The layout of a car is defined by the location of the engine and drive wheels. Layouts can be divided into three categories: front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, the location of each is dependent on the application for which the car will be used; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven wheels at the front of the vehicle. This is the most common layout for cars since the late 20th century; some early front-wheel drive cars from the 1930s had the engine located in the middle of the car. A rear-engine, front-wheel-drive layout is one in which the engine is between or behind the rear wheels, drives the front wheels via a driveshaft, the complete reverse of a conventional front-engine, rear-wheel-drive vehicle layout; this layout has only been used on concept cars. The front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century, remains the most common layout for rear-wheel drive cars. The mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle; this layout is chosen for its low moment of inertia and favorable weight distribution. The rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the MR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become rare in passenger cars; the Porsche 911 is notable for its continuous use of the RR layout since 1963. Car drivetrains where power can be sent to all four wheels are referred to as either four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive.
The front-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is chosen for better control on many surfaces, is an important part of rally racing as well as off-road driving. Most four-wheel-drive layouts are front-engined and are derivatives of earlier front-engine, rear-wheel-drive designs; the mid-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine in the middle of the vehicle, between both axles and drives all four road wheels. Although the term "mid-engine" can mean the engine is placed anywhere in the car such that the centre of gravity of the engine lies between the front and rear axles, it is used for sports cars and racing cars where the engine is behind the passenger compartment; the motive output is sent down a shaft to a differential in the centre of the car, which in the case of an M4 layout, distributes power to both front and rear axles. The rear-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle, drives all four wheels.
This layout is chosen to improve the traction or the handling of existing vehicle designs using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. For example, the Porsche 911 added all-wheel drive to the existing line-up of rear-wheel drive models in 1989. Automobile handling Car classification Drivetrain layout
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Jaguar V12 engine
The Jaguar V12 engine is a V12 engine produced by Jaguar Cars. Based loosely on an earlier design for an intended Le Mans car, the Jaguar XJ13, it was first seen in the Series 3 Jaguar E-type of 1971; the V12 was only Jaguar's second engine design to go into production in the history of the company. The all-alloy block was fitted with removable wet liners and had a SOHC two-valve alloy head with flat block mating surface, the combustion chamber in the piston crown carved in a shallow cup form, it was regarded by some as one of the premier powerplants of the 1980s. Initial designs for the V12 were produced as early as 1954, with a view to using it in a Le Mans car; the engine was to be a 5.0-litre, quad-cam engine with a high redline, which shared the same basic architecture of the XK cylinder head. After Jaguar withdrew from racing, the V12 designs lay forgotten until 1963 when Jaguar Cars purchased Coventry Climax and, as a result, Walter Hassan who designed the XK engine with William Haynes at SS Cars Ltd, rejoined the team together with Harry Mundy and Claude Baily.
The engine was re-examined as a possible powerplant for a return to Le Mans. After an extensive redesign by the team, the alloy block DOHC engine with fuel injection was born, installed on the Jaguar XJ13 in 1966. After its racing aspirations were put on hold in 1967, the team considered the use of this quad-cam configuration for road use but it was judged to be too complex and heavy, as well as unacceptably noisy for a luxury limousine, contemplated at the time; the racing engine was extensively redesigned and the cylinder heads were replaced with a more conventional two-valve design, employing a SOHC acting directly on vertically inclined valves through bucket tappets, in a move that bore striking similarity to the cylinder head design of the contemporary Rover 2000, a similarity, further noted in the use of a flat cylinder head and dished'Heron' pistons of both engines. These changes reduced complexity, weight and noise; the revised head design had restrictive and long inlet ports which sacrificed top-end power but which, along with an increase in displacement to 5.3 litres improved performance at low-mid engine speeds, desirable in what was planned to be a heavy luxury car.
The chain-driven SOHC heads and the soft valve springs fitted to reduce valvetrain noise resulted in the redline being lowered to 6,500 rpm from the 8,000 rpm of the original quad-cam design. When the limousine project was cancelled the engine was again retired for a number of years before seeing production in the series III E-type in 1971; the 5.3 litres version had an oversquare bore x stroke 90 mm × 70 mm. It produced 282 hp, 400 N⋅m in fuel-injected form. Right from the start of production in 1971 for the Series 3 E-Type, the V12 engine had Lucas OPUS electronic ignition; this system was used until 1982. The OPUS ignition amplifier unit was secured directly to the engine between the cylinder heads and had problems due to overheating. Cars had the ignition amplifier moved away from the engine where it could get air flow for cooling; the V12 was supposed to get an advanced fuel injection system under development by AE Brico but this plan was cancelled at a late stage due to concerns that the design was too similar to Bosch products.
