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In Welsh mythology, Gwawl was the son of Clud, tricks Pwyll into promising him Rhiannon. She decides to marry Pwyll instead. Gwawl is only mentioned in the First Branch of the Mabinogi. Nothing is known of his father Clud. Gwawl, son of Clud, is mentioned in the first of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, when Rhiannon tells Pwyll, Prince of Dyfed, who wishes to marry her, that she is intended for Gwawl. Rhiannon and Pwyll form a plan to free her from her forced marriage to Gwawl and make arrangements for their own marriage in a year's time; the year passes and it is assumed, if not mentioned, that Gwawl has heard of Rhiannon's pending marriage to Pwyll and has had sufficient time to create a plan so he can marry Rhiannon himself. During the wedding feast at the court of Hyfaidd Hen, Rhiannon's father, Gwawl enters and is described as "a large, brown-haired fellow...wearing silk brocade." Gwawl tricks Pwyll into promising to grant him any reasonable request. Realizing his error, Pwyll has no choice but to honor his promise to Gwawl, to give him Rhiannon, the feast, the current wedding preparations.

Pwyll unwillingly agrees to release Rhiannon from their marital alliance, but is unable to give Gwawl the feast and preparations, as they are not his to give away. Gwawl is promised to have Rhiannon's hand in marriage after a year has passed and he thus goes away. Unknown to him, Rhiannon instructs Pwyll about. After the year is up, Gwawl returns to Rhiannon for marriage. Pwyll returns, dressed as a beggar, with a sack that can never be filled until a nobleman stomps down on the bag and orders it to be full. Pwyll enters and asks Gwawl if he can fill his bag with food, to which Gwawl agrees, he becomes irritated when he sees how much food is being put into the sack and asks Pwyll when the sack will be full. Pwyll, as Rhiannon had instructed, says to Gwawl that a strong and powerful noble must trample down the food in the sack and say "enough has been put in here" and it will be full. Upon being persuaded by Rhiannon to do the task, Gwawl stands in the bag and Pwyll pulls the bag over Gwawl's head, trapping him within the sack.

Pwyll summons his war band and they round up Gwawl's men and put them in chains. Gwawl, himself, is beaten within the bag by Pwyll's men, striking the bag with either their foot or a stick; this is the first account of the game "Badger-in-the-Bag" being played. Gwawl calls out to Pwyll. Pwyll agrees to release Gwawl, if he first promises to never take revenge on them for what has happened. Gwawl eagerly is freed from the bag, he tells Rhiannon that he is injured and wounded and thus needs to leave. Gwawl leaves with his men and does not reappear in the other branches, although there is mention of him in the Third Branch of the Mabinogi

Constantine, Algeria

Constantine spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria. During Roman times it was called Cirta and was renamed "Constantina" in honor of emperor Constantine the Great, it was the capital of the French department of Constantine until 1962. Located somewhat inland, Constantine is about 80 kilometres from the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of the tiny Rhumel River. Constantine is regarded as the capital of eastern Algeria and the commercial center of its region, it has a population of about 450,000, making it the third largest city in the country after Algiers and Oran. There are historical sites located around the city. Constantine is referred to as the "City of Bridges" due to the numerous picturesque bridges connecting the various hills and ravines that the city is built on and around. Constantine was named the Arab Capital of Culture in 2015; the city was founded by the Phoenicians, who called it Sewa. It was renamed Cirta by the Numidian king Syphax, who turned it into his capital.

The city was taken over by Numidia, the country of the Berber people, after the Carthaginians were defeated by Rome in the Third Punic War. In 112 B. C. the city was occupied by the Numidian king Jugurtha. The city served as the base for Roman generals Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus and Gaius Marius in their war against Jugurtha. With the removal of King Juba I and the remaining supporters of Pompey in Africa, Julius Caesar gave special rights to the citizens of Cirta, now known as Colonia Sittlanorum. In 311 AD, during the civil war between emperor Maxentius and usurper Domitius Alexander, the city was destroyed. Rebuilt in 313 AD, it was subsequently named in Latin as "Colonia Constantiniana" or "Constantina", after emperor Constantine the Great, who had defeated Maxentius. Captured by the Vandals in 432, Constantine returned to the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa from 534 to 697, it was conquered by the Arabs in the 8th century. During the 11th century, Banu Hilal, an Arab tribe living between Nile and Red Sea, settled in Tunisia and Constantinois, Constantine party.

