of his family, his father took him to the Everest club in Georgetown, but there was not a place for him at the club, so he instead joined the Demerara Cricket Club. He appeared for the club's under-16 side while only ten.
He was given an opportunity at the Georgetown Cricket Club. He made his first-class cricket debut for Guyana at the age of 17, facing Leeward Islands in the 1991–92 Red Stripe Cup, he scored 90 runs in the second. His List A debut followed a few days against Barbados, in which Chanderpaul did not get a chance to bat in a match with no result, he achieved his maiden first-class century in April 1993, playing for the West Indies Board President's XI against the touring Pakistanis. After taking four wickets in the Pakistanis' innings, Chanderpaul was one of three West Indians to score a century, scoring 140 runs, remaining not out. During this time, he achieved the highest first-class score of his career, in a 1995–96 Red Stripe Cup match against Jamaica. In the first-innings of the match, drawn, he scored 303 not out from 478 deliveries. In 2007, he subsequently joined Durham as an overseas player, helped them to collect their first trophy by top-scoring in the final of the Friends Provident Trophy.
In March 2008, Chanderpaul caused some controversy when, after batting for Guyana on the first day of a Carib Beer Series match, he left to attend the West Indies Players' Association awards and did not arrive to play the following day. He was 78 without notifying his team's manager or coach, he was recorded as retiring out on the scorecard, returned on the third day. At the ceremony, Chanderpaul was successful, winning three awards as the international, Test and ODI cricketer of the year. During the English summer of 1993, Chanderpaul travelled with the West Indies Under-19 cricket team to England, he was the team's most successful batsman during the Test series, scoring 372 runs at a batting average of 124.00, including a score of 203 not out in the first Test, at Trent Bridge in Nottingham. In the 1993–94 Red Stripe Cup, Chanderpaul was near the top of the batting averages, according to the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, he was a "contentious selection" for the subsequent Test series against England, in which he was picked as an all-rounder who could bowl leg breaks as well as bat.
He bowled 16 overs in England's first innings without taking a wicket, scored 62 runs in the West Indies reply. Chanderpaul played four Tests during his debut series, was third amongst West Indian batsmen in terms of both runs scored and batting average, getting 288 runs at 57.60. Over the following couple of years, Chanderpaul was in and out of the West Indian Test side, missing a visit by Australia altogether. In his first 18 Test matches, Chanderpaul scored 1,232 runs at an average of 49.28, but despite scoring thirteen half-centuries, his highest score was 82. He reached the milestone in scoring 137 against India. Just over a month he repeated the feat in One Day International cricket, striking his maiden century in the format, scoring 109 runs against India. Chanderpaul scored a further century in each of 1998, in a Test match against England, 1999, in an ODI against South Africa. In the latter match and Carl Hooper were the only West Indian batsmen to reach double figures while batting – Chanderpaul scored 150, Hooper reached 108.
Their partnership of 226 remains a record in ODIs for the West Indies, Chanderpaul's individual total is his highest in ODIs. During this early period of his international career, Chanderpaul suffered with a negative reputation. Along with his failure to convert half-centuries into centuries, he had a tendency to miss matches, percei
Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's cricket ground, which it owns, in St John's Wood, England. The club was the governing body of cricket in England and Wales and, as the sport's legislator, held considerable global influence. In 1788, the MCC took responsibility for the Laws of Cricket. Although changes to the Laws are now determined by the International Cricket Council, the copyright is still owned by MCC. For much of the 20th century, commencing with the 1903–04 tour of Australia and ending with the 1976–77 tour of India, MCC organised international tours in which the England cricket team played Test matches. On these tours, the England team was called MCC in non-international matches. In 1993, its administrative and governance functions were transferred to the ICC and the Test and County Cricket Board; the club's own teams are ad hoc because they have never taken part in any formal competition. MCC teams have always held first-class status depending on the quality of the opposition.
