In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby gains possession of the ball for their team. It is seen in football, including American and Canadian football, as well as association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football and Gaelic football, as well as any sport by which a loose object is passed between players toward a goal. In basketball, a pick is called a steal. In American or Canadian football, an interception occurs when a forward pass is caught by a player of the opposing defensive team; this leads to an immediate change of possession during the play: the defender who caught the ball attempts to move the ball as far towards the opposing end zone as possible. Following the stoppage of play, if the interceptor retained possession of the ball, his team takes over possession at the spot where he was downed.
Because possession is a critical component in these sports, a successful interception can be a dramatic reversal of the teams' fortunes. Interceptions are predominantly made by the secondary or the linebackers, who are closest to the quarterback's intended targets, the wide receivers, running backs, tight ends. Less a defensive lineman may get an interception from a tipped ball, a near sack, a shovel pass, or a screen pass, but are more to force a fumble than get an interception; as soon as a pass is intercepted, everyone on the defense acts as blockers, helping the person with the interception get as much yardage as possible and a touchdown. If the interception occurs on an extra point attempt, rather than an ordinary play from scrimmage, a potential return of the interception to the other end zone is sometimes called a "pick two" as it would be a defensive two point conversion rather than a touchdown. For example, on December 4, 2016, the Kansas City Chiefs strong safety Eric Berry scored the game winning points via a pick two in a 29–28 victory over the Atlanta Falcons.
Berry achieved an ordinary pick six earlier in the same game. If the intercepting team can run out the clock, the intercepting player may down the ball and not attempt to gain any yardage; this eliminates the chance of a fumble. There are player safety implications: when the ball is turned over, the play is now and unexpectedly moving in the opposite direction. All of the players on offense are susceptible to unexpected blocks if not attempting to stop the ball carrier. Additionally, offensive players the quarterback, are inexperienced tacklers and are at risk of injuring themselves while tackling the ball carrier. Only the interception of a forward pass is recorded statistically as an interception, for both the passer and the intercepting player. If a receiver fails to catch the ball and bobbles or tips it before it is intercepted if his action was responsible for the interception, it is always recorded as an interception thrown by the passer; the interception of a lateral pass is recorded as a fumble by the passer.
James Johnson was named the Outstanding Player of the 95th Grey Cup on November 25, 2007, after intercepting a record three passes, including one for a 30-yard touchdown. His defensive efforts helped lead the Saskatchewan Roughriders to a 23–19 victory over their CFL Prairie rival Winnipeg Blue Bombers; this was the first time since 1994 that a defensive player was awarded the Grey Cup's top individual title. His most notable interception of the game was when he intercepted Ryan Dinwiddie's final pass and secured Saskatchewan's victory. Lester Hayes of the Oakland Raiders was one of the National Football League's leaders at interceptions in the late 1970s and early 1980s, he was known for covering his chest and forearms with a copious amount of the adhesive Stickum to help him hold on to the ball. After the NFL outlawed the use of such foreign substances in 1981, Hayes' success rate at interceptions dropped below average though that could be due to his reputation as a "shutdown cornerback", which discouraged opposing teams from throwing to his side of the field.
He continued to use the substance, which he called "pick juice", by having it applied in smaller amounts to his wrists. Paul Krause holds the record for most career interceptions, with 81, is tied for third place for most interceptions by an NFL rookie in his first season, with 12, he played his first three years in the NFL from 1964 to 1967 with the Washington Redskins but was traded to the Minnesota Vikings, where he spent most of his career. Krause appeared in four Super Bowls with the Vikings, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1998. Rod Woodson played 16 seasons with Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Oakland, holds the NFL record for most interception returns for touchdown in an NFL career with 12, he holds the NFL record for most total defensive TD returns in a career with 13. Woodson, third on the NFL all-time career interception list with 71, was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2009. Former New Orleans Saints safety Darren Sharper, most notable for playing 8 seasons with the Green Bay Packers and the Minnesota Vikings from 2005 to 2008, has a career total of 63 interceptions, has returned 11 of those for touchdowns.
Sharper holds th
In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment. To encipher or encode is to convert information into cipher or code. In common parlance, "cipher" is synonymous with "code", as they are both a set of steps that encrypt a message. Codes substitute different length strings of characters in the output, while ciphers substitute the same number of characters as are input. There are exceptions and some cipher systems may use more, or fewer, characters when output versus the number that were input. Codes operated by substituting according to a large codebook which linked a random string of characters or numbers to a word or phrase. For example, "UQJHSE" could be the code for "Proceed to the following coordinates." When using a cipher the original information is known as plaintext, the encrypted form as ciphertext. The ciphertext message contains all the information of the plaintext message, but is not in a format readable by a human or computer without the proper mechanism to decrypt it.
