Dollar is the name of more than 20 currencies, including those of Australia, Hong Kong, Liberia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United States. The U. S. dollar is the official currency of the Caribbean Netherlands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Zimbabwe. One dollar is divided into 100 cents. On 15 January 1520, the Kingdom of Bohemia began minting coins from silver mined locally in Joachimsthal and marked on reverse with the Bohemian lion; the coins were called joachimsthaler, which became shortened in common usage to taler. The German name "Joachimsthal" means "Joachim's valley" or "Joachim's dale"; this name found its way into other languages: Czech and Slovenian tolar, Hungarian tallér, Danish and Norwegian daler, Swedish daler, Icelandic dalur, Dutch daalder or daler, Ethiopian ታላሪ, Italian tallero, Greek τάλληρον, τάλιρο, tàlleron, tàliro, Polish talar, Persian dare, as well as – via Dutch – into English as dollar. A Dutch coin depicting a lion was called the leeuwendaler or leeuwendaalder, literally'lion daler'.
The Dutch Republic produced these coins to accommodate its booming international trade. The leeuwendaler circulated throughout the Middle East and was imitated in several German and Italian cities; this coin was popular in the Dutch East Indies and in the Dutch New Netherland Colony. It was in circulation throughout the Thirteen Colonies during the 17th and early 18th centuries and was popularly known as "lion dollar"; the currencies of Romania and Bulgaria are, to this day,'lion'. The modern American-English pronunciation of dollar is still remarkably close to the 17th century Dutch pronunciation of daler; some well-worn examples circulating in the Colonies were known as "dog dollars". Spanish pesos – having the same weight and shape – came to be known as Spanish dollars. By the mid-18th century, the lion dollar had been replaced by Spanish dollar, the famous "pieces of eight", which were distributed in the Spanish colonies in the New World and in the Philippines; the sign is first attested in business correspondence in the 1770s as a scribal abbreviation "ps", referring to the Spanish American peso, that is, the "Spanish dollar" as it was known in British North America.
These late 18th- and early 19th-century manuscripts show that the s came to be written over the p developing a close equivalent to the "$" mark, this new symbol was retained to refer to the American dollar as well, once this currency was adopted in 1785 by the United States. By the time of the American Revolution, Spanish dollars gained significance because they backed paper money authorized by the individual colonies and the Continental Congress. Common in the Thirteen Colonies, Spanish dollars were legal tender in one colony, Virginia. On April 2, 1792, U. S. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton reported to Congress the precise amount of silver found in Spanish dollar coins in common use in the states; as a result, the United States dollar was defined as a unit of pure silver weighing 371 4/16th grains, or 416 grains of standard silver. It was specified that the "money of account" of the United States should be expressed in those same "dollars" or parts thereof. Additionally, all lesser-denomination coins were defined as percentages of the dollar coin, such that a half-dollar was to contain half as much silver as a dollar, quarter-dollars would contain one-fourth as much, so on.
In an act passed in January 1837, the dollar's alloy was set at 15%. Subsequent coins would contain the same amount of pure silver as but were reduced in overall weight. On February 21, 1853, the quantity of silver in the lesser coins was reduced, with the effect that their denominations no longer represented their silver content relative to dollar coins. Various acts have subsequently been passed affecting the amount and type of metal in U. S. coins, so that today there is no legal definition of the term "dollar" to be found in U. S. statute. The closest thing to a definition is found in United States Code Title 31, Section 5116, paragraph b, subsection 2: "The Secretary shall sell silver under conditions the Secretary considers appropriate for at least $1.292929292 a fine troy ounce." However, the dollar's constitutional meaning has remained unchanged through the years. Silver was removed from U. S. coinage by 1965 and the dollar became a free-floating fiat currency without a commodity backing defined in terms of real gold or silver.
