Ustou is a commune in the Ariège department in southwestern France. The commune of Ustou comprises several villages: Sérac. Inhabitants of Ustou are called Ustouens; the Château de Mirabat, a Middle Ages castle, known to be in ruins in the 14th century, is in the communes of Seix and Ustou. Communes of the Ariège department INSEE
1988 Tour de France
The 1988 Tour de France was the 75th edition of the Tour de France, taking place from 4 to 24 July. It consisted of 22 stages over 3,286 km; the race was won by Pedro Delgado with the top three positions at the end of the race being occupied by specialist climbers. The points classification was won by Eddy Planckaert, while Steven Rooks won the mountains classification and the combination classification; the young rider classification was won by Erik Breukink, Frans Maassen won the intermediate sprints classification. Both team classifications were won by the PDM team. During the race, Delgado failed a doping test, but because the product was not yet on the doping list from the Union Cycliste International, he was not penalized; the UCI had introduced a rule that limited the number of cyclists in a race to 200. In 1987, the Tour had started with 207 cyclists, so because of this rule, the number of teams in the 1988 Tour was reduced from 23 to 22, of 9 riders, a total of 198. 22 teams were announced two weeks before the Tour.
The Tour organisation named three reserve teams, in case one of the 22 teams was unable to start: Postobón–Ryalco, Roland–Colnago and TVM–Van Schilt. The teams entering the race were: The winner of the 1987 Tour de France, Stephen Roche, was unable to defend his title as he was coming back from knee surgeries; the winner from 1986, Greg LeMond, had still not recovered from the hunting accident that caused him to miss the 1987 Tour, did not start this Tour. Remaining favourites were Pedro Delgado, who had finished in second place in 1987, Andrew Hampsten, the winner of the 1988 Giro d'Italia, several weeks before the Tour; the Union Cycliste Internationale introduced the rule that a cycling race could not span three weekends. The Tour de France could therefore only start on Monday 4 July, the prologue was removed; the Tour organisers were not happy with this, they extended the Tour by adding a'prelude' or'preface' to the race, circumventing the rule by making it unofficial. Each team would ride for 3.8 kilometres, one cyclist per team would finish one kilometer on his own.
The recorded times were not used for the rest of the Tour, but the cyclist with the fastest time would wear the yellow jersey in the next stage. The total length of this Tour was 3,286 kilometres, the shortest since 1906. Since 1910, Belgian cyclists had won at least one stage in every Tour, but in 1988 they did not win any stages. There was one rest day; the prelude was won by Guido Bontempi, the first official stage was won by Steve Bauer. Bauer lost the lead in a Team Time Trial, to Teun van Vliet; the favourites for the overall victory did not lose time in the first stages. The individual time trial of stage six did not change that, although some outsiders lost two minutes. In the eleventh stage, in hilly conditions, the first serious attacks were seen. Most contenders were able to stay in the main group, but Laurent Fignon and Jean-François Bernard lost a lot of time and were no longer seen as contenders; the twelfth stage included higher climbs. Delgado escaped on the climb of the Glandon, he was joined by Steven Rooks.
On the descent, they were joined by Fabio Parra. Close to the finish, Rooks escaped and won the stage, Delgado became the new leader of the general classification. Delgado won the next stage, an uphill individual time trial, solidified his lead. In the fourteenth stage, the favourites stayed together, other cyclists were allowed to go for the stage victory. Philippe Bouvatier and Robert Millar, who had led over the previous two cols, were in the uphill sprint to win, until Bouvatier allowed himself to be misdirected by a gendarme 200 metres before the finish followed by Millar, the victory went to Massimo Ghirotto. Ghirotto offered his prize to Bouvatier though Millar maintained he would have overhauled Bouvatier to win and told CyclingNews in 2010 that "I don't know if the gendarme was to blame, I don't think he was, I know I would have come round Bouvatier in the sprint but I ought to have dropped him before we got to that stage". In the fifteenth stage, Delgado increased his lead, he let Laudelino Cubino get away and claim the victory, because Cubino was no threat for the general classification, finished in third place, gaining time on all his direct competitors.
Delgado further increased his lead in the nineteenth stage, by leaving the other cyclists behind him on the final climb of the day. Delgado was aiming to win the twenty-first stage, an individual time trial, was leading at all the intermediate check points, but lost time in the final part of the stage, finishing in fourth place; this was more than enough to secure the overall victory. During the race, it was announced that doping tests of Pedro Delgado and Gert-Jan Theunisse indicated they had used doping products. In Delgado's case, it was probenecid. Promenicid was a doping product according to the International Olympic Committee not yet on the doping list of the Union Cycliste Internationale, so Delgado was not sanctioned, he remained the winner of the Tour. Tour director Louy tried to convince Delgado to leave the race voluntarily. Delgado admits that he took probenecid, but with the intention to assist the kidneys, not to mask anabolic steroids. Theunisse was found to have a high testosterone-level, on the UCI doping list.