The operation of a cipher depends on a piece of auxiliary information, called a key. The encrypting procedure is varied depending on the key, which changes the detailed operation of the algorithm. A key must be selected before using a cipher to encrypt a message. Without knowledge of the key, it should be difficult, if not impossible, to decrypt the resulting ciphertext into readable plaintext. Most modern ciphers can be categorized in several ways By whether they work on blocks of symbols of a fixed size, or on a continuous stream of symbols. By whether the same key is used for both encryption and decryption, or if a different key is used for each. If the algorithm is symmetric, the key must be known to no one else. If the algorithm is an asymmetric one, the enciphering key is different from, but related to, the deciphering key. If one key cannot be deduced from the other, the asymmetric key algorithm has the public/private key property and one of the keys may be made public without loss of confidentiality.
The word "cipher" in former times meant "zero" and had the same origin: Middle French as cifre and Medieval Latin as cifra, from the Arabic صفر sifr = zero. "Cipher" was used for any decimal digit any number. There are many theories about how the word "cipher" may have come to mean "encoding". Encoding involved numbers; the Roman number system was cumbersome because there was no concept of zero. The concept of zero, now common knowledge, was alien to medieval Europe, so confusing and ambiguous to common Europeans that in arguments people would say "talk and not so far fetched as a cipher". Cipher came to mean concealment of clear messages or encryption; the French formed the word "chiffre" and adopted the Italian word "zero". The English used "zero" for "0", "cipher" from the word "ciphering" as a means of computing; the Germans used the words "Ziffer" and "Chiffre". The Dutch still use the word "cijfer" to refer to a numerical digit; the Slovaks also use the word "cifra" to refer to a numerical digit.
The Bosnians and Serbians use the word "cifra", which refers to a digit, or in some cases, any number. Besides "cifra", they use word "broj" for a number; the Italians and the Spanish use the word "cifra" to refer to a number. The Swedes use the word "siffra"; the Greeks use the word "τζίφρα" to refer to a hard-to-read signature one written with a single stroke of the pen. Ibrahim Al-Kadi concluded that the Arabic word sifr, for the digit zero, developed into the European technical term for encryption; as the decimal zero and its new mathematics spread from the Arabic world to Europe in the Middle Ages, words derived from sifr and zephyrus came to refer to calculation, as well as to privileged knowledge and secret codes. According to Ifrah, "in thirteenth-century Paris, a'worthless fellow' was called a'... cifre en algorisme', i.e. an'arithmetical nothing'." Cipher was the European pronunciation of sifr, cipher came to mean a message or communication not understood. In non-technical usage, a " code" means a "cipher".
Within technical discussions, the words "code" and "cipher" refer to two different concepts. Codes work at the level of meaning—that is, words or phrases are converted into something else and this chunking shortens the message. An example of this is the Commercial Telegraph Code, used to shorten long telegraph messages which resulted from entering into commercial contracts using exchanges of Telegrams. Another example is given by whole word ciphers, which allow the user to replace an entire word with a symbol or character, much like the way Japanese utilize Kanji characters to supplement their language. Ex "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" becomes "The quick brown 狐 jumps 过 the lazy 狗". Ciphers, on the other hand, work at a lower level: the level of individual letters, small groups of letters, or, in modern schemes, individual bits and blocks of bits; some systems used both codes and ciphers in one system, using superencipherment to increase the security. In some cases the terms codes and ciphers are used synonymously to substitution and transposition.
Cryptography was split into a dichotomy
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939. Despite the short period of time, this period represented an era of significant changes worldwide. Petroleum and associated mechanisation expanded leading to the Roaring Twenties, a period of economic prosperity and growth for the middle class in North America and many other parts of the world. Automobiles, electric lighting, radio broadcasts and more became commonplace among populations in the developed world; the indulgences of this era subsequently were followed by the Great Depression, an unprecedented worldwide economic downturn which damaged many of the world's largest economies. Politically, this era coincided with the rise of communism, starting in Russia with the October Revolution and Russian Civil War, at the end of World War I, ended with the rise of fascism in Germany and in Italy.
China was in the midst of long period of instability and civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China. The Empires of Britain and others faced challenges as imperialism was viewed negatively in Europe, independence movements in British India, French Indochina and other regions gained momentum; the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian and German empires were dismantled, while the Ottoman and German colonies were redistributed among the Allies, chiefly the United Kingdom and France. The western parts of the Russian Empire, Finland, Latvia and Poland became independent nations in their own right, while Bessarabia chose to reunify with Romania; the Russian communists managed to regain control of the other East Slavic states, Central Asia, the Caucasus, forming the Soviet Union. Ireland was partitioned between the independent Irish Free State and the British-controlled Northern Ireland. In the Middle East and Iraq gained independence. During the Great Depression, Latin American countries nationalised many foreign companies in a bid to strengthen their own economies.