The city recovered in the 12th century and under Almohad and Hafsid rule it was again a prosperous market, with links to Pisa and Venice. After 1529 it was intermittently part of Ottoman Empire, ruled by a Turkish bey subordinate to the dey of Algiers. Salah Bey, who ruled the city in 1770–1792 embellished it and built much of the Muslim architecture still visible today. In 1826 the last bey, Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Chérif, became the new head of state, he led a fierce resistance against French forces. By 13 October 1837, the territory was captured by France, from 1848 on until 1962 it was an integral part of the French motherland and centre of the Constantine Département. In 1880, while working in the military hospital in Constantine, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran discovered that the cause of malaria is a protozoan, he observed the parasites in a blood smear taken from a soldier. For this, he received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Medicine; this was the first time. His work helped inspire researchers and veterinarians today to try to find a cure for malaria in animals.

In 1934, Muslim anti-Jewish riots in the city caused the death of 34 local Jews. During World War II, during the campaign in North Africa, Allied forces used Constantine and the nearby cities of Sétif and Bone as operational bases. Constantine is situated on a plateau at an elevation 640 metres above sea level; the city has a dramatic appearance. The city is picturesque with a number of bridges over Rhumel River and a viaduct crossing the ravine; the ravine is crossed by seven bridges, including Sidi M'Cid bridge. Constantine is the railhead of a diverse agricultural area, it is a centre of the grain trade and has flour mills, a tractor factory, industries producing textiles, wool and leather goods. Algeria and Tunisia serve as its markets. Constantine has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, moist winters; the city has a dramatic appearance. In 1911, Baedeker described it as "resembling the Kasba of Algiers, the picturesque charm of which has so far been marred by the construction of but a few new streets."

Musée National Cirta Gustave Mercier Museum Abd al Hamid Ben Badis Mosque The Casbah Emir Abd al-Qadir University and Mosque Soumma Mausoleum Massinissa's Mausoleum Ahmed Bey Palace Ruins of the Antonian Roman aqueduct Ben Abdelmalek StadiumNearby are the Roman city of Tiddis the megalithic monuments and burial grounds at Djebel Mazala Salluste. The topography of the city is unique and it determines the need for bridges. At the end of the 19th century, Guy de Maupassant wrote: "Eight bridges used to cross this ravine. Six of these bridges are in ruins today." Today the most important bridges are: Sidi M'Cid Bridge, a suspension bridge with a length of 168m, El-Kantara bridge which leads toward north, Sidi Rached bridge, a long viaduct of 447ms and 27 arches, designed by Paul Séjourné, Devil's bridge, a tiny beam bridge, Falls bridge, formed by a series of arches on top of a waterfall, Perregaux footbridge, a suspension bridge, Salah Bey Bri

Pathetic fallacy

The phrase pathetic fallacy is a literary term for the attribution of human emotion and conduct to things found in nature that are not human. It is a kind of personification that occurs in poetic descriptions, for example, clouds seem sullen, when leaves dance, or when rocks seem indifferent; the British cultural critic John Ruskin coined the term in Modern Painters. Ruskin coined the term "pathetic fallacy" to attack the sentimentality, common to the poetry of the late 18th century, and, rampant among poets including Burns, Wordsworth and Keats. Wordsworth supported this use of personification based on emotion by claiming that "objects... derive their influence not from properties inherent in them... but from such as are bestowed upon them by the minds of those who are conversant with or affected by these objects." However Tennyson, in his own poetry, began to refine and diminish such expressions, introduced an emphasis on what might be called a more scientific comparison of objects in terms of sense perception.

The old order was beginning to be replaced by the new just as Ruskin addressed the matter, the use of the pathetic fallacy markedly began to disappear. As a critic, Ruskin proved influential and is credited with having helped to refine poetic expression; the meaning of the term has changed from the idea Ruskin had in mind. Ruskin's original definition is "emotional falseness", or the falseness that occurs to one's perceptions when influenced by violent or heightened emotion. For example, when a person is unhinged by grief, the clouds might seem darker than they are, or mournful or even uncaring. There have been other changes to Ruskin's phrase since he coined it: The particular definition that Ruskin used for the word fallacy has since become obsolete; the word fallacy nowadays is defined as an example of flawed reasoning, but for Ruskin and writers of the 19th century and earlier, "fallacy" could be used to mean a "falseness". In the same way, the word pathetic meant for Ruskin "emotional" or "pertaining to emotion".