The V12 as used in the Series 3 E-Types, Series 1 XJ12 and early Series 2 XJ12s had four side draft Zenith-Stromberg carburettors. After April 1975, the V12 engine used in the S2 XJ12 and the new XJS had a Lucas fuel injection system, based around the Bosch D-Jetronic system; this version was used in the following cars: 1971-1974 Jaguar E-Type 1975–1981 Jaguar XJS 1972–1981 Jaguar XJ12 1973–1981 Daimler Double-Six 1972-1981 Panther J.72 1974-1985 Panther De Ville A high-efficiency 5.3 HE version debuted in 1981. This used the special high-swirl design "May" cylinder heads, had an unusually high compression ratio. In any given market, power levels remained similar to the previous model, but fuel economy was improved by nearly 50%; the HE V12 engines had a fuel injection system from Lucas, based on the Bosch D-Jetronic system. The Lucas CEI ignition system continued until mid-1989, when it was superseded on the XJ-S by a system from Magneti Marelli. Series 3 XJ12 and Daimler Double Six cars used the Lucas CEI system until the end of production in 1992.
The Marelli ignition system was used until the end of XJ-S production and on the 6.0 L V12 used in the XJ81 four-door saloons made in 1993 and 1994. The 5.3 HE was used in these cars: 1981–1992 Jaguar XJ12 1981–1992 Jaguar XJS 1981–1992 Daimler Double-Six The engine was stroked to 78.5 mm in 1992 for a displacement of 5,993 cc to make this one of the most powerful Jaguar production engines to date at 318 bhp at 5,400 rpm and 336 lb⋅ft at 3,750 rpm. The XJR-S stayed in the line until 1993 with power raised at 333 bhp at 5250 rpm and 365 lb⋅ft at 3650 rpm of torque; the 6.0 litres engine on X305 used a new Nippondenso distributorless crank-fired ignition system with coil packs similar to Ford EDIS-6 units. The last Jaguar V12 engine was produced on 17 April 1997; the 6.0 HE was used in the following cars: 1992–1995 Jaguar XJS 1991–1993 Jaguar XJR-S 6.0 1993–1997 Jaguar XJ12 1993–1997 Daimler Double-Six In 1985, Tom Walkinshaw Rac
The Ferrari Daytona designated the Ferrari 365 GTB/4, is a two-seat grand tourer produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1973. It was introduced at the Paris Auto Salon in 1968 to replace the 275 GTB/4, featured the 275's Colombo V12 bored out to 4,390 cc; the Daytona was succeeded by the mid-engined 365 GT4 Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. The unofficial Daytona name is reported to have been applied by the media rather than Ferrari and commemorates Ferrari's 1-2-3 finish in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with a 330 P3/4, a 330 P4 and a 412 P. To this day, Ferrari itself only refers to the 365 as the "Daytona", refer to it as an "unofficial" name. Unlike Lamborghini's then-new, mid-engined Miura, the Daytona was a traditional front-engined, rear-drive car; the engine, known as the Tipo 251 and developed from the earlier Colombo V12 with a 60° bank angle used in the 275 GTB/4, was a DOHC 2 valves per cylinder 4,390 cc, 365 cc per cylinder, bore x stroke 81 mm × 71 mm, featuring 6X2 barrel 40 DCN/20 Weber carburetors.
At a compression ratio of 9.3:1, it produced 259 kW @ 7500 rpm and a maximum torque of 431 N⋅m. 0-60 mph acceleration was just 5.4 seconds. For the American version, slight modifications were made - the compression ratio was reduced to 8.8:1 and the exhaust system was equipped with a large central silencer, necessitating visible alterations to the primary pipes. The five-speed manual transmission was mounted in the rear for optimal weight distribution, a four-wheel independent suspension featured wishbones and coil springs. Although a Pininfarina design, as with many previous Ferrari road cars styled by Leonardo Fioravanti, the 365 GTB/4 was radically different, replacing the traditional rounded design with much more sharp-edged styling. Early Daytonas featured fixed headlights behind an acrylic glass cover. A new U. S. safety regulation banning headlights behind covers resulted in retractable pop-up twin headlights in 1971. The accepted total number of Daytonas from the Ferrari club historians is 1,406 over the life of the model.
This figure includes 156 UK right-hand-drive coupés, 122 factory-made spyders, 15 competition cars. The competition cars are divided into three series, all with modified lightweight bodies and in various degrees of engine tune. All bodies except the first Pininfarina prototype were produced by Italian coachbuilder Scaglietti, which had a well established record of working with Ferrari, and since the mid-1980s and early 1990s, there has been a considerable market price difference between a real berlinetta and a real spyder. Many berlinettas were turned into spyders by aftermarket mechanics to increase the car's monetary value or because of the owner's preference for an open car. Differences in value have remained, however after the most skillful conversions; the first racing version of the 365GTB/4 was prepared in 1969: an aluminium bodied car was built and entered in the Le Mans 24-hour race that year. Ferrari did not produce an official competition car until late in 1970; the official cars were built in three batches of five cars each, in 1970-1, 1972 and 1973.