The territorial ambitions of the Soviets, Japan and Germany led to the expansion of their empires, setting the stage for the subsequent World War. The Interwar Period is accepted to have ended in September 1939, with the invasion of Poland and the beginning of World War II. However, in Asia, it is considered to have ended with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident and the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Following the Armistice of Compiègne on November 11th, 1918 that ended World War I, the years 1918–24 were marked by turmoil as the Russian Civil War continued to rage on, Eastern Europe struggled to recover from the devastation of the First World War and the destabilising effects of not just the collapse of the Russian Empire, but the destruction of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, as well. There were numerous new nations in Eastern Europe, some small in size, such as Lithuania or Latvia, some large and vast, such as Poland and Yugoslavia; the United States gained dominance in world finance.
Thus, when Germany could no longer afford war reparations to Britain and other former members of the Entente, the Americans came up with the Dawes Plan and Wall Street invested in Germany, which repaid its reparations to nations that, in turn, used the dollars to pay off their war debts to Washington. By the middle of the decade, prosperity was widespread, with the second half of the decade known as the Roaring Twenties; the important stages of interwar diplomacy and international relations included resolutions of wartime issues, such as reparations owed by Germany and boundaries. Disarmament was a popular public policy. However, the League of Nations played little role in this effort, with the United States and Britain taking the lead. U. S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes sponsored the Washington Naval Conference of 1921 in determining how many capital ships each major country was allowed; the new allocations were followed and there were no naval races in the 1920s. Britain played a leading role in the 1927 Geneva Naval Conference and the 1930 London Conference that led to the London Naval Treaty, which added cruisers and submarines to the list of ship allocations.
However the refusal of Japan, Germany and the USSR to go along with this led to the meaningless Second London Naval Treaty of 1936. Naval disarmament had collapsed and the issue became rearmi
The bomba, or bomba kryptologiczna, was a special-purpose machine designed about October 1938 by Polish Cipher Bureau cryptologist Marian Rejewski to break German Enigma-machine ciphers. How the machine came to be called a "bomb" has been an object of speculation. One theory, most apocryphal, originated with Polish engineer and army officer Tadeusz Lisicki, he claimed. This story seems implausible. Rejewski himself stated that the device had been dubbed a "bomb" "for lack of a better idea"; the most credible explanation is given by a Cipher Bureau technician, Czesław Betlewski: workers at B. S.-4, the Cipher Bureau's German section, christened the machine a "bomb" because of the characteristic muffled noise that it produced when operating. According to a top-secret U. S. Army report dated 15 June 1945, A machine called; the first machine was a hand operated multiple enigma machine. When a possible solution was reached a part would fall off the machine onto the floor with a loud noise. Hence the name "bombe".
The German Enigma used a combination key to control the operation of the machine: rotor order, which rotors to install, which ring setting for each rotor, which initial setting for each rotor, the settings of the stecker plugboard. The rotor settings were trigrams to indicate the way. German Enigma operators were issued lists of one key for each day. For added security, each individual message was encrypted using an additional key modification; the operator randomly selected a trigram rotor setting for each message. This message key would be typed using the daily key. At this point each operator would reset his machine to the message key, which would be used for the rest of the message; because the configuration of the Enigma's rotor set changed with each depression of a key, the repetition would not be obvious in the ciphertext since the same plaintext letters would encrypt to different ciphertext letters. This procedure, which seemed reasonably secure to the Germans, was nonetheless a cryptographic malpractice, since the first insights into Enigma encryption could be inferred from seeing how the same character string was encrypted differently two times in a row.
Using the knowledge that the first three letters of a message were the same as the second three, Polish mathematician–cryptologist Marian Rejewski was able to determine the internal wirings of the Enigma machine and thus to reconstruct the logical structure of the device. Only general traits of the machine were suspected, from the example of the commercial Enigma variant, which the Germans were known to have been using for diplomatic communications; the military versions were sufficiently different to present an new problem. Having done that much, it was still necessary to check each of the potential daily keys to break an encrypted message. With many thousands of such possible keys, with the growing complexity of the Enigma machine and its keying procedures, this was becoming an daunting task. In order to mechanize and speed up the process, Rejewski, a civilian mathematician working at the Polish General Staff's Cipher Bureau in Warsaw, invented the "bomba kryptologiczna" in October 1938; each bomb constituted an electrically powered aggregate of six Enigmas and took the place of some one hundred workers.