To mark the beginning of each English season, MCC plays the reigning County Champions. The origin of MCC was as a gentlemen's club that had flourished through most of the 18th century, including, at least in part, an existence as the original London Cricket Club, which had played at the Artillery Ground through the middle years of the century. Many of its members became involved with the Hambledon Club through the 1770s and in the early 1780s, had returned to the London area where the White Conduit Club had begun in Islington, it is not known for certain when the White Conduit was founded but it seems to have been after 1780 and by 1785. According to Pelham Warner, it was formed in 1782 as an offshoot from a West End convivial club called the Je-ne-sais-quoi, some of whose members frequented the White Conduit House in Islington and played matches on the neighbouring White Conduit Fields, a prominent venue for cricket in the 1720s. Arthur Haygarth said in Scores and Biographies that "the Marylebone Club was founded in 1787 from the White Conduit's members" but the date of the formation of the White Conduit "could not be found".
This gentlemen's club, multi-purpose, had a social meeting place at the Star and Garter on Pall Mall. It was the same club, responsible for drafting the Laws of Cricket at various times, most notably in 1744 and 1774, this lawgiving responsibility was soon to be vested in the MCC as the final repose of these cricketing gentlemen; when the White Conduit began, its leading lights were George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea and the Hon. Colonel Charles Lennox, who became the 4th Duke of Richmond. White Conduit was nominally an exclusive club that only "gentlemen" might play for, but the club did employ professionals and one of these was the bowler Thomas Lord, a man, recognised for his business acumen as well as his bowling ability; the new club might have continued except that White Conduit Fields was an open area allowing members of the public, including the rowdier elements, to watch the matches and to voice their opinions on the play and the players. The White Conduit gentlemen were not amused by such interruptions and decided to look for a more private venue of their own.
Winchilsea and Lennox asked Lord to find a new ground and offered him a guarantee against any losses he may suffer in the venture. Lord took a lease from the Portman Estate on some land at Dorset Fields where Dorset Square is now sited, it was called the New Cricket Ground because it was off what was called "the New Road" in Marylebone, when the first known match was played there on 21 May but, by the end of July, it was known as Lord's. As it was in Marylebone, the White Conduit members who relocated to it soon decided to call themselves the "Mary-le-bone Club"; the exact date of MCC's foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787. On 10 & 11 July 1837, a South v North match was staged at Lord's to commemorate the MCC's Golden Jubilee. Warner described it as "a Grand Match to celebrate the Jubilee of the Club" and reproduced the full scorecard. On Wednesday, 25 April 1787, the London Morning Herald newspaper carried a notice: "The Members of the Cricket Club are desired to meet at the Star and Garter, Pall Mall, on Mon.
April 30. Dinner on table at half past five o'clock. N. B; the favour of an answer is desired". The agenda is unknown but, only three weeks on Saturday, 19 May, the Morning Herald advertised: "A grand match will be played on Monday, 21 May in the New Cricket Ground, the New Road, Mary-le-bone, between eleven Noblemen of the White Conduit Club and eleven Gentlemen of the County of Middlesex with two men given, for 500 guineas a side; the wickets to be pitched at ten o'clock, the match to be played out". No post-match report has been found but, as G. B. Buckley said, it was "apparently the first match to be played on Lord's new ground". A total of eight matches are known to have been played at Lord's in 1787, one of them a single wicket event; the only one which featured the Mary-le-bone Club took place on 30 July. It was advertised in The World on Friday, 27 July 1787: "On Monday, 30 July will be played a match between 11 gentlemen of the Mary-le-bone Club and 11 gentlemen of the Islington Club".
Buckley stated that "this is the earliest notice of the Marylebone Club". As with the inaugural match at Lord's, no post-match report of the inaugural MCC match has been found. There have been three Lord's grounds: the original on the Portman Estate and two on the Eyre Estate
Athletics Association of Guyana
The Athletics Association of Guyana is the governing body for the sport of athletics in Guyana. Current president is Aubrey Hutson, he was elected in 2013. AAG was founded in 1948. Former president until 2013 was Colin Boyce, he was elected in 2009. AAG is the national member federation for Guyana in the following international organisations: International Association of Athletics Federations Confederación Sudamericana de Atletismo Association of Panamerican Athletics Central American and Caribbean Athletic Confederation Moreover, it is part of the following national organisations: Guyana Olympic Association AAG maintains the Guyanese records in athletics