Theunisse received a penalty of ten minutes, which dropped him from fifth place to eleventh place in the general classification. One other cyclist was penalized duri
Ariège is a department in Southwestern France, in the Occitanie region. It is named after the Ariège River and its capital is Foix. Ariège is known for its rural landscape, with a population of 153,067 as of 2016, its INSEE and postal code is 09, hence the department's informal name of le neuf. The inhabitants of the department are known as Ariègeoises; the department is part of the current region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the French departments of Haute-Garonne to the west and north, Aude to the east, Pyrénées-Orientales in the south-east, as well as Spain and Andorra in the south. Covering an area of 4,890 km2, the department is divided into three arrondissements: Foix and Saint-Girons, it is composed of 13 cantons, 21 intercommunalities, 331 communes. In 2009 the Regional Natural Park of the Ariège Pyrenees was created covering about 40% of the area of the department of Ariège. There are three main areas: The Ariège plainThe north of the department consists of plains and low valleys where agriculture is prevalent.
Part of Lauragais covers the northeast of the department. Two major rivers, the Ariège and the Lèze traverse the plain from south to north. A landscape of grain fields dominates the scene with growing of corn and sunflowers and with prairies; the Pyrenean foothillsThis area includes the Plantaurel mountains and the Pre-Pyrenean hills below 1000 m. Various geological structures are present in contrast: the Foix Valley with its granite mountain landscape and the Lavelanet region with marl and limestone. Ariège high countryThe geography is dominated by the Pyrenees mountains exceeding 1,000 m above sea level which form the border between France and Spain; the Pica d'Estats, the peak of Montcalm, Pic de Sotllo are the highest points of the department. These peaks are visible from Toulouse in the Haute Garonne; the landscape is dominated by forests with coniferous species coexist with hardwoods such as chestnut trees, Black Locust trees, ash trees, beech trees. There are hundreds of kilometres of well-marked paths which allow exploration of the magnificent Pyrenees mountains.
The high mountains are accessible via good roads, cable cars or by foot. There are a number of lodges providing high level mountain accommodation that are comfortable and with good meals. There are a number of fresh water lakes which provide a variety of activities including, swimming, canoeing and picnicking. There are several downhill ski resorts, the three largest being Ax-Bonascre, Les Monts D'Olmes and Guzet-Neige. There are many cross country ski-ing resorts, one of the best being at Plateau de Beille, near Les Cabannes. Ariège is one of the most unspoiled regions of France; the locals enjoy keeping traditions alive old farming techniques. As fewer insecticides, for example, have been used, the flora and fauna of the area continue to be rich in both diversity and numbers. Butterflies are common and birds are numerous. There are many unspoiled villages and hamlets tucked away in the valleys close to the department's border with Spain – Seix and Aulus-les-Bains are examples – together with picturesque mountain villages, most notably Aleu which comes alive in the holiday season.
Ariège stands on the eastern limit of oceanic dominance over rainfall, but other influences are felt: Mediterranean – visible in the vegetation of the foothills and of the valley of the Ariège river towards Tarascon, in the Sault country Continental – in the Pyrenean valleys, with many storms and big differences of temperature between day and nightThere is no great tendency to summer drought, as the flow of air from the north-west brings rain throughout the year. Rainfall is moderate on the foothills and in some sheltered valleys, measuring 700 to 1,000 mm per year, but increases in the higher valleys with levels between 1,000 mm and 1,800 mm; the slopes exposed to the north-west, such as Aulus and Orlu, are, as one would expect, the wettest, together with the frontal ridges that meet air flow from the southwest. Snow cover is common over lasting several months above 1,500 to 2,000 metres; some periglacial areas exist over 2,500 m but the only true glacier in Ariège is that of Mont Valier, near Castillon-en-Couserans.