They all featured a lightweight body making use of aluminium and fibreglass panels, with plexiglas windows. The engine was unchanged from the road car in the first batch of competition cars, but tuned in the latter two batches; the cars were not by a range of private entrants. They enjoyed particular success in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with results including a 5th overall in 1971, followed by GT class wins in 1972, 1973 and 1974. In 1972 Ferrari 365 GTB/4s took the first 5 places of the GT class; the final major success of the car was in 1979, when a 1973 car achieved a class victory in the 24 Hours of Daytona. In 1971, the Daytona gained fame when one was driven by Dan Gurney and Brock Yates in the inaugural Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash. Showcasing the car's potential for sustained high speed travel, the pair won with an average speed of 80.1 miles per hour, completing the distance from New York City to L. A. - 2,876 miles - in 35 hours 54 minutes. Gurney was quoted as saying "We never once exceeded 175 miles per hour."
It appears on the cover of 1973's Now & Then, the fifth studio album of the American pop band The Carpenters. Ferrari 365 Daytona Spider Corvette Miami Vice replica In the 1980s, a Daytona was prominently featured on the first two seasons of NBC's hit television series Miami Vice; the black car seen in early episodes was a replica built on a Corvette C3 chassis. Altogether, two nearly identical cars were used in the production of the TV series. Ferrari execs were not pleased that their company and one of their products was represented on TV by an imitation car and sued the manufacturer of the kit for trademark infringement and trademark dilution; the Daytona replicas were retired at the beginning of the show's third season and replaced by two Ferrari-donated Testarossas, the company's newest flagship model at the time. In 2004, the Daytona was voted top sports car of the 1970s by Sports Car International magazine. Motor Trend Classic named the 365 GTB/4 and GTS/4 as number two in their list of the ten "Greatest Ferraris of all time".
Maserati Ghibli Lamborghini Miura Iso Grifo Ferrari 812 Superfast
The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car, manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of beauty, high performance, competitive pricing established the model as an icon of the motoring world; the E-Type's 150 mph top speed, sub-7-second 0 to 60 mph acceleration, monocoque construction, disc brakes, rack-and-pinion steering, independent front and rear suspension distinguished the car and spurred industry-wide changes. The E-Type was based on Jaguar's D-Type racing car, which had won the 24 Hours of Le Mans three consecutive years beginning 1955, employed what was, for the early 1960s, a novel racing design principle, with a front subframe carrying the engine, front suspension and front bodywork bolted directly to the body tub. No ladder frame chassis, as was common at the time, was needed and as such the first cars weighed only 1315kg. On its release in March 1961 Enzo Ferrari called it "the most beautiful car made".
In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in The Daily Telegraph online list of the world's "100 most beautiful cars" of all time. Outside automotive circles, the E-type received prominent placement in Diabolik comic series, Austin Powers films and the television series Mad Men; the E-Type was designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form and as a two-seater convertible "roadster". A "2+2" four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released several years later. Model updates of the E-Type were designated "Series 2" and "Series 3", over time the earlier cars have come to be referred to as "Series 1." As with other hand made cars of the time, changes were incremental and ongoing, which has led to confusion over what a Series 1 car is. This is of more than academic interest, as Series 1 E-Types—and Series 1 roadsters have values far in excess of Series 2 and 3 models.
Some transitional examples exist. For example, while Jaguar itself never recognised a "Series 1½" or "Series 1.5," over time, this sub-category has been recognised by the Jaguar Owners Club of Great Britain and other leading authorities. The "pure" 4.2-litre Series 1 was made in model years 1965–1967. The 4.2-litre Series 1 has serial or VIN numbers 1E10001 - 1E15888, 1E30001 - 1E34249. The Series 1.5 left hand drive roadster has serial numbers 1E15889 - 1E18368, with the hardtop version of the Series 1.5 having VIN numbers 1E34250 - 1E35815. Series 1.5 cars were made in model year 1968. The Series 1 cars, which are by far the most valuable fall into two categories: Those made between 1961 and 1964, which had 3.8-litre engines and partial synchromesh transmissions, those made between 1965-1967, which increased engine size and torque by around 10%, added a synchronised transmission, provided new reclining seats, an alternator in place of the prior dynamo, an electrical system switched to negative earth, other modern amenities, all while keeping the same classic Series 1 styling.