The US Mint continues to make silver $1-denomination coins, but these are not intended for general circulation. The quantity of silver chosen in 1792 to correspond to one dollar, namely, 371.25 grains of pure silver, is close to the geometric mean of one troy pound and one pennyweight. In what follows, "dollar" will be used as a unit of mass. A troy pound being 5760 grains and a pennyweight being 240 times smaller, or 24 grains, the geometric mean is, to the nearest hundredth, 371.81 grains. This means that the ratio of a pound to a dollar equals the ratio of a dollar to a pennyweight; these ratios are very close to the ratio of a gram to a grain: 15.43. In the United States, the ratio of the value of gold to the value of silver in the period from 1792 to 1873 averaged to about 15.5, being 15 from 1792 to 1834 and around 16 from 1834 to 1873. This is nearly the value of the gold to silver ratio determined by Isaac Newton in 17
The groat is the traditional name of a long-defunct English and Irish silver coin worth four pence, a Scottish coin, worth fourpence, with issues being valued at eightpence and one shilling. The name has been applied to any thick or large coin, such as the Groschen, a silver coin issued by Tyrol in 1271 and Venice in the 13th century, the first of this general size to circulate in the Holy Roman Empire and other parts of Europe; the immediate ancestor to the groat was the French gros tournois or groat of Tours, known as the groot in the Netherlands. The name groat refers to a range of other European coins such as those of the Italian peninsula known as a grosso including the grosso of Venice and the Kraków grosz. Marco Polo referred to the groat in recounts of his travels to East Asia when describing the currencies of the Yuan Empire, his descriptions were based on the conversion of 1 bezant = 133 1⁄3 tornesel. It was after the French silver coin had circulated in England that an English groat was first minted under King Edward I.
Scots groats were not issued until the reign of David II. Scots groats were also worth fourpence, but issues were valued at eightpence and a shilling. Irish groats were minted first in 1425 and the last ones were minted under the reign of Elizabeth I of England. There were two more issues, both emergency coinage. While speaking, the English groat should have contained four pennyweights or 96 grains of sterling silver, the first ones issued weighed 89 grains and issues became progressively lighter; the weight was reduced to 72 grains under Edward III, 60 grains under Henry IV, 48 grains under Edward IV. From 1544 to 1560 the silver fineness was less than sterling, after the 1561 issue they were not issued for circulation again for about a hundred years. From the reigns of Charles II to George III, groats were issued on an irregular basis for general circulation, the only years of mintage after 1786 being in 1792, 1795, 1800. After this the only circulating issues were from 1836 to 1855, with proofs known from 1857 and 1862, a colonial issue of 1888.
These last coins had the weight further reduced to about 27 grains and were the same diameter as the silver threepenny pieces of the day although thicker. They had Britannia on the reverse, while all other silver fourpenny pieces since the reign of William and Mary have had a crowned numeral "4" as the reverse, including the silver fourpenny Maundy money coins of the present; some groats continued to circulate in Scotland until the 20th century. At times in the past, silver twopenny coins have been called "half-groats"; the groat ceased to be minted in the United Kingdom in 1856, but in 1888 a special request was made for a colonial variety to be minted for use in British Guiana and the British West Indies. The groat remained in circulation in British Guiana right up until that territory adopted the decimal system in 1955. In the 1600s and 1700s, chaplains were employed in English Navy ships of war by the captain, paid out of a groat per month deducted from the wages of the seamen; the Navy's wages did not rise between 1653 and 1797, during which time the ordinary seaman was paid 19 shillings, as was the chaplain.
The word "groat" has entered into a number of English and Scottish expressions, many of them now archaic. In the north of England, there is the saying "Blood without groats is nothing" meaning "family without fortune is worthless." The allusion is to black pudding, which consists chiefly of blood and oats formed into a sausage and cut into slices. "Not worth a groat" is an old saying meaning "not worth a penny", i.e. worthless. Benjamin Franklin, in his book, Necessary Hints gives the following thrifty advice: He that spends a groat a day idly, spends idly above six pounds a year. Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin features the following riddle: Riddle me, riddle me, rot-tot-tote! A little wee man in a red red coat! A staff in his hand, a stone in his throat; the answer is "a cherry."In The Graveyard Book by Neil Gaiman, a character recounts the paying of groats to people who held her underwater to determine if she was a witch: And Mistress Jemima's father gives them each a silver groat to hold the stool down under the foul green water for a long time, to see if I'd choke on it.