Setting aside Ruskin's original intentions, despite this linguistic'rocky road', the two-word phrase has survived, though with a altered meaning. In his essay, Ruskin demonstrates his original meaning by offering lines of a poem: Ruskin points out that "the foam is not cruel, neither does it crawl; the state of mind which attributes to it these characters of a living creature is one in which the reason is unhinged by grief"—yet, Ruskin did not disapprove of this use of the pathetic fallacy: Now, so long as we see that the feeling is true, we pardon, or are pleased by, the confessed fallacy of sight, which it induces: we are pleased, for instance, with those lines... above quoted, not because they fallaciously describe foam, but because they faithfully describe sorrow. Ruskin intended that pathetic fallacy may refer to any "untrue" quality: as in the description of a crocus as "gold", when the flower is, according to Ruskin, saffron in color; the following, a stanza from the poem "Maud" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, demonstrates what John Ruskin, in Modern Painters, said was an "exquisite" instance of the use of the pathetic fallacy: In science, the term "pathetic fallacy" is used in a pejorative way in order to discourage the kind of figurative speech in descriptions that might not be accurate and clear, that might communicate a false impression of a natural phenomenon.

An example is the metaphorical phrase "Nature abhors a vacuum", which contains the suggestion that nature is capable of abhorring something. There scientific ways to describe nature and vacuums. Another example of a pathetic fallacy is the expression, "Air hates to be crowded, when compressed, it will try to escape to an area of lower pressure." It is not accurate to suggest that air "hates" anything or "tries" to do anything. One way to express the ideas that underlie that phrase in a more scientific manner can be found and described in the kinetic theory of gases: effusion or movement towards lower pressure occurs because unobstructed gas molecules will become more evenly distributed between high- and low-pressure zones, by a flow from the former to the latter. Animism Anthropocentrism Anthropomorphism Figure of speech Morgan's Canon List of narrative techniques Ruskin, J. "Of the Pathetic Fallacy", Modern Painters III Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms, 7th edition.

Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-15-505452-X. Groden and Martin Kreiswirth; the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8018-4560-2

Central University of Punjab

The Central University of Punjab is a Central University located in Bathinda, India. It has been established through an Act of Parliament: "The Central Universities Act, 2009" by Govt. of India. The territorial jurisdiction of Central University of Punjab is whole of the State of Punjab. Central University of Punjab has been ranked as number one amongst newly established central universities in India since 2012 as per university rankings of Researchgate and Scopus; the Central Universities Bill 2009 aims at creating one new central university each in Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Karnataka, Orissa, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. It seeks to convert Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya in Chhattisgarh, Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya in Sagar and Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University in Uttarakhand into Central universities; the Central University of Punjab, Bathinda has been established through the Central Universities Act 2009 which received the assent of the President of India on 20 March 2009.

Its territorial jurisdiction extends to the whole State of Punjab. It started its functioning from Camp Office in April, 2009, which happens to be the residence of the Vice Chancellor, from November 2009 it shifted to its City Campus spread over an area of 35 acres; the main campus is coming up on more than 500 acres of land in Ghuda Village on Bathinda-Badal Road. The university offers research oriented master's and doctoral degree programmes: Ph. D. M. Phil. M. Sc. M. A. M. Pharm. M. Tech. LL. M. M. Ed, post-graduat diploma programmes. School of Basic and Applied Sciences: Centre for Animal Sciences, Centre for Applied Agriculture, Centre for Biochemistry and Microbial Sciences, Centre for Chemical Sciences, Centre for Computational Sciences, Centre for Mathematics and Statistics, Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences and Natural Products, Centre for Physical Sciences, Centre for Plant Sciences. School of Education: Centre for Education. School of Engineering & Technology: Centre for Computer Science and Technology.