Temperatures are mild in the foothills, most notably at the city of Foix the average is 5 °C in January and 19 °C in July. However, they decline with elevation, e.g. at l'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre it is 0 °C in January and 14 °C in July. Ariège is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790 under the Act of 22 December 1789, it was created from the counties of Couserans. A request was made to the Council of State to rename the department Ariège-Pyrénées. According to the proponents of this project, the word "Pyrenees" would better position the department to promote itself throughout France; the demand was rejected. Foix is the administrative capital of the Ariège, it is an ancient medieval town with Chateau de Foix, perched on a hill overlooking it. The fortress has been attacked many times without being captured including an attempt by Simon de Montfort, it has been used as a prison, the names of English prisoners of war can still be seen on the cell walls.
Another famous castle in the Ariège is Montségur, located on a rocky outcrop at a height of 1200 metres. During the Albigensian Crusade and siege in 1244 the castle was destroyed, with more than
The Salat is a river in southern France, a right tributary of the Garonne. It rises in nine points above the hamlet Salau in the municipality Couflens, on the slopes of Mont Rouch, central Pyrenees; the former Gascon province of Couserans is based on its valley. Ariège: Saint-Girons Haute-Garonne: Salies-du-Salat, Boussens. Alet Garbet Arac Lez Baup Arbas http://www.geoportail.fr The Salat at the Sandre database
1984 Tour de France
The 1984 Tour de France was the 71st edition of the Tour de France, run over 4,021 km in 23 stages and a prologue, from 29 June to 22 July. The race was dominated by the Renault team, who won the team classification and ten stages: Renault's French rider Laurent Fignon won his second consecutive Tour, beating former teammate Bernard Hinault by over 10 minutes. Hinault was pursuing his fifth Tour victory after having sat out the 1983 Tour because of injuries; that year, Fignon's team-mate Greg LeMond became the first American rider to finish in the top three and stand on the podium, he took the young rider classification. Belgian cyclist Frank Hoste won the points classification, British Robert Millar won the mountains classification; the race consisted of 23 stages. There was room for 18 teams in the 1984 Tour de France. Although the Tour organisation approached AVP–Viditel and Metauromobili, an 18th team was not added; the 1984 Tour started with 170 cyclists, divided into 17 teams of 10 cyclists.
The teams entering the race were: The 1984 Tour de France started on 29 June, had one rest day, in Grenoble. The 1984 Tour de France was a battle between reigning champion Fignon and his former team captain Hinault. Questions had been raised about the strength of Fignon's 1983 win due to Hinault's absence and Pascal Simon's withdrawal after breaking his shoulder whilst wearing the yellow jersey. Hinault won the prologue, but Fignon won back time when his team won the team time trial in stage three. After a large escape in the fifth stage, Fignon's team mate Vincent Barteau was leading the race. In the seventh stage, Fignon won the time trial. Barteau was still leading the race, remained the leader after the Pyrenées. In the sixteenth stage, Fignon again beat Hinault in this time winning 33 seconds. In the seventeenth stage, Hinault attacked five times on the penultimate climb, but every time Fignon was able to get back. Fignon left Hinault behind, won three more minutes on Hinault. Barteau was so far behind in this stage.
Fignon won three more stages, for a total of five that year, won the Tour with a ten-minute margin. With his air of indifference in interviews and his crushing dominance, he was hailed as France's newest superstar. There were several classifications in the 1984 Tour de France, six of them awarding jerseys to their leaders; the most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey. Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists were given points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints; the cyclist with the most points lead the classification, was identified with a green jersey. There was a mountains classification; the organisation had categorized some climbs as either hors catégorie, second, third, or fourth-category. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, was identified with a polkadot jersey.
There was a combination classification. This classification was calculated as a combination of the other classifications. Another classification was the young rider classification; this was decided the same way as the general classification, but only riders that rode the Tour for the first time were eligible, the leader wore a white jersey. Before the 1984 Tour, the intermediate sprints classification did not have a jersey. In the 1984 Tour, the organizers gave the leader of the classification a red jersey to wear; this classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the riders in the team that lead this classification were identified by yellow caps. There was a team points classification. Cyclists received points according to their finishing position on each stage, with the first rider receiving one point; the first three finishers of each team had their points combined, the team with the fewest points led the classification.