The bomb method was based, like the Poles' earlier "grill" method, on the fact that the plug connections in the commutator did not change all the letters. But while the grill method required unchanged pairs of letters, the bomb method required only unchanged letters. Hence it could be applied though the number of plug connections in this period was between five and eight. In mid-November 1938, the bombs were ready, the reconstructing of daily keys now took about two hours. Up to July 25, 1939, the Poles had been breaking Enigma messages for over six and a half years without telling their French and British allies. On December 15, 1938, two new rotors, IV and V, were introduced; as Rejewski wrote in a 1979 critique of appendix 1, volume 1, of the official history of British Intelligence in the Second World War, "we found the within the, but introduction raised the number of possible sequences of drums from 6 to 60 and hence raised tenfold the work of finding the keys. Thus the change was not qualitative but quantitative.
We would have had to markedly increase the personnel to operate the bombs, to produce the perforated sheets and to manipulate the sheets."Harry Hinsley suggested in British Intelligence... that the Poles decided to share their Enigma-breaking techniques and equipment with the French and British in July 1939 because they had encountered insuperable technical difficulties. Rejewski rejected this: "No
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park. Ultra became the standard designation among the western Allies for all such intelligence; the name arose because the intelligence thus obtained was considered more important than that designated by the highest British security classification used and so was regarded as being Ultra secret. Several other cryptonyms had been used for such intelligence; the code name Boniface was used as a cover name for Ultra. In order to ensure that the successful code-breaking did not become apparent to the Germans, British intelligence created a fictional MI6 master spy, who controlled a fictional series of agents throughout Germany. Information obtained through code-breaking was attributed to the human intelligence from the Boniface network; the U. S. used the codename Magic for its decrypts from Japanese sources including the so-called "Purple" cipher.
Much of the German cipher traffic was encrypted on the Enigma machine. Used properly, the German military Enigma would have been unbreakable; the term "Ultra" has been used synonymously with "Enigma decrypts". However, Ultra encompassed decrypts of the German Lorenz SZ 40/42 machines that were used by the German High Command, the Hagelin machine. Many observers, at the time and regarded Ultra as immensely valuable to the Allies. Winston Churchill was reported to have told King George VI, when presenting to him Stewart Menzies: "It is thanks to the secret weapon of General Menzies, put into use on all the fronts, that we won the war!" F. W. Winterbotham quoted the western Supreme Allied Commander, Dwight D. Eisenhower, at war's end describing Ultra as having been "decisive" to Allied victory. Sir Harry Hinsley, Bletchley Park veteran and official historian of British Intelligence in World War II, made a similar assessment of Ultra, saying that while the Allies would have won the war without it, "the war would have been something like two years longer three years longer four years longer than it was."
However and others have emphasized the difficulties of counterfactual history in attempting such conclusions, some historians have said the shortening might have been as little as the three months it took the United States to deploy the atomic bomb. The existence of Ultra was kept secret for many years after the war. After it was revealed in the middle 1970s, historians have altered the historiography of World War II. For example, Andrew Roberts, writing in the 21st century, states, "Because he had the invaluable advantage of being able to read Rommel's Enigma communications, Montgomery knew how short the Germans were of men, ammunition and above all fuel; when he put Rommel's picture up in his caravan he wanted to be seen to be reading his opponent's mind. In fact he was reading his mail." Over time, Ultra has become embedded in the public consciousness and Bletchley Park has become a significant visitor attraction. As stated by historian Thomas Haigh, "The British code-breaking effort of the Second World War secret, is now one of the most celebrated aspects of modern British history, an inspiring story in which a free society mobilized its intellectual resources against a terrible enemy."
Most Ultra intelligence was derived from reading radio messages, encrypted with cipher machines, complemented by material from radio communications using traffic analysis and direction finding. In the early phases of the war during the eight-month Phoney War, the Germans could transmit most of their messages using land lines and so had no need to use radio; this meant that those at Bletchley Park had some time to build up experience of collecting and starting to decrypt messages on the various radio networks. German Enigma messages were the main source, with those of the Luftwaffe predominating, as they used radio more and their operators were ill-disciplined. "Enigma" refers to a family of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines. These produced a polyalphabetic substitution cipher and were thought to be unbreakable in the 1920s, when a variant of the commercial Model D was first used by the Reichswehr; the German Army, Air Force, Nazi party and German diplomats used Enigma machines in several variants.
Abwehr used a four-rotor machine without a plugboard and Naval Enigma used different key management from that of the army or air force, making its traffic far more difficult to cryptanalyse. The commercial versions were not as secure and Dilly Knox of GC&CS, is said to have broken one before the war. German military Enigma was first broken in December 1932 by the Polish Cipher Bureau, using a combination of brilliant mathematics, the services of a spy in the German office responsible for administering encrypted communications, good luck; the Poles read Enigma in France. At the turn of 1939, the Germans made the systems ten times more complex, which required a tenfold increase in Polish decryption equipment, which they could not meet. On 25 July 1939, the Polish Cipher Bureau handed reconstructed Enigma machines and their techniques for decrypting ciphers to the French and British. Gordon Welchman wrote, Ultra would never have got off the ground if we had not