School of Environment and Earth Sciences: Centre for Environmental Sciences and Technology, Centre for Geography & Geology School of Global Relations: Centre for South and Central Asian Studies. School of Health Sciences: Centre for Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine. School of Languages and Culture: Centre for Comparative Literature, Centre for Classical and Modern Languages. School of Legal Studies and Governance: Centre for Law. School of Social Studies: Centre for Economic Studies, Centre for Sociology. In the young age of seven year of establishment University has proved itself with NAAC'A' Grade and NIRF rank of 65 out of 3565 institution University has best research contribution among all the newly established Central Universities with the SCOPUS, RG Score and Research Gate Impact Point. Researchers from this university had contributed in a number of peer-reviewed scientific research. Among these are discovery of new species of marine alga Ulva paschima and Cladophora goensis, first report of endophytic algae from Indian Ocean, discovery of the geographical origin of Holy Basil as North-Central India, Molecular assessment of Hypnea valentiae-a red alga from West and East coast of India and multitargetted molecular docking analysis of plant-derived natural compounds against PI3K Pathway.

Dr. Felix Bast, an Associate professor at Department of Botany, is a well-known science writer and science communicator. List of universities in India University Grants Commission Official Website

Upper Larymna

Upper Larymna was a town of the Opuntian Locris of ancient Phocis and still of ancient Boeotia, on the river Cephissus. Strabo relates that the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel at Upper Larymna and joined the sea at the Lower Larymna, that Upper Larymna had belonged to ancient Phocis until it was annexed to the Lower or Boeotian Larymna by the Romans. Upper Larymna belonged to the Opuntian Locris, Lycophron mentions it as one of the towns of Ajax Oïleus. Pausanias states that it was Locrian. This, however did not take place in the time of Epaminondas, as the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, written subsequently, still calls it a Locrian town, it may have joined the Boeotian League. In 230 BCE, Larymna is described as a Boeotian town. We may conclude from the preceding statements that the more ancient town was the Locrian Larymna, situated at a spot called Anchoe by Strabo, where the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel. At the distance of a mile and a half Larymna had a port upon the coast, which rose into importance from the time when Larymna joined the Boeotian League, as its port became the most convenient communication with the eastern sea for Lebadeia, Orchomenus and other Boeotian towns.

The port-town was called, from Lower Larymna, to distinguish it from the Upper city. The former may have been called more the Boeotian Larymna, as it became the seaport of so many Boeotian towns. Upper Larymna, though it had joined the Boeotian League, continued to be called the Locrian, on account of its ancient connection with Locris; when the Romans united Upper Larymna to Lower Larymna, the inhabitants of the former place were transferred to the latter. This accounts for Pausanias mentioning only one Larymna. Moreover, the ruins at Lower Larymna show that it became a place of much more importance than Upper Larymna; these ruins, which are called Kastri, like those of Delphi, are situated on the shore of the Bay of Larmes on a level covered with bushes ten minutes to the left of the mouth of the Cephissus. Upper Larymna's remains are at the modern Bazaraki. William Martin Leake visited the place in the mid-19th century, notes that the circuit of the walls is less than a mile. Leake adds that the walls, which in one place are extant to nearly half their height, are of a red soft stone much corroded by the sea air, in some places are constructed of rough masses.

The sorus is high, with comparison to its length and breadth, stands in its original place upon the rocks. The Glyfonero is a small deep pool of water impregnated with salt and was considered by the current inhabitants as cathartic; the sea in the bay south of the ruins is deep. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Larymna". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray

San koji srećan sanjaš sam

San koji srećan sanjaš sam is the third album by the Serbian alternative rock band Block Out, released by Metropolis Records in 1998. Considered to be one of the best Serbian rock albums ever; some of the songs were predicting war cataclysm that hit FR Yugoslavia few months after the release of the album. The album was re-released by Multimedia records in 2004. All tracks written by Nikola Vranjković. "San koji srećan sanjaš sam" "Najduži je poslednji sat" "1228" "Zvezdane staze" "Raskorak" "Zorka" "Blentostamin" "U krtogu" "Armatura" "Protiv sebe" "Beltaine" "Sudopera" "Finansijska konstrukcija" "Koma" Miljko Radonjić Aleksandar Balać Milutin Jovančić Nikola Vranjković Dragoljub Marković Velja Mijanović Goran Živković Žika Aleksandar Radosavljević Nebojša Zulfikarpašić Keba Srđan Sretenović Nemanja Popović Strahinja Milićević Nemanja Kojić Kojot Dejan Lalić EX YU ROCK enciklopedija 1960-2006, Janjatović Petar.