The 4.2-litre Series 1 E-Types replaced the brake servo of the 3.8-litre with a more reliable unit. "The 4.2 became the most desirable version of the famous E-Type due to their increased power and usability while retaining the same outward appearance as the earlier cars."As of the end of 2014, the most expensive regular production Jaguar E-Types sold at auction included a 4.2-litre Series 1 roadster, with matching numbers, original paint and interior, under 80,000 original miles, a history of being in the original buyer's family for 45 years and a 1961 "flat floor" Series 1, selling for $528,000 in 2014. Special run racing lightweights go for far more still. For example, a 1963 E-type Lightweight Competition advertised as original and with lots of patina, one of just twelve that were built, sold for $7,370,000 at the 2017 Scottsdale, Arizona auctions. Being a British-made car of the 1960s, there are some rather rare sub-types of Series 1 E-Types at the beginning and end of the Series 1 production.
For example, the first 500 Series 1 cars had flat floors and external bonnet latches. At the close of the Series 1 production run, there were a small number of cars produced that are identical in every respect to other Series 1 units, except that the headlight covers were removed for better illumination, it is not known how many of these Series 1 cars were produced, but given that 1,508 Series 1 roadsters were produced worldwide for 1967, combined with the fact that these examples were made in just the last several months of Series 1 production, means that these, like the flat floor examples that began the Series 1 production run, are the lowest volume Series 1 variant, save of course for the special lightweights. Worldwide, including both left and right hand drive examples, a total of 7,828 3.8-litre Series 1 roadsters were built, with 6,749 of the 4.2-litre Series 1 roadsters having been manufactured. While the 1968 Series 1.5 cars maintained the essential design of th
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Weber is an Italian company which produces carburetors. A., in turn part of the Fiat Group. Carburetor production in Italy ended in 1992 when Weber shifted carburetor production to Madrid, where it continues today. Edoardo Weber began his automotive career working for Fiat, first at their Turin plant and at a dealership in Bologna. After the war, with gasoline prices high, he reached a certain success in selling conversion kits for running trucks on kerosene instead; the company was established as Fabbrica Italiana Carburatori Weber in 1923 when Weber produced carburetors as part of a conversion kit for Fiats. Weber pioneered the use of two-stage twin barrel carburetors, with two venturis of different sizes, the smaller one for low speed running and the larger one optimised for high speed use. In the 1930s Weber began producing twin-barrel carburetors for motor racing where two barrels of the same size were used; these were arranged. These carburetors found use in Alfa Romeo racing cars. Twin updraught Webers fed superchargers on the 1938 Alfa Romeo 8C competition vehicles.
After Weber's death in 1945, Fiat assumed control of the company in 1952. In time, Weber carburetors were fitted to standard production cars and factory racing applications on automotive marques such as Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Aston Martin, BMW, Ferrari, Ford, IKA, Lancia, Maserati, Porsche, Renault and Volkswagen. In 1986, Fiat took control of Weber's competitor Solex, merged the two into a single company; this was reorganized as Magneti Marelli Powertrain S.p. A. in 2001. Genuine Weber carburetors were produced in Bologna, Italy, up until 1992, when production was transferred to Madrid, where they continue to be produced today. Weber Carburetors are sold for both street and off-road use, with the twin choke sidedraught DCOE being the most common one, they are sold in. A Weber conversion kit is a complete package of Weber Carburetor, intake manifold or manifold adapter, throttle linkage, air filter and all of the necessary hardware needed to install the Weber on a vehicle. In modern times, fuel injection has replaced carburetors in both production cars and most modern motor racing, although Weber carburetors are still used extensively in classic and historic racing.
They are supplied as high quality replacements for problematic OEM carburetors. Weber fuel system components are distributed by Magneti Marelli, Webcon UK Ltd. and, in North America, by several organizations, including Worldpac, marketing under the Redline name. Other suppliers include Pierce Manifolds. Weber carburetors are marked with a model code on the mounting flange, the body, or on the cover of the float-chamber; this begins with a number which indicated the diameter of the throttle bore, but lost this significance. If this number has a single pair of digits, both chokes are of the same diameter and operate together; these numbers are followed by a group of letters, which indicates various features: the DCOE is a sidedraught unit, all others being downdraught. After the letters there will be a further number, which may be followed by a letter, e.g. 4B, 13A. The full designation might be 45 DCOE 9, etc.. List of Italian companies Weber Carburettors Owners Workshop Manual, Haynes Publishing, ISBN 0-85696-393-3 Weber Carburetors, Pat Braden, ISBN 0-89586-377-4 Weber Tuning Manual, available from Webcon UK Ltd