According to Hawkins' History of the Silver Coins of England, groats were known as "Joeys", so called from Joseph Hume, M. P. who recommended the coinage for the sake of paying short cab-fares, etc. This refers to the Victorian fourpenny piece; the mention of cab fares is related to the fact that the standard minimum was fourpence, so many passengers paid with a sixpenny piece, allowing the cabbie to keep the twopence change as a tip. The slang name "Joey" was transferred to the silver threepenny pieces in use in the first third of the twentieth century. In A Little Princess by Frances Hodgson Burnett, Sara Crewe picks up a fourpenny piece from the street and uses it to buy buns; the original story was set in 1888. John o' Groats, a place name in the north of Scotland, is not derived from "groat" but is a corruption of "Jan de Groot", the name of a Dutchman who migrated there in the reign of James IV; the monetary unit of Federation, the forerunner of the active Federation II text-based roleplaying game, was the groat.
Terry Pratchett's first book in the Moist von Lipwig series of novels, Going Postal, introduced a supporting character named Tolliver Groat
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
In many national currencies, the cent represented by the cent sign is a monetary unit that equals 1⁄100 of the basic monetary unit. Etymologically, the word cent derives from the Latin word "centum" meaning hundred. Cent refers to a coin worth one cent. In the United States, the 1¢ coin is known by the nickname penny, alluding to the British coin and unit of that name. In the European Union, coins designs are chosen nationally, while the reverse and the currency as a whole is managed by the European Central Bank. In Canada, production of the 1¢ coin was ended in 2012. A cent is represented by the cent sign, a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢. Cent amounts from 1 cent to 99 cents can be represented as one or two digits followed by the appropriate abbreviation, or as a subdivision of the base unit. Back in the days of typewriters, the cent sign appeared as the shift of the 6 key; the cent sign has not survived the changeover from typewriters to computer keyboards.
There are alternative ways, however, to create the character in most common code pages, including Unicode and Windows-1252: On DOS- or Windows-based computers, hold Alt while typing 0162 or 155 on the numeric keypad. If there is no numeric keypad, as on many laptops, type A2 in Windows Wordpad followed by Alt+X and copy/paste the resulting ¢ into the target document. For the US International keyboard: <Right Alt> <Shift> c. On Macintosh systems, hold ⌥ Option and press 4 on the number row. On Unix/Linux systems with a compose key, Compose+|+C and Compose+/+C are typical sequences; the cent sign has Unicode code point: U+00A2 ¢ CENT SIGN, U+FFE0 ￠ FULLWIDTH CENT SIGN. When written in English, the cent sign follows the amount, in contrast with a larger currency symbol, placed before the amount. For example, 2¢ and $0.02, or 2c and €0.02. Examples of currencies around the world featuring centesimal units called cent, or related words from the same root such as céntimo, centésimo, centavo or sen, are: Argentine peso Aruban florin Australian dollar Barbadian dollar Bahamian dollar Belize dollar Bermudian dollar Bolivian boliviano Brazilian real Brunei dollar Canadian dollar Cayman Islands dollar Chilean peso.
Centavos exist and are considered in financial transactions. Cook Islands dollar Cuban peso East Caribbean dollar Eritrean nakfa Estonian kroon European Union's euro – the coins bear the text "EURO CENT". Greek coins have ΛΕΠΤΑ on the obverse of the others; the actual usage varies depending on the language. Fijian dollar Guyanese dollar Indonesian rupiah Jamaican dollar Kenyan shilling Lesotho loti Liberian dollar Malaysian ringgit Mauritian rupee Mexican peso Moroccan dirham Namibian dollar Netherlands Antillean gulden New Zealand dollar Panamanian balboa Peruvian nuevo sol Philippine peso Seychellois rupee Sierra Leonean leone Singapore dollar South African rand Sri Lankan rupee Surinamese dollar Swazi lilangeni New Taiwan dollar Tanzanian shilling Tongan paʻanga Trinidad and Tobago dollar Ugandan shilling United States dollar Uruguayan peso Zimbabwean dollarExamples of currencies featuring centesimal units not called cent British pound – divided into 100 pence since 1971 Bulgarian lev (as stotinka, Bulgarian: стотинка Chinese Yuan/Renminbi – divided into 100 fēn.
Croatian kuna – divided into 100 lipa Danish krone – divided into 100 øre Estonian mark – divided into 100 penni Indian rupee – divided into 100 paise Israeli new shekel – divided into 100 agorot Macao pataca – divided into 100 avos Macedonian denar – divided into 100 deni Norwegian krone – divided into 100 øre Pakistani rupee – divided into 100 paise Polish złoty – divided into 100 groszy Romanian and Moldovan leu – divided into 100 bani Russian ruble – divided into 100 kopeks Saudi riyal. Examples of currencies which do not feature centesimal units: Costa Rican colón – no fractional denomination in circulation since the 1980s divided into 100 céntimos. Czech koruna – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 hellers Japanese yen – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 sen and 1000 rin. South Korean Won no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 jeon. Icelandic króna – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 eyrir. Kuwaiti dinar – divided into 1000 fils Omani rial – divided into 1000 baisa Mauritanian ouguiya – divided into 5 khoums Malagasy ariary – divided into 5 iraimbilanjaExamples of currencies which use the cent symbol for other purpose: Costa Rican colón – The common symbol'¢' is used locally to represent'₡', the proper
In geometry, a heptagon is a seven-sided polygon or 7-gon. The heptagon is sometimes referred to as the septagon, using "sept-" together with the Greek suffix "-agon" meaning angle. A regular heptagon, in which all sides and all angles are equal, has internal angles of 5π/7 radians, its Schläfli symbol is. The area of a regular heptagon of side length a is given by: A = 7 4 a 2 cot π 7 ≃ 3.634 a 2. This can be seen by subdividing the unit-sided heptagon into seven triangular "pie slices" with vertices at the center and at the heptagon's vertices, halving each triangle using the apothem as the common side; the apothem is half the cotangent of π / 7, the area of each of the 14 small triangles is one-fourth of the apothem. The exact algebraic expression, starting from the cubic polynomial x3 + x2 − 2x − 1 is given in complex numbers by: A = a 2 4 7 3, in which the imaginary parts offset each other leaving a real-valued expression; this expression cannot be algebraically rewritten without complex components, since the indicated cubic function is casus irreducibilis.
The area of a regular heptagon inscribed in a circle of radius R is 7 R 2 2 sin 2 π 7, while the area of the circle itself is π R 2. As 7 is a Pierpont prime but not a Fermat prime, the regular heptagon is not constructible with compass and straightedge but is constructible with a marked ruler and compass; this type of construction is called a neusis construction. It is constructible with compass and angle trisector; the impossibility of straightedge and compass construction follows from the observation that 2 cos 2 π 7 ≈ 1.247 is a zero of the irreducible cubic x3 + x2 − 2x − 1. This polynomial is the minimal polynomial of 2cos, whereas the degree of the minimal polynomial for a constructible number must be a power of 2. An approximation for practical use with an error of about 0.2% is shown in the drawing. It is attributed to Albrecht Dürer. Let A lie on the circumference of the circumcircle. Draw arc BOC. B D = 1 2 B C gives an approximation for the edge of the heptagon; this approximation uses 3 2 ≈ 0.86603 for the side of the heptagon inscribed in the unit circle while the exact value is 2 sin π 7 ≈ 0.86777.
Example to illustrate the error: At a circumscribed circle radius r = 1 m, the absolute error of the 1st side would be -1.7 mm The regular heptagon belongs to the D7h point group, order 28. The symmetry elements are: a 7-fold proper rotation axis C7, a 7-fold improper rotation axis,S7, 7 vertical mirror planes, σv, 7 2-fold rotation axes, C2, in the plane of the heptagon and a horizontal mirror plane, σh in the heptagon's plane; the regular heptagon's side a, shorter diagonal b, longer diagonal c, with a<b<c, satisfy a 2 = c, b 2 = a, c 2 = b, 1 a = 1 b + 1 c and hence a b + a c
Demerara is a historical region in the Guianas on the north coast of South America, now part of the country of Guyana. It was a Dutch colony until 1815 and a county of British Guiana from 1838 to 1966, it was located about the lower courses of the Demerara River, its main town was Georgetown. The name "Demerara" comes from a variant of the Arawak word "Immenary" or "Dumaruni" which means "river of the letter wood". Demerara sugar is so named because it came from sugar cane fields in the colony of Demerara. In 1745, Demerara was separated from Essequibo. In 1781, the American revolution induced the Dutch Republic to join with the Bourbon side against the British, a large fleet under Admiral Lord Rodney's command was sent to the West Indies, after having made some seizures in the Caribbean Islands, a squadron was detached to take possession of the colonies of Essequebo and Demerara, accomplished without much difficulty. In 1782 the French took possession of the whole of the Dutch settlements, compelling Gov. Robert Kingston to surrender.
The peace of Paris, which occurred in 1783, restored these territories to the Dutch. The British recaptured Demerara and Berbice in 1796, they returned the colony to the Dutch in 1802 under the terms of the Peace of Amiens, but re-took control of it a year later. On 13 August 1814, the British combined the colonies of Demerara and Essequibo into the colony of Demerara-Essequibo. On 20 November 1815, the Netherlands formally ceded the colony to Britain. Large slave rebellions broke out in West Demerara in 1795 and on the East Coast of Demerara in 1823. Although these rebellions were and bloodily crushed, according to Winston McGowan, they may have had a long-term impact in ending slavery: The 1823 revolt had a special significance not matched by the earlier Berbice uprising, it attracted attention in Britain inside and outside Parliament to the terrible evil slavery and the need to abolish it. This played a part, along with other humanitarian and economic factors, in causing the British parliament ten years in 1833 to take the momentous decision to abolish slavery in British Guiana and elsewhere in the British Empire with effect from 1 August 1834.
After serving four years of a modified form of slavery euphemistically called apprenticeship, the slaves were freed on 1 August 1838. On 21 July 1831, Demerara-Essequibo united with Berbice as British Guiana, now Guyana. In 1838, Demerara was made one of the three counties of Guiana, the other two being Berbice and Essequibo. In 1958, the county was abolished. Historical Demerara is part of the Guyanese administrative regions of Demerara-Mahaica, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Upper Demerara-Berbice. Sir James Douglas, Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island and the Colony of British Columbia. Rev. Joseph Ketley, Congregational missionary, mid 19th century. John Edmonstone, a freed slave who taught Charles Darwin taxidermy. Jonathan Samuel Storm van's Gravesende Laurens Lodewijk van Bercheijk Jan Cornelis van den Heuvel Paulus van Schuylenburgh Antony Beaujon Robert Kingston Louis Antoine Dazemard de Lusignan Armand Guy Simon de Coëtnempren, comte de Kersaint Georges Manganon de la Perrière Joseph Bourda Jan L'Éspinasse Albertus Backer Willem August van Sirtema, baron van Grovestins Antony Beaujon Antony Meertens Robert Nicholson Antony Beaujon James Montgomery Count Henri Guillaume Bentinck Hugh Lyle Carmichael E. Codd John Murray Sir Benjamin d'Urban Clive Lloyd – Most successful Captain West Indies cricket team Shivnarine Chanderpaul – Member of the West Indies cricket team and former captain Roger Harper – Former member of the West Indies cricket team Carl Hooper – Former member of the West Indies cricket team Lance Gibbs – Former member of the West Indies cricket team Colin Croft – Former member of the West Indies cricket team Andrew Watson – Footballer Julian Austin – Represented Canada in World Cup of Hockey 1978, Pan American Games 79&83 Silver&Gold Medal Also a member of the 1984 Olympic Team 1823: Jack Gladstone of Plantation Success 1823: Quamina of Plantation Success History of Guyana Pierre Louis de Saffon da Costa, Emilia Viotti.
Crowns of Glory, Tears of Blood. Scholarly study of the Demerara slave rebellion of 1823. Oostindie, Gert. "‘British Capital and Perseverance’ versus Dutch ‘Old School’? The Dutch Atlantic and the Takeover of Berbice and Essequibo, 1750-1815" BMGN: Low Countries Historical Review 127#4 pp 28–55. St Pierre, Maurice. "The 1823 Guyana Slave Rebellion: A Collective Action Reconsideration." Journal of Caribbean History 41#1/2: 142. Sheridan, Richard B. "The condition of the slaves on the sugar plantations of Sir John Gladstone in the colony of Demerara, 1812-49." New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 76#3-4: 243-269
Royal Bank of Canada
The Royal Bank of Canada is a Canadian multinational financial services company and the largest bank in Canada by market capitalization. The bank has 80,000 employees worldwide; the bank was founded in 1864 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, while its corporate headquarters are located in Toronto, in Montreal, Quebec. RBC's Institution Number is 003. In November 2017, RBC was added to the Financial Stability Board's list of global systemically important banks. In Canada, the bank's personal and commercial banking operations are branded as RBC Royal Bank in English and RBC Banque Royale in French and serves ten million clients through its network of 1,209 branches. RBC Bank is the U. S. banking subsidiary which operated 439 branches across six states in the Southeastern United States, but now only offers cross-border banking services to Canadian travellers and expats. RBC has 127 branches across seventeen countries in the Caribbean, which serve more than 16 million clients. RBC Capital Markets is RBC's worldwide investment and corporate banking subsidiary, while the investment brokerage firm is known as RBC Dominion Securities.
Investment banking services are provided through RBC Bank and the focus is on middle market clients. In 2011, RBC was the largest Canadian company by market capitalization, and was ranked at No. 50 in the 2013 Forbes Global 2000 listing, The company has operations in Canada, 40 other countries and had US$673.2 billion of assets under management in 2014. In 1864, the Merchants Bank of Halifax was founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia, as a commercial bank that financed the fishing and timber industries and the European and Caribbean import/export businesses. By 1869 the Merchants' Bank was incorporated and received its federal charter in the same year. During the 1870s and 1880s, the bank expanded into the other Maritime Provinces; when both the Newfoundland Commercial Bank and Union Bank of Newfoundland collapsed on 10 December 1894, the Merchants Bank expanded to Newfoundland on 31 January 1895. As the bank grew, executives changed its name to reflect its growth and western expansion. In 1901, the Merchants Bank of Halifax changed its name to the Royal Bank of Canada.
The centre of the Canadian financial industry had moved from Halifax to Montreal, so the Merchants Bank relocated its head office there. In 1910, RBC merged with the Union Bank of Halifax. In the same year it built a bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba—designed by Carrère and Hastings, in beaux-arts classicism proclaiming the financial dominance of Winnipeg in the prairies. To improve its position in Ontario, RBC merged with Traders Bank of Canada in 1912 and in 1917 RBC merged with Quebec Bank, founded in 1818 and chartered in 1822 in Quebec City. RBC's presence in Manitoba and Saskatchewan was strengthened through a 1918 merger with Northern Crown Bank, the result of the merger in 1908 between Northern Bank and Crown Bank of Canada, based in Ontario. RBC's presence in the Prairie Provinces grew again with the 1925 merger with the Union Bank of Canada, which had begun in Quebec City in 1865 as the Union Bank of Lower Canada, but changed its name in 1886; the Union Bank of Canada had moved its headquarters to Winnipeg in 1912, had built a strong presence in the Prairies and opened the first bank in the Northwest Territories at Fort Smith in 1921.
In 1935, RBC merged with Crown Savings and Loan Co. merged with Industrial Trust Co.. RBC installed its first computer in the first in Canadian banking. In the 1960s, RBC Insurance was created. In 1968, it merged with Debenture Company. In 1993, RBC merged with Royal Trust. In 1998, RBC acquired Security First Network Bank in Atlanta—the first pure Internet bank. In 2000, RBC merged merchant credit/debit card acquiring business with BMO Bank of Montreal's to form Moneris Solutions. In 2013, RBC completed the acquisition of the Canadian subsidiary of Ally Financial. RBC Insurance is the largest Canadian bank-owned insurance organization, with services to over five million people, it provides life, travel and auto and reinsurance products as well as creditor and business insurance services. 1882 – Merchants Bank of Halifax opened an office in Bermuda. 1899 – RBC opened an agency in New York City and a branch in Havana. 1903 – RBC bought Banco de Oriente de Santiago de Cuba. By the mid-1920s, RBC is the largest bank in the country.
1904 – RBC bought Banco del Commercio de Havana. 1907 – RBC opened a branch in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1909 – RBC established a branch in Nassau, Bahamas. 1910 – RBC opened a branch in London and acquired branches in Puerto Rico and Port of Spain, Trinidad as a result of its acquisition of Union Bank of Halifax. 1911 – RBC opened an agency in New York City, branches in Bridgetown and Kingston, Jamaica. 1912 – RBC bought Bank of British Honduras in British Honduras, which it converted to a branch. RBC opened a branch in the Dominican Republic. 1914 – RBC bought out Bank of British Guiana, in British Guiana, converted it to a branch. 1915 – RBC opened branches in Costa Rica, Dominica, St. Kitts. 1916 – RBC opened a branch in Venezuela. 1917 – RBC opened branches in Antigua, Dominica, St. Kitts, Montserrat and Tobago. 1918 – RBC opened a branch in Barcelona, another in Vladivostok that lasted less than a year. 1919 – RBC opened branches in Brazil, Uruguay, Martinique and Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 1920