The riders of the team leading this classification wore green caps. In stage 1, Laurent Fignon wore the green jersey, because Bernard Hinault wore the yellow jersey. In stage 2, Harald Maier wore the polka dot jersey, because Ludo Peeters wore the yellow jersey. In stage 4, Allan Peiper wore the white jersey, because Jacques Hanegraaf wore the yellow jersey. In stages 6 – 11, Paulo Ferreira wore the white jersey, because Vincent Barteau wore the yellow jersey. In stages 12 – 17, Greg LeMond wore the white jersey, because Vincent Barteau wore the yellow jersey. Augendre, Jacques. Guide historique. Tour de France. Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016. McGann, Bill; the story of the Tour de France: 1965–2007. Dog Ear Publishering. ISBN 1-59858-608-4. Nauright, John. Sports around the world: History and practice. 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-300-2. Media related to 1984 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. The city is located in the heart of the former sovereign Principality of Béarn, of which it was the capital from 1464. Bordered by the Gave de Pau, the city is located 100 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean and 50 kilometres from Spain; this position gives it an exceptional panorama across the mountain range of the Pyrenees as well as on the hillsides of Jurançon. The name of Horizons Palois aims to protect this vision, in particular with the famous Boulevard des Pyrénées which extends for 1.8 kilometres from the Château de Pau to the Parc Beaumont. Alphonse de Lamartine said: "Pau has the world's most beautiful view of the earth just as Naples has the most beautiful view of the sea." Archaeology has asserted. It wasn't until the first half of the 12th century that the first mentions of Pau as a settlement are found; the town originated from the construction of its castle from the 11th century by the Viscounts of Béarn, to protect the ford, a strategic point for access to the Bearn valleys and to Spain.
The city thus took its name from the stockade. The village, built around the castle took advantage of its strategic position as well as the protection of the Viscounts of Béarn to develop over the following centuries. Pau became the capital of Béarn in 1464, thus becoming the political and economic centre of this small State which continued to defend its independence from the neighbouring French and Spanish territories; the town and its castle took on a new dimension by becoming the seat of the Kings of Navarre, at the capture of Pamplona, by the Kingdom of Castile in 1512. Pau became a leading political and intellectual centre under the reign of Henry d'Albret and his wife Marguerite; the history of Pau is marked by the birth of Henry of Bourbon 13 December 1553 in the castle of his grandparents. He gained access to the throne of France in 1589 under the title of Henry IV; the image of the city is since associated with that of this monarch made famous for his willingness to put an end to the endless Wars of Religion.
With the end of Béarnaise independence in 1620, Pau lost its influence but remained the same at the head of a autonomous province. It was home to the Parliament of Navarre and Béarn which wrote its texts in Occitan until the Revolution and its dismantling to create the Department of Basses-Pyrénées, it was during the 18th century when another famous person was born in Pau, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte who became Marshal of the Empire and King of Sweden, today still the ruling dynasty of Sweden and of Norway when that country was under the Swedish monarchy. The Belle Époque marked a resurgence for the Béarnaise capital with a massive influx of wealthy foreign tourists, they came to spend the winter to take advantage of the benefits of Pau's climate described by the Scottish physician Alexander Taylor. Pau turned with the construction of many villas and mansions to accommodate these wintering rich people, the city developed all elements of modernity for their comfort: baths and railway station, it was at this time that Pau became one of the world capitals of the nascent aerospace industry under the influence of the Wright brothers, crowned heads pressed there to observe the flight of the first flying school in the world.
With the decline of tourism during the 20th century, the Pau economy shifted towards the aviation industry and to that of petrochemicals with the major discovery of the Lacq gas field in 1951. Pau today is a city of about 80,000 inhabitants, the main urban area of Pau and of the Communauté d'agglomération Pau Béarn Pyrénées with 30 neighbouring communes which carry out local tasks together; the Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, founded in 1972, accounts for a large student population. The city plays a leading role for Béarn but for a wide segment of the Adour area. An administrative capital, it boasts a dense economic fabric including service activities. Pau plays the role of cultural capital with many events, including sports. Pau's heritage extends over several centuries, its diversity and its quality allowed it to obtain the label of City of Art and History in 2011; the name of its people is Palois and the motto of Pau is in Latin: Urbis palladium et gentis. Pau is 50 km from the Pyrenees.
Spain is 50 km away. The frontier is crossed by the col du Pourtalet. Access to the crossings accounts for Pau's strategic importance. Pau is located 30 km from Tarbes and Lourdes, 25 km from Oloron; the conglomeration of Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz is at Bordeaux 190 km. To the north: Buros and Morlaàs To the east: Bizanos and Idron To the south: Gelos and Jurançon To the west: Lons and Billère Pau is served by the Pau Pyrénées Airport 10 km away. Limited scheduled flights serve Amsterdam, Southampton, Dublin and Paris. A TGV rail line runs from Bayonne to Toulouse; the A64 autoroute goes to the east. The A65 autoroute was opened in December 2010, linking Pau with the Dordogne. The
Saint-Orens-de-Gameville is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southwestern France. Its inhabitants are called Saint-Orennais. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE