Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in Africa around 274,200 square kilometres in size. It is surrounded by six countries, Mali to the north, Niger to the east, Benin to the southeast and Ghana to the south, in 2014 its population was estimated at just over 17.3 million. Burkina Faso is a country and French is an official language of government. Formerly called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed Burkina Faso on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara, residents of Burkina Faso are known as Burkinabé. Before the conquest of what is now Burkina Faso by the French, after gaining independence from France in 1960, the country underwent many governmental changes. Blaise Compaoré was the most recent president and ruled the country from 1987 until he was ousted from power by the popular youth upheaval of 31 October 2014 and this resulted in a semi-presidential republic which lasted from October 2014 to September 2015. On 17 September 2015 the provisional government was in turn toppled by an apparent military coup carried out by the Regiment of Presidential Security.
On 24 September 2015, after pressure from the African Union, ECOWAS, and the forces, the military junta agreed to step down. Formerly called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed Burkina Faso on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara, the bé suffix added onto Burkina to form the demonym Burkinabé comes from the Fula language and means men or women. The northwestern part of todays Burkina Faso was populated by hunter-gatherers between 14,000 and 5000 BC and their tools, including scrapers and arrowheads, were discovered in 1973 through archeological excavations. Agricultural settlements were established between 3600 and 2600 BC, the Bura culture was an Iron-Age civilization centered in the southwest portion of modern-day Niger and in the southeast part of contemporary Burkina Faso. Iron industry, in smelting and forging for tools and weapons, had developed in Sub-Saharan Africa by 1200 BC, historians began to debate about the exact dates when Burkina Fasos many ethnic groups arrived to the area.
During the Middle Ages the Mossi established several kingdoms including those of Tenkodogo, Zandoma. Sometime between 1328 and 1338 Mossi warriors raided Timbuktu but the Mossi were defeated by Sonni Ali of Songhai at the Battle of Kobi in Mali in 1483, during the early 16th century the Songhai conducted many slave raids into what is today Burkina Faso. During the 18th century the Gwiriko Empire was established at Bobo Dioulasso and ethnic groups such as the Dyan, starting in the early 1890s a series of British and German military officers made attempts to claim parts of what is today Burkina Faso. At times these colonialists and their armies fought the local peoples, at times they forged alliances with them, the colonialist officers and their home governments made treaties amongst themselves. Through a complex series of events what is Burkina Faso eventually became a French protectorate in 1896, the eastern and western regions, where a standoff against the forces of the powerful ruler Samori Ture complicated the situation, came under French occupation in 1897.
By 1898, the majority of the corresponding to Burkina Faso was nominally conquered, however
Kong, Ivory Coast
Kong is a town in northern Ivory Coast. It is a sub-prefecture of and the seat of Kong Department in Tchologo Region and it was the capital of the Kong Empire. Kong is in the sub-Saharan Sahel–tropical Savanna belt biogeography region, of grasslands with trees, such as the baobab, Comoé National Park is to the east. Kong emerged as a trading centre when Mali Empire merchants began trading in the territory of the surrounding Senufo people, as Kong grew prosperous from trade its early rulers from the Taraweré clan combined Juula and Senufo traditions, and extended their authority over the surrounding region. In 1710, Seku Ouattara, a Dioula warrior, invaded the area and he established himself as ruler and, under his authority, the city rose from a small city-state to the capital of the great Kong Empire. It held sway over much of the region for over 150 years, in 1881, Samory Touré expanded his Wassoulou Empire in conquering the Kong Empire, and destroyed much of the city of Kong. In 1898 the Kong region and city came under French colonial control.
Despite the Kong Empires fall from power, their seventeenth century landmark Kong Friday Mosque survived, in the 20th century, Kong was largely rebuilt in a traditional earthen Sahelian architecture style. It features a Quranic school and distinctive baked mud mosque buildings, the far north-eastern portion of the sub-prefecture is within the borders of Comoé National Park. Baumann, Gerd Grammars of Identity/Alterity, A Structural Approach Appiah, Kwame Africana, The Concise Desk Reference Forrest, Joshua Subnationalism in Africa, Ethnicity and Politics
The Mossi are a people in central Burkina Faso, living mostly in the villages of the Nazinon and Nakanbe River Basin. The Mossi are the largest ethnic group in Burkina Faso, constituting more than 40% of the population, the other 60% of Burkina Fasos population is composed of more than 60 ethnic groups, mainly the Gurunsi, Lobi and Fulani. The Mossi speak the Mòoré language, the Mossi people originated in Burkina Faso, although significant numbers of Mossi live in neighboring countries, including Benin, Côte dIvoire, Ghana and Togo. In 1996, the population of Burkina Faso was 10,623,323. Five to six million are probably Mossi, another 1.2 million Mossi live in Côte dIvoire, according to tradition, the Mossi comes from the marriage of a Mamprusi princess and Mandé hunter. Yennenga was a princess, daughter of a Mamprusi king in upper east Ghana. While exploring her kingdom on horseback, she lost her way and was rescued by Rialé and they got married and gave birth to the first authentic Mossi, who is recognised as the father of Mossi people.
The Mossi are directly descended from the Mamprusi people and similarly live in upper east Ghana with a capital of Bawku/Nalerigu and these legendary origins apply only to the Nakomse, or the ruling class. The Tengabisi and other Mossi peoples do not share these origin myths, as the Mossi peoples history has been kept by oral tradition, it is impossible to assign precise dates for the period before colonization. Nevertheless, historians assign the beginning of their existence as a state to the 15th century. The Mossi were able to conquer a vast amounts of territory thanks to their mastering of the horse, created a prosperous empire, the expansion of the Mossi empire was stopped in the 19th century with the initiation of intensive colonisation by the French. French rule affected Mossi society and weakened the power of the Mossi emperor, despite colonization, the Mogho Naaba was given some authority over the Mossi during the French colonial period. He is consulted today for crucial decisions, especially affecting the destiny of society.
In 1896, the Mogho accepted the French protectorate, though it has not been generally recognized, the Mossi played a key role in Frances military during World War II. They constituted the greater part of the corps in the troops of French West Africa. The Mossi people have organised their society in an original process in which family. The Mossi peoples are very heterogeneous, when horsemen invaded from the south they created a political or ruling class, called Nakomse, and a spiritual class called Tengabisi. All chiefs come from the ruling class, the Tengabisi include Saya, Nyonyose, Yarse and merchants, and others
Bobo-Dioulasso is a city in Burkina Faso with a population of about 537,728, it is the second largest city in the country, after Ouagadougou, Burkina Fasos capital. The local Bobo-speaking population refers to the city simply as Sia, there are two distinct dialects spoken of Jula, based on the origins of different peoples who speak this language. The city is situated in the southwest of the country, in the Houet Province, Bobo-Dioulasso is significant both economically and culturally, as it is a major center of culture and music. Three small satellite villages were located beyond this natural border, a number of other independent villages in the surroundings have been absorbed by the developing city and are now within its municipal boundaries and incorporated as part of the city. The two main villages were occupied by the French on September 25,1897 after a brief, soon afterward the French created an administrative settlement near them, on the east side of the We river. This became the headquarters of a district of the same name, during the 1915-16 anti-colonial war, the population in the north and east of district Bobo-Dioulasso took up arms against the French colonial government.
The French based their activities in the city in an effort to suppress the insurrection, a colonial military base was established in the southern sector of the city, adding to its growing importance. In 1927 the French razed the old village of Tunuma and the other settlements and it was made available for redevelopment as a residential neighborhood. Sia proper, which today as the Dioulasoba neighborhood, was partly spared this total destruction. It was dramatically modified in 1932 when a large road artery was built through it and this established the framework for the modern city center. The Abidjan Railway reached Bobo-Diouolasso in 1934, increasing its access to markets and communications. But the growth of the city as an industrial center halted because of the world economic crisis during the Great Depression. The city started expanding again after World War II, reorganization of the colony of Upper Volta in 1947 attracted business to Bobo-Dioulasso, although Ouagadougou had been selected as the capital.
An early industrial center, Bobo-Dioulasso is the hub of an agricultural zone, which produces food grains and seedlings. Due to its economic contributions, following the nations gaining independence in 1960. Bobo-Dioulassos economic advantage vis-à-vis the capital has declined following decades of government policy favoring Ouagadougou, little new industry arrived in the city during the 1980s and 1990s. Some enterprises either closed down or relocated to the capital, economic life was primarily reduced to commerce grounded in the agriculture of the region and services. Since 2000 the city of Bobo-Dioulasso has engaged in a new growth spurt, gaining in population, residents have returned home following the internal crisis in neighboring Ivory Coast, and the economy has been stimulated by new demands for its goods
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
Post-classical history is the period of time that immediately followed ancient history and preceded modern history. Depending on the continent, the era generally falls between the years 200–600 and 1200–1500, the major classical civilizations the era follows are Han China, the Western Roman Empire, the Gupta Empire, and the Sasanian Empire. The post-classical era itself was followed by the modern era, and forms the middle period in a three-period division of world history, post-classical. The era is thought to be characterized by invasions from Central Asia, the development of the world religions. The name of this era of history derives from antiquity of Europe. In European history, post-classical is synonymous with the time or Middle Ages. Art and architecture were characterized by Christian themes, several attempts by the Crusades to recapture the Holy Land for Christianity were unsuccessful. East Asia experienced the establishment of power of Imperial China, which established several prosperous dynasties influencing Korea, Vietnam.
Religions such as Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism spread, gunpowder was originally developed in China during the post-classical era. The invention of gunpowder led to the invention of fireworks, to its use in warfare, the invention spread around the world. The Mongol Empire greatly affected much of Europe and Asia, the latter of which was conquered in many areas, the Mongols were able to create safe trade and stability between the two regions, but inadvertently encouraged the spread of the Black Plague. The timelines of the civilizations of the Americas – Maya, the Aztec. In Europe, it is called the Middle Ages in the sense of being between the two periods in time, ancient times and modern times. Humanist historians argued that Renaissance scholarship restored direct links to the classical period, the term first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas. In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, first recorded in 1604, English is the only major Western European language that retains the plural form.
Medieval historians did not, of course, think of themselves as being in the middle of history, they wrote history from a universal and theological perspective. They divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires and they considered the Roman period, especially the time of the Apostles, a historical peak, followed by a long slide toward the Apocalypse. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, from Petrarchs Italian perspective, this new period was an age of